Physical chemistry textbooks will have to be revised yet again thanks to research led by Peter Celliers of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and corroborated by modeling at Sandia National Laboratories. Supercomputer simulations carried out by Sandia's Thomas Mattsson and Mike Desjarlais suggest significant changes are needed to the phase diagram for water at extreme temperatures and pressures. The theoretical work suggests that "metallic water," which can conduct electricity, could exist at temperatures as low as 4000 K and pressures of 100 GPa rather than 7000 K at 250 GPa. The new lower boundaries will require astronomers to re-evaluate their calculations of the strength of the magnetic cores of gas-giant planets such as Neptune. The planet's temperature and pressure lie within the new boundaries and might suggest that electrically conducting water contributes to the planet's magnetic field.
Textbook picture of water wrong