Sustainable metal refined

A way to process metals that avoids toxic solvents and oxidants has been developed by chemists at McGill University in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Their proof of principle involves processing germanium without chlorine compounds and uses less energy than conventional techniques. Preliminary tests show that the same approach could be used to refine cobalt, copper, manganese, and zinc. The team's work uses an organic co-factor modeled on the pigment melanin and mechanochemistry where stainless steel milling balls are shaken with the mixed germanium ore at high speed rather than relying on hot solvents