Ever since the first antibiotics were used to treat bacterial infection, bacteria have evolved resistance to these drugs. Successive or multiple antibiotics have previously been the best approach to addressing this issue. However, in recent years many bacteria have emerged that display multiple resistance and so fail to respond to antibiotics. Among these superbugs are highly resistant strains of E coli O157:H7, MRSA, C. difficile and others. Now, a protein-based alternative to antibiotics developed by AvidBiotics in the US has shown promise against E. coli O157:H7-induced diarrhea and intestinal inflammation. Tests in animals show not only efficacy in treating the bacteria but also lead to a significant reduction in the number of bacteria shed in their feces.