Researchers in Brazil have used various techniques including inductively coupled plasma optical spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry to assess the bioavailability of metals ions found in beef, pork, and chicken after different types of cooking. Meat is considered an important source of mineral ions including calcium, copper, iron, magnesium and zinc, as well as selenium. The team found that the concentrations of each metal element fell when meat was cooked in water, which they suggest is explained by leaching. The biggest loss was of calcium from boiled beef. For chicken and pork, roasting led to a big loss of calcium, although grilling pork was worse in terms of calcium loss.