Osmosis under pressure

Osmosis is a lot more subtle than biologists and chemists think, a US physicist claims, moreover, he suggests explanations of the process in biology and chemistry textbooks perpetuate several myths. A range of surprising misconceptions about osmosis continue to appear in papers, web sites and textbooks, asserts Eric Kramer, of Bard College at Simon’s Rock in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. He suggests that many students learn this deceived wisdom and it wrongly influences their thinking throughout their careers. Kramer points out that osmosis applies to all fluids not just liquids, it does not require an attractive force, it does not always lead to dilution and finally there is a driving force, but it's due to the semi-permeable membrane not the fluids either side of it.