European Journal of Nutrition (v.56, #7)

Chlorogenic acid (CGA), an important biologically active dietary polyphenol, is produced by certain plant species and is a major component of coffee. Reduction in the risk of a variety of diseases following CGA consumption has been mentioned in recent basic and clinical research studies. This systematic review discusses in vivo animal and human studies of the physiological and biochemical effects of chlorogenic acids (CGAs) on biomarkers of chronic disease. We searched PubMed, Embase, Amed and Scopus using the following search terms: (“chlorogenic acid” OR “green coffee bean extract”) AND (human OR animal) (last performed on April 1st, 2015) for relevant literature on the in vivo effects of CGAs in animal and human models, including clinical trials on cardiovascular, metabolic, cancerogenic, neurological and other functions. After exclusion of editorials and letters, uncontrolled observations, duplicate and not relevant publications the remaining 94 studies have been reviewed. The biological properties of CGA in addition to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects have recently been reported. It is postulated that CGA is able to exert pivotal roles on glucose and lipid metabolism regulation and on the related disorders, e.g. diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), obesity, cancer, and hepatic steatosis. The wide range of potential health benefits of CGA, including its anti-diabetic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity impacts, may provide a non-pharmacological and non-invasive approach for treatment or prevention of some chronic diseases. In this study, the effects of CGAs on different aspects of health by reviewing the related literatures have been discussed.
Keywords: Green coffee bean extracts; Chlorogenic acid; Antioxidant; Anti-inflammatory

Probiotics modulate gut microbiota and health status in Japanese cedar pollinosis patients during the pollen season by Gaku Harata; Himanshu Kumar; Fang He; Kenji Miyazawa; Kazutoyo Yoda; Manabu Kawase; Akira Kubota; Masaru Hiramatsu; Samuli Rautava; Seppo Salminen (2245-2253).
Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCP) is a challenging public health problem in Japan. Altered gut microbiota is associated with several diseases, including allergic diseases. However, only a few studies have focused on JCP and the underlying mechanisms for probiotic effects remain unclear. In addition, this study is the first observation of the correlation between the gut microbiota and blood lipid in JCP.Faecal samples from JCP subjects were collected before and after treatment with (n = 14) and without (n = 11) LGG–TMC0356-fermented milk for 10 weeks. Gut microbiota composition was characterized from faecal DNA using sequencing of 16S rRNA genes.16S rRNA-based operational taxonomic unit clustering of the microbiota revealed that LGG–TMC0356-fermented milk significantly altered gut microbiota after 10 weeks of milk consumption, and eight dominant genera of microbes were detected. During the JCP season, the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio, when compared to baseline, was significantly decreased in subjects at end of the study. Bacteroidetes showed positive correlation with LDL- and HDL-cholesterol levels, whereas Firmicutes showed negative correlation with total cholesterol, LDL- and HDL- cholesterol.The altered gut microbiota through supplementation of fermented milk containing the study probiotics may be a prospective target for protection against JCP, with beneficial effects on blood lipid levels.
Keywords: JCP; Gut microbiota; Blood lipid; Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG; Lactobacillus gasseri TMC0356; Probiotic; Allergy

Effects of Lentinula edodes consumption on biochemical, hematologic and oxidative stress parameters in rats receiving high-fat diet by Sara Rosicler Vieira Spim; Bruna Giovanna Corrêa Chrispim de Oliveira; Fernanda Gomes Leite; Marli Gerenutti; Denise Grotto (2255-2264).
Functional foods can prevent/reduce the risks related to obesity. Lentinula edodes is a highly nutritious mushroom rich in protein, vitamins and minerals. Some studies have demonstrated the hypocholesterolemic effects from L. edodes in high doses, which does not represent the consumption in humans. We evaluated ingestion of a realistic dose of L. edodes associated with a high-fat diet (HFD) on hematologic, biochemical and oxidative stress parameters.Eighteen male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (normal diet); HFD; and HFD + L. edodes (100 mg/kg/day). After 30 days, blood was collected. Biochemical and hematologic parameters were analyzed, as well as oxidative stress biomarkers.The HFD increased levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides. Lentinula edodes reduced these parameters significantly to concentrations found in the control group. The HFD increased levels of alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase (markers of liver damage). Lentinula edodes returned the levels of these enzymes to normal levels and normalized serum levels of urea (which were also increased owing to consumption of the HFD). Lentinula edodes reduced levels of urea and glucose. Lipid peroxidation was increased in rats receiving the HFD, and L. edodes reduced malondialdehyde levels, thereby preventing oxidation of fatty acids. Lentinula edodes was shown to have hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective and renoprotective features in doses that are suitable for humans.
Keywords: Nutraceuticals; Lentinula edodes ; Metabolic disorder; Oxidative stress; Glucans

No effects of quercetin from onion skin extract on serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations in overweight-to-obese patients with (pre-)hypertension: a randomized double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover trial by Verena Brüll; Constanze Burak; Birgit Stoffel-Wagner; Siegfried Wolffram; Georg Nickenig; Cornelius Müller; Peter Langguth; Birgit Alteheld; Rolf Fimmers; Peter Stehle; Sarah Egert (2265-2275).
Chronic low-level systemic and adipose tissue inflammation has been identified as a major etiologic factor in many chronic diseases, including hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Evidence from experimental studies suggests anti-inflammatory effects of dietary flavonols such as quercetin.We investigated the effects of regular intake of quercetin on leptin, adiponectin, biomarkers of inflammation, glucose and insulin in overweight-to-obese patients with pre- and stage 1 hypertension. Another objective was to assess the safety of daily quercetin supplementation measured by parameters of liver and kidney function and of hematology. Subjects (n = 70) were randomized to receive a supra-nutritional dose of 162 mg/d quercetin or placebo in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover trial with 6-week treatment periods separated by a 6-week washout period. Two subjects dropped out for personal reasons. Only data from the remaining 68 subjects were included in the analysis.Compared to placebo, quercetin did not significantly affect serum concentrations of leptin and adiponectin, HOMA-AD or the ratios of leptin/adiponectin and adiponectin/leptin. Neither quercetin nor placebo significantly changed serum C-reactive protein and plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha. Compared to placebo, quercetin did not significantly affect glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, blood biomarkers of liver and renal function, hematology and serum electrolytes.A supra-nutritional dose of 162 mg/d quercetin from onion skin extract for 6 weeks is safe but without significant effects on parameters of systemic and adipose tissue inflammation as well as glucose and insulin in overweight-to-obese subjects with (pre-)hypertension. This trial was registered at www.germanctr.de/ and http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/ as DRKS00000555.
Keywords: Quercetin; Adipocytokines; Human study; Metabolic syndrome

Fermented goat milk consumption during anaemia recovery: ergogenic effect and improvement of skeletal muscle homeostasis by Jorge Moreno-Fernandez; Javier Diaz-Castro; Mario Pulido-Moran; Maria J. M. Alferez; Teresa Nestares; Inmaculada Lopez-Aliaga (2277-2287).
Anaemia is associated with fatigue and diminished muscular oxygenation, which may affect skeletal muscle (SM). No studies are available about the SM modifications during anaemia recovery; therefore, the aim of this study is to study SM homeostasis during anaemia recovery with fermented milks.Forty male Wistar rats were placed on a pre-experimental period of 40 days, divided in two groups (control group receiving normal-Fe diet and Fe-deficient group receiving low-Fe diet). Lately, rats were fed with fermented goat or cow milk-based diets, with normal-Fe content during 30 days. After feeding the fermented milks, leptin, adiponectin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and protein expression (UCP1, PepT1 and irisin) within the SM were assessed.Adiponectin decreased in both groups of animals fed fermented goat milk, while leptin and NEFA increased. UCP1 protein expression increased in control and anaemic animals fed fermented goat milk. UCP1 also increased in both group of anaemic animals fed either fermented cow or goat milk in comparison with their controls. Irisin increased in both group of animals fed fermented goat milk. Finally, PepT1 also showed an increased expression in control and anaemic rats fed fermented goat milk and the anaemia also induced an over-expression of this transporter in animals fed either fermented cow or goat milk.Fermented goat milk consumption during anaemia recovery diminishes adiposity depots and enhances lipolysis, increasing UCP1, PepT1 and irisin protein expression, featuring an ergogenic effect in the SM which is an important endocrine regulator of body metabolism.
Keywords: Skeletal muscle; Myokines; Fermented milks; Anaemia; Irisin

Plasma vitamin D status and recurrent depressive symptoms in the French SU.VI.MAX cohort by Caroline Collin; Karen E. Assmann; Mélanie Deschasaux; Valentina A. Andreeva; Cédric Lemogne; Nathalie Charnaux; Angela Sutton; Serge Hercberg; Pilar Galan; Mathilde Touvier; Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot (2289-2298).
Depression is a major public health issue because it is a common cause of disability worldwide. It has been suggested that an optimal vitamin D status may be related to fewer depressive symptoms, but findings are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association between plasma vitamin D at midlife and recurrent depressive symptoms and to test for a modulating effect by overall dietary quality.The relationship between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and recurrent depressive symptoms was evaluated among 1196 participants of the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants cohort with available data on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) at baseline (1996–1997) and follow-up (2007–2009). Recurrent depressive symptoms were defined as a CES-D score ≥16 at baseline and follow-up. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 %-CI) were estimated using extensively adjusted Poisson regression models. Dietary quality was estimated using an index measuring adherence to the French national recommendations.Having 25(OH)D concentrations above 10 ng/mL was related to a lower probability of recurrent depressive symptoms: PR (95 %-CI) = 0.48 (0.33; 0.69); P < 0.0001). When comparing individuals with concentrations < versus ≥20 or < versus ≥30 ng/mL, no significant results were obtained. In contrast, among individuals with low dietary quality, a better vitamin D status was related to a lower probability of recurrent depressive symptoms independently of the applied cutoff.Plasma vitamin D might have a preventive role against recurrent depressive symptoms, notably among individuals with poor dietary quality. Our findings are relevant for the development of depression prevention programs.
Keywords: Vitamin D; Diet; Depression; Mental health

Diet quality and academic achievement: a prospective study among primary school children by Eero A. Haapala; Aino-Maija Eloranta; Taisa Venäläinen; Henna Jalkanen; Anna-Maija Poikkeus; Timo Ahonen; Virpi Lindi; Timo A. Lakka (2299-2308).
Poor diet quality may impair academic achievement in children, but such evidence is limited. Therefore, we investigated the associations of healthy diet in Grade 1 assessed by Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), Baltic Sea Diet Score (BSDS), and Finnish Children Healthy Eating Index (FCHEI) with academic achievement in Grades 1–3 in children.The participants were 161 Finnish children who were 6–8 years old in Grade 1 and attended in a large ongoing physical activity and dietary intervention study. Dietary factors were assessed using 4-day food records, and MDS, BSDS, and FCHEI were calculated. Academic achievement was assessed by reading fluency, reading comprehension, and arithmetic skill tests. The data were analyzed using linear regression analysis and analysis of covariance adjusted for age, sex, parental education, household income, body fat percentage, physical activity, the PANIC Study group, and total energy intake.MDS was positively associated with reading comprehension in Grade 3 (standardized regression coefficient β = 0.167, P = 0.032). BSDS was positively associated with reading fluency in Grades 2–3 and reading comprehension in Grades 1–3 (β = 0.161–0.274, P < 0.05). FCHEI was positively related to reading fluency in Grades 1–2 and reading comprehension in Grades 1–3 (β = 0.190–0.344, P < 0.05). Children in the highest third of BSDS and FCHEI had better reading fluency and reading comprehension in Grades 1–3 than children in the lowest third (P < 0.05). None of the diet scores was associated with arithmetic skills.Healthier diet assessed by BSDS or FCHEI in Grade 1 was associated with better reading skills, but not with arithmetic skills, among children in Grades 1–3. Long-term intervention studies are needed to investigate the effects of improvements in diet quality on academic achievement among children.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01803776.
Keywords: Diet quality; Diet; Children; Brain; Learning; Academic achievement

To investigate the mechanistic effects of combined exposure to caffeine and catechins on lipid metabolism in mice.Seventy mice were randomly assigned to seven groups and fed diets containing varying doses of caffeine and catechins for 24 weeks. Body weight gain, intraperitoneal adipose tissue (IPAT) weight, serum biochemical parameters, and enzymatic activities, mRNA and protein expression levels of lipid metabolism-related enzymes in the liver and IPAT were analyzed.Following administration of caffeine and catechins, body weight gain, IPAT weight, serum and liver concentrations of total cholesterol and triglyceride were markedly reduced. Lipase activities, including that of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine acyltransferase, adipose triglyceride lipase, and hormone-sensitive lipase, were significantly upregulated; however, fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity in the liver was suppressed. Combined exposure to caffeine and catechins significantly upregulated mRNA and protein expression levels of lipases while downregulating FAS mRNA expression and protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2.The combination of caffeine and catechins regulated the enzymatic activities, mRNA, and protein expression levels of lipid metabolism-related enzymes, resulting in suppression of body weight gain and IPAT weight in mice, potentially through activation of the AMPK signaling pathway. This study indicates that chronic intake of both caffeine and catechins can synergistically contribute to prevention of obesity and lifestyle-related diseases.
Keywords: Caffeine; Catechins; Fat accumulation; Lipid metabolism

Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from fish have been associated with risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), especially sudden cardiac death (SCD). Mercury exposure, mainly due fish consumption, has been associated with higher risk. However, the impact of PUFAs or mercury on the ventricular cardiac arrhythmias, which often precede SCD, is not completely known. We investigated the associations of the serum long-chain omega-3 PUFAs and hair mercury with ventricular repolarization, measured by heart rate-corrected QT and JT intervals (QTc and JTc, respectively).A total of 1411 men from the prospective, population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, aged 42–60 years and free of CVD in 1984–1989, were studied.Serum long-chain omega-3 PUFA concentrations were inversely associated with QTc and JTc (multivariate-adjusted P trend across quartiles = 0.02 and 0.002, respectively) and, during the mean 22.9-year follow-up, with lower SCD risk. However, further adjustments for QTc, JTc or hair mercury did not attenuate the associations with SCD. Hair mercury was not associated with QTc, JTc or SCD risk, but it slightly attenuated the associations of the serum long-chain omega-3 PUFA with QTc and JTc.Higher serum long-chain omega-3 PUFA concentrations, mainly a marker for fish consumption, were inversely associated with QTc and JTc in middle-aged and older men from Eastern Finland, but QTc or JTc did not attenuate the inverse associations of the long-chain omega-3 PUFA with SCD risk. This suggests that prevention of prolonged ventricular repolarization may not explain the inverse association of the long-chain omega-3 PUFA with SCD risk.
Keywords: Polyunsaturated fatty acids; Heart electrophysiology; QT interval; Methylmercury; Population study

Monoterpene phenolic compound thymol promotes browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes by Jae Heon Choi; Sang Woo Kim; Rina Yu; Jong Won Yun (2329-2341).
Appearance of brown-like adipocytes within white adipose tissue depots (browning) is associated with improved metabolic phenotypes, and thus a wide variety of dietary agents that contribute to browning of white adipocytes are being studied. The aim of this study was to assess the browning effect of thymol, a dietary monoterpene phenolic compound, in 3T3-L1 white adipocytes.Thymol-induced fat browning was investigated by determining expression levels of brown fat-specific genes and proteins by real-time RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis, respectively. Moreover, the molecular mechanism underlying the fat-browning effect of thymol was investigated by determining expression levels of key players responsible for browning in the presence of kinase inhibitors.Thymol promoted mitochondrial biogenesis and enhanced expression of a core set of brown fat-specific markers as well as increased protein levels of PPARγ, PPARδ, pAMPK, pACC, HSL, PLIN, CPT1, ACO, PGC-1α, and UCP1, suggesting its possible role in browning of white adipocytes, augmentation of lipolysis, fat oxidation, and thermogenesis, and reduction of lipogenesis. Increased expression of UCP1 and other brown fat-specific markers by thymol was tightly coordinated with activation of β3-AR as well as AMPK, PKA, and p38 MAPK.Our findings suggest that 3T3-L1 is a potential cell model for screening browning agents. Thymol plays multiple modulatory roles in the form of inducing the brown-like phenotype as well as enhancing lipid metabolism. Thus, thymol may be explored as a potentially promising food additive for prevention of obesity.
Keywords: Anti-obesity; Adipocyte browning; Non-shivering thermogenesis; Thymol; UCP1

The association between dairy product intake and cardiovascular disease mortality in Chinese adults by Mohammad Talaei; Woon-Puay Koh; Jian-Min Yuan; An Pan (2343-2352).
To evaluate the relation of dairy intake with risk of CVD mortality in middle-aged and elderly Chinese in Singapore.The Singapore Chinese Health Study is a population-based cohort that recruited 63,257 Chinese adults aged 45–74 years from 1993 to 1998 in Singapore. A validated 165-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire was used to assess usual diet at recruitment. Mortality information was obtained via registry linkage up to December 31, 2011. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) with adjustment for potential confounders, including socio-demographic, lifestyle, and other dietary factors.Among those without prior history of CVD, the multivariate-adjusted HRs (95 % CIs) comparing the highest (median intake 252 g/d) with lowest (median intake 1.32 g/d) quartiles of total dairy intake were 0.95 (0.87–1.04; P-trend = 0.64) for CVD death, 0.99 (0.89–1.11; P-trend = 0.76) for coronary heart disease (CHD) death, and 0.82 (0.69–0.97; P-trend = 0.03) for stroke death. The significant inverse association with stroke mortality was stronger in men (comparing the highest with the lowest quartiles, HR = 0.71; 95 % CI 0.55–0.92; P-trend = 0.006) than in women (HR = 0.86; 0.65–1.12; P-trend = 0.23), and the interaction test was significant (P = 0.03). No statistically significant associations between total dairy intake and CVD mortality were observed in participants with prior history of CVD (all P-trend >0.40).In a cohort of Chinese adults with generally low dairy consumption, higher intake of dairy products was associated with a decreased risk of stroke mortality, particularly in men.
Keywords: Dairy; Cardiovascular disease; Coronary heart disease; Stroke; Mortality; Chinese

The in vivo antineoplastic and therapeutic efficacy of troxerutin on rat preneoplastic liver: biochemical, histological and cellular aspects by Nisha Susan Thomas; Kiran George; Sivaranjani Arivalagan; Vijay Mani; Aktarul Islam Siddique; Nalini Namasivayam (2353-2366).
Troxerutin (TXER), a trihydroxyethylated derivative of the natural bioflavonoid rutin, abundantly found in tea, various fruits and vegetables, is known to exhibit ample pharmacological properties. In the present investigation, we examined the antineoplastic, therapeutic efficacy and furthermore the possible mechanisms of action of TXER against NAFLD/NASH progression to hepatocarcinogenesis.The effect of TXER (12.5, 25 or 50 mg/kg b.w/day) was evaluated on the nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) model of hepatocarcinogenesis in rats, after 16 weeks of oral treatment, with special focus on liver specific enzymes, xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, antioxidant status, lipid peroxidation profile, DNA damage, fibrosis, cell proliferation and inflammatory status.Administration of TXER to hepatocellular carcinoma-bearing rats restored the enzyme activities and the hepatic architecture. Furthermore, TXER significantly curtailed NDEA-induced DNA damage, cell proliferation, inflammation, fibrosis and hepatic hyperplasia.This study provides the evidence that troxerutin exerts a significant therapeutic effect against liver cancer by modulating liver function enzymes, xenobiotic enzymes, oxidative damage, inhibiting cell proliferation, suppressing inflammatory response and induction of apoptosis.
Keywords: Troxerutin; Xenobiotic metabolism; Oxidative stress; Fibrosis; DNA damage; Cell proliferation

Reduced-fat Gouda-type cheese enriched with vitamin D3 effectively prevents vitamin D deficiency during winter months in postmenopausal women in Greece by Yannis Manios; George Moschonis; Christina Mavrogianni; EGHM van den Heuvel; Cécile M. Singh-Povel; Mairead Kiely; Kevin D. Cashman (2367-2377).
The primary aim of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of daily consumption of vitamin D3-enriched, reduced-fat Gouda-type cheese on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration in postmenopausal women. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) indices were examined as secondary outcomes.This is a single-blinded (i.e., to study participants), randomized, controlled food-based dietary intervention study.A sample of 79 postmenopausal women (55–75 years old) was randomized either to a control group (CG: n = 39) or an intervention group (IG: n = 40) that consumed, as part of their usual diet, 60 g of either non-enriched or vitamin D3 enriched Gouda-type cheese, respectively, for eight consecutive weeks (i.e., from January to March 2015). Sixty grams of enriched cheese provided a daily dose of 5.7 μg of vitamin D3.There was a differential response of mean (95 % CI) serum 25(OH)D levels in the IG and CG, with the former increasing and the latter decreasing significantly over the eight weeks of the trial [i.e., by 5.1 (3.4, 6.9) nmol/L vs. −4.6 (−6.4, −2.8) nmol/L, P < 0.001, respectively]. The percentages of study participants with 25(OH)D levels <30 (deficiency) and <50 nmol/L (insufficiency) were significantly higher at follow-up in the CG compared to the IG (41.0 vs. 0 %, P < 0.001 and 74.4 vs. 47.5 %, P < 0.001, respectively). The emotional well-being scale of the HRQL score increased in the IG compared to a decrease in the CG (3.2 vs. −3.8, P = 0.028). However, none of the other seven scales of the HRQL score significantly differentiated between study groups (P > 0.1).Consumption of 60 g of vitamin D3-enriched, reduced-fat Gouda-type cheese provided a daily dose of 5.7 μg of additional vitamin D3 and was effective in increasing mean serum 25(OH)D concentration and in counteracting vitamin D deficiency during winter months in postmenopausal women in Greece.
Keywords: Postmenopausal women; Vitamin D; 25-Hydroxyvitamin D; Cheese; Enriched dairy

Metabolites of milk intake: a metabolomic approach in UK twins with findings replicated in two European cohorts by Tess Pallister; Toomas Haller; Barbara Thorand; Elisabeth Altmaier; Aedin Cassidy; Tiphaine Martin; Amy Jennings; Robert P. Mohney; Christian Gieger; Alexander MacGregor; Gabi Kastenmüller; Andres Metspalu; Tim D. Spector; Cristina Menni (2379-2391).
Milk provides a significant source of calcium, protein, vitamins and other minerals to Western populations throughout life. Due to its widespread use, the metabolic and health impact of milk consumption warrants further investigation and biomarkers would aid epidemiological studies.Milk intake assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire was analyzed against fasting blood metabolomic profiles from two metabolomic platforms in females from the TwinsUK cohort (n = 3559). The top metabolites were then replicated in two independent populations (EGCUT, n = 1109 and KORA, n = 1593), and the results from all cohorts were meta-analyzed.Four metabolites were significantly associated with milk intake in the TwinsUK cohort after adjustment for multiple testing (P < 8.08 × 10−5) and covariates (BMI, age, batch effects, family relatedness and dietary covariates) and replicated in the independent cohorts. Among the metabolites identified, the carnitine metabolite trimethyl-N-aminovalerate (β = 0.012, SE = 0.002, P = 2.98 × 10−12) and the nucleotide uridine (β = 0.004, SE = 0.001, P = 9.86 × 10−6) were the strongest novel predictive biomarkers from the non-targeted platform. Notably, the association between trimethyl-N-aminovalerate and milk intake was significant in a group of MZ twins discordant for milk intake (β = 0.050, SE = 0.015, P = 7.53 × 10−4) and validated in the urine of 236 UK twins (β = 0.091, SE = 0.032, P = 0.004). Two metabolites from the targeted platform, hydroxysphingomyelin C14:1 (β = 0.034, SE = 0.005, P = 9.75 × 10−14) and diacylphosphatidylcholine C28:1 (β = 0.034, SE = 0.004, P = 4.53 × 10−16), were also replicated.We identified and replicated in independent populations four novel biomarkers of milk intake: trimethyl-N-aminovalerate, uridine, hydroxysphingomyelin C14:1 and diacylphosphatidylcholine C28:1. Together, these metabolites have potential to objectively examine and refine milk-disease associations.
Keywords: Nutrition; Metabolomics; Twins; Biomarkers; Milk

Sex- and age-specific percentiles of body composition indices for Chinese adults using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry by Zeyu Xiao; Bin Guo; Jian Gong; Yongjin Tang; Jingjie Shang; Yong Cheng; Hao Xu (2393-2406).
The aims of the study were to develop sex- and age-specific percentiles for lean mass index (LMI), appendicular LMI (aLMI), fat mass index (FMI), and body fat distribution indices in Chinese adults using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and to compare those indices with those of other ethnicities using the US NHANES data.Whole-body and regional lean mass and fat mass (FM) were measured using DXA in 5688 healthy males (n = 1693) and females (n = 3995) aged 20–90 years. Body fat distribution indices were expressed as % fat trunk/% fat legs, trunk/appendicular FM ratio (FMR), and android/gynoid FMR. Percentile curves of LMI, aLMI, FMI, and body fat distribution indices were obtained by the Lambda–Mu–Sigma method.The aLMI and LMI were negatively associated with age, decreasing from the fifth decade for males, but were not associated with age in females. Females had more total FM than males, whereas males had greater central adiposity (% fat trunk/% fat legs ratio, trunk/appendicular FMR, and android/gynoid FMR) than females. Moreover, FMI and body fat distribution indices consistently increased with age in both sexes, especially in women. In comparison with white, black, and Mexican populations in the USA, Chinese adults had lower total FM, but had greater central adiposity (% fat trunk/% fat legs ratio and trunk/appendicular FMR). Additionally, older white and Mexican populations showed greater decreases for aLMI and LMI than their Chinese counterparts.We present the sex- and age-specific percentiles for aLMI, LMI, FMI, and body fat distribution indices by DXA in Chinese adults, which may refine the individual assessment of the nutritional status of Chinese adults.
Keywords: Body composition; Percentile curves; Body fat distribution; Nutritional assessment; Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

Zinc is essential for normal growth and metabolism. We aimed to characterise the total and bioavailable dietary zinc intake and plasma zinc concentrations in healthy children, longitudinally, and to examine the association between plasma zinc concentrations, dietary zinc intake and cardiometabolic markers in the same cohort.A secondary data analysis of a prospective cohort study, the Nepean Longitudinal Study, which followed an Australian birth cohort at ages 8 (n = 436) and 15 years (n = 290) collecting dietary, anthropometry and biochemistry data (plasma zinc, fasting glucose, insulin and lipid profile). Diet was assessed by a 3-day food record and a food frequency questionnaire at 8 and 15 years, respectively. Zinc bioavailability was determined by the phytate/zinc molar ratio.At 8 years, the median zinc intake was 7.84 mg (interquartile range 6.57–9.35) for boys and 7.06 mg (5.98–8.30) for girls. Three of 345 children reported inadequate absorbable zinc intake, and none reported inadequate total zinc intake. At 15 years, median zinc intake was 11.8 mg (9.41–14.8) for boys and 8.54 mg (6.76–10.7) for girls. The prevalence of inadequate intakes of absorbable zinc and total zinc was 19 and 29 %, respectively. Plasma zinc concentration was not correlated with dietary zinc intake, adiposity nor lipids at either time point, but it was inversely correlated with fasting glucose at 8 year and with insulin at 15 years.Australian children had an overall adequate zinc status. However, adolescents who reported suboptimal dietary zinc intakes were more likely to have raised insulin concentrations.
Keywords: Zinc; Phytate; Children; Nepean study; Cardiometabolic markers; Insulin

This study aimed to determine the effects of fish oil-derived n-3 PUFA on glycemic control and lipid profiles in type 2 diabetic patients with abdominal obesity.In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 100 type 2 diabetic patients with abdominal obesity were randomized into two groups including 4 g/day of fish oil (2.4 g n-3 PUFA) or placebo (corn oil) for 6 months. Serum fatty acid, body composition, as well as markers of glucose regulation and lipid parameters were measured before and after intervention.Thirty-five men and 64 women aged 65.4 ± 5.3 years completed the intervention. Although body composition was unchanged, serum EPA and DHA were higher in the fish oil group than those in the placebo group (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Serum triglyceride (TG) decreased (P = 0.007), whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased (P = 0.006) in the fish oil group compared with the placebo group after 6 months. Serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), the ratio of LDL-C to HDL-C, and glycemic control (measured by serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment–insulin resistance) were not significantly different between the two groups after 6 months.This study showed that 6 months of fish oil supplement had no statistically significant effects on glycemic control, but improved TG and HDL-C in type 2 diabetic patients with abdominal obesity.Chictr.org ChiCTR-TRC-14005084.
Keywords: Fish oil; n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; Type 2 diabetes; Abdominal obesity; Glycemic control; Lipid levels