European Journal of Nutrition (v.56, #5)

Vegetarian diets in children: a systematic review by S. Schürmann; M. Kersting; U. Alexy (1797-1817).
While the prevalence of children on vegetarian diets is assumed to be on the rise in industrialized countries, there are hardly any representative data available. In general, vegetarian diets are presumed to be healthy; nevertheless, there are concerns as to whether the dietary specifications required during infancy, childhood, and adolescence can be met. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review was to evaluate studies on the dietary intake and the nutritional or health status of vegetarian infants, children, and adolescents.The database MEDLINE was used for literature search. In addition, references of reviews and expert opinions were considered. Inclusion criteria were (1) sufficient dietary information to define vegetarian type diet and (2) characteristics of nutritional or health status. Case reports and studies from non-industrialized countries were excluded.24 publications from 16 studies published from 1988 to 2013 met our criteria. Study samples covered the age range from 0 to 18 years, and median sample size was 35. Five studies did not include a control group. With regard to biomarkers, anthropometry, and dietary or nutritional intake, the outcomes were diverse. Growth and body weight were generally found within the lower reference range. The intakes of folate, vitamin C, and dietary fiber were relatively high compared to reference values and/or control groups. Low status of vitamin B12 was reported in one study and low status of vitamin D in two studies.Due to the study heterogeneity, the small samples, the bias towards upper social classes, and the scarcity of recent studies, the existing data do not allow us to draw firm conclusions on health benefits or risks of present-day vegetarian type diets on the nutritional or health status of children and adolescents in industrialized countries.
Keywords: Vegetarian diet; Dietary intake; Health; Infants; Children; Adolescents

Despite the consistent findings of lower total cancer incidence in vegetarians than in meat-eaters in the UK, the results of studies of colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in British vegetarians have largely been null. This was in contrast to the hypothesis of a decreased risk of CRC in this population due to null intake of red and processed meats and increased intake of fibre. Although the data are inconsistent, it has been suggested that selenium (Se) status may influence CRC risk.A literature review was performed of studies on CRC risk in vegetarians, Se intakes and status in vegetarians, and changes of Se intakes and status in the UK throughout the follow-up periods of studies on CRC risk in British vegetarians.Vegetarians in the UK and other low-Se areas were found to have low Se intakes and status compared to non-vegetarians. There was some evidence of a reverse J-shaped curve of Se intakes and status in the UK throughout the last three decades. These presumed patterns were followed by the changes in CRC mortality or incidence in British vegetarians during this period.Available data on Se intake and status in British vegetarians, as well as the relationship between their secular changes in the UK and changes in CRC risk in this dietary group, are compatible with the hypothesis that low Se status may contribute to the largely null results of studies of CRC risk in vegetarians in the UK.
Keywords: Vegetarian; Selenium; Colorectal cancer; United Kingdom

Free-choice high-fat diet alters circadian oscillation of energy intake in adolescent mice: role of prefrontal cortex by Danila Del Rio; Paula Stucchi; Francisco Hernández-Nuño; Victoria Cano; Lidia Morales; Julie A. Chowen; Nuria Del Olmo; Mariano Ruiz-Gayo (1833-1844).
Our aim was to characterize the effect of an unfamiliar high-fat diet (HFD) on circadian feeding behaviour, plasma parameters, body weight (BW), and gene expression in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of adolescent male mice. To this end, mice were allowed to consume a HFD during 48 h, but one group was allowed a free choice of HFD or normal chow (FC-HFD), while the other was restricted to a non-optional unfamiliar HFD feeding (NOP-HFD).Energy intake was monitored at 6-h intervals during 48 h. Mice cohorts were killed at 6-h intervals after 48-h dietary treatment, and PFC samples dissected for RT-PCR analysis.Mice on the FC-HFD protocol avoided eating the standard chow, showed lower energy intake and lower BW increase than NOP-HFD mice. All animals with access to HFD exhibited nocturnal overeating, but diurnal hyperphagia was more prominent in the FC-HFD cohort. A robust increase in tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) gene expression was detected specifically during the light period of the circadian cycle in FC-HFD mice. In contrast, both protocols similarly up-regulated the expression of cytosolic malic enzyme (Me1), which is very sensitive to HFD.Our data show that the PFC participates in driving motivational feeding during HFD-evoked hyperphagia and also suggest that sensory neural pathways might be relevant for the onset of eating disorders and overweight. Moreover, we have observed that animals that had the possibility of choosing between standard chow and HFD were more hyperphagic and specifically displayed an overexpression of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene.
Keywords: Dopamine; Energy balance; Malic enzyme; Tyrosine hydroxylase

A PUFA-rich diet improves fat oxidation following saturated fat-rich meal by Jada L. Stevenson; Mary K. Miller; Hannah E. Skillman; Chad M. Paton; Jamie A. Cooper (1845-1857).
To determine substrate oxidation responses to saturated fatty acid (SFA)-rich meals before and after a 7-day polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich diet versus control diet.Twenty-six, normal-weight, adults were randomly assigned to either PUFA or control diet. Following a 3-day lead-in diet, participants completed the pre-diet visit where anthropometrics and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were measured, and two SFA-rich HF meals (breakfast and lunch) were consumed. Indirect calorimetry was used to determine fat oxidation (Fox) and energy expenditure (EE) for 4 h after each meal. Participants then consumed a PUFA-rich diet (50 % carbohydrate, 15 % protein, 35 % fat, of which 21 % of total energy was PUFA) or control diet (50 % carbohydrate, 15 % protein, 35 % fat, of which 7 % of total energy was PUFA) for the next 7 days. Following the 7-day diet, participants completed the post-diet visit.From pre- to post-PUFA-rich diet, there was no change in RMR (16.3 ± 0.8 vs. 16.4 ± 0.8 kcal/20 min) or in incremental area under the curve for EE (118.9 ± 20.6–126.9 ± 14.1 kcal/8h, ns). Fasting respiratory exchange ratio increased from pre- to post-PUFA-rich diet only (0.83 ± 0.1–0.86 ± 0.1, p < 0.05). The postprandial change in Fox increased from pre- to post-visit in PUFA-rich diet (0.03 ± 0.1–0.23 ± 0.1 g/15 min for cumulative Fox; p < 0.05), whereas controls showed no change.Adopting a PUFA-rich diet initiates greater fat oxidation after eating occasional high SFA meals compared to a control diet, an effect achieved in 7 days.
Keywords: Polyunsaturated fatty acid; Saturated fatty acid; High fat; Metabolism

The essential trace element zinc plays a fundamental role in immune function and regulation since its deficiency is associated with autoimmunity, allergies, and transplant rejection. Thus, we investigated the influence of zinc supplementation on the Th1-driven alloreaction in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), on generation of antigen-specific T cells, and analyzed underlying molecular mechanisms.Cell proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production were monitored by [3H]-thymidine proliferation assay and ELISA, respectively. Analysis of surface and intracellular T cell marker was performed by flow cytometry. Western blotting and mRNA analysis were used for Foxp3, KLF-10, and IRF-1 expression.Zinc supplementation on antigen-specific T cells in physiological doses (50 µM) provokes a significant amelioration of cell proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production after reactivation compared to untreated controls. Zinc administration on MLC results in an increased induction and stabilization of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ and CD4+CD25+CTLA-4+ T cells (p < 0.05). The effect is based on zinc-induced upregulation of Foxp3 and KLF-10 and downregulation of IRF-1. However, in resting lymphocytes zinc increases IRF-1.In summary, zinc is capable of ameliorating the allogeneic immune reaction by enhancement of antigen-specific iTreg cells due to modulation of essential molecular targets: Foxp3, KLF-10, and IRF-1. Thus, zinc can be seen as an auspicious tool for inducing tolerance in adverse immune reactions.
Keywords: Zinc; Regulatory T cells; Mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC); Foxp3; IRF-1; KLF-10

Cocoa polyphenols and fiber modify colonic gene expression in rats by Malen Massot-Cladera; Àngels Franch; Margarida Castell; Francisco J. Pérez-Cano (1871-1885).
Cocoa intake has been associated with health benefits, improving cardiovascular function and metabolism, as well as modulating intestinal immune function. The aim of this study was to take an in-depth look into the mechanisms affected by the cocoa intake by evaluating the colonic gene expression after nutritional intervention, and to ascertain the role of the fiber of cocoa in these effects.To achieve this, Wistar rats were fed for 3 weeks with either a reference diet, a diet containing 10 % cocoa (C10), a diet based on cocoa fiber (CF) or a diet containing inulin (I). At the end of the study, colon was excised to obtain the RNA to evaluate the differential gene expression by microarray. Results were validated by RT-PCR.The C10 group was the group with most changes in colonic gene expression, most of them down-regulated but a few in common with the CF diet. The C10 diet significantly up-regulated the expression of Scgb1a1 and Scnn1 g and down-regulated Tac4, Mcpt2, Fcer1a and Fabp1 by twofold, most of them related to lipid metabolism and immune function. The CF and I diets down-regulated the expression of Serpina10 and Apoa4 by twofold. Similar patterns of expression were found by PCR.Most of the effects attributed to cocoa consumption on genes related to the immune system (B cell and mast cell functionality) and lipid metabolism in the colon tissue were due not only to its fiber content, but also to the possible contribution of polyphenols and other compounds.
Keywords: Cocoa; Colonic gene expression; Dietary fiber; Immune function; Lipid metabolism

One-carbon metabolites and telomere length in a prospective and randomized study of B- and/or D-vitamin supplementation by Irene Pusceddu; Markus Herrmann; Susanne H. Kirsch; Christian Werner; Ulrich Hübner; Marion Bodis; Ulrich Laufs; Thomas Widmann; Stefan Wagenpfeil; Jürgen Geisel; Wolfgang Herrmann (1887-1898).
Vitamin B deficiency is common in elderly people and has been associated with an increased risk of developing age-related diseases. B-vitamins are essential for the synthesis and stability of DNA. Telomers are the end caps of chromosomes that shorten progressively with age, and short telomers are associated with DNA instability.In the present randomized intervention study, we investigated whether the one-carbon metabolism is related to telomere length, a surrogate marker for cellular aging.Sixty-five subjects (>54 years) were randomly assigned to receive either a daily combination of vitamin D3 (1200 IU), folic acid (0.5 mg), vitamin B12 (0.5 mg), vitamin B6 (50 mg) and calcium carbonate (456 mg) (group A) or vitamin D3 and calcium carbonate alone (group B). Blood testing was performed at baseline and after 1 year of supplementation. The concentrations of several metabolites of the one-carbon pathway, as well as relative telomere length (RTL) and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T genotype, were analyzed.At baseline, age- and gender-adjusted RTL correlated with total folate and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF). Subjects with RTL above the median had higher concentrations of total folate and 5-methylTHF compared to subjects below the median. At study end, gender- and age-adjusted RTL correlated in group A with methylmalonic acid (MMA; r = −0.460, p = 0.0012) and choline (r = 0.434, p = 0.0021) and in group B with 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate (r = 0.455, p = 0.026) and dimethylglycine (DMG; r = −0.386, p = 0.047). Subjects in the group A with RTL above the median had lower MMA and higher choline compared to subjects below the median.The present pilot study suggests a functional relationship between one-carbon metabolism and telomere length. This conclusion is supported by several correlations that were modified by B-vitamin supplementation. In agreement with our hypothesis, the availability of nucleotides and methylation groups seems to impact telomere length. Due to the small sample size and the limitations of the study, further studies should confirm the present results in a larger cohort.
Keywords: Telomere length; Vitamin B supplementation; One-carbon metabolites

Epigenetic and SP1-mediated regulation is involved in the repression of galactokinase 1 gene in the liver of neonatal piglets born to betaine-supplemented sows by Demin Cai; Mengjie Yuan; Haoyu Liu; Zhengqiang Han; Shifeng Pan; Yang Yang; Ruqian Zhao (1899-1909).
In this study, we sought to investigate the effects of maternal betaine supplementation on the expression and regulation of GALK1 gene in the liver of neonatal piglets.Sixteen sows of two groups were fed control or betaine-supplemented diets (3 g/kg), respectively, throughout the pregnancy. Newborn piglets were individually weighed immediately after birth, and one male piglet close to mean body weight from the same litter was selected and killed before suckling. Serum samples of newborn piglets were analyzed for biochemical indexes, hormone and amino acid levels. Liver samples were analyzed for GALK1 expression by real-time PCR and western blotting, while GALK1 regulational mechanism was analyzed by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation, chromatin immunoprecipitation and microRNAs expression.Betaine-exposed neonatal piglets had lower serum concentration of galactose, which was associated with significantly down-regulated hepatic GALK1 expression. The repression of GALK1 mRNA expression was associated with DNA hypermethylation and more enriched repression histone mark H3K27me3 on its promoter. Binding sites of SP1, GR and STAT3 were predicted on GALK1 promoter, and decreased SP1 protein content and lower SP1 binding to GALK1 promoter were detected in the liver of betaine-exposed piglets. Furthermore, the expression of miRNA-149 targeting GALK1 was up-regulated in the liver of betaine-exposed piglets, along with elevated miRNAs-processing enzymes Dicer and Ago2.Our results suggest that maternal dietary betaine supplementation during gestation suppresses GALK1 expression in the liver of neonatal piglets, which involves complex gene regulation mechanisms including DNA methylation, histone modification, miRNAs expression and SP1-mediated transcriptional modulation.
Keywords: Galactokinase 1; Galactose; Betaine; Piglets; Methylation; miRNA-149

Relationship of equol production between children aged 5–7 years and their mothers by Keiko Wada; Tomomi Ueno; Shigeto Uchiyama; Yasuhiro Abiru; Michiko Tsuji; Kie Konishi; Fumi Mizuta; Yuko Goto; Takashi Tamura; Makoto Shiraki; Shinichi Iwasa; Chisato Nagata (1911-1917).
The factors responsible for the production of isoflavone metabolites have not yet been identified. We aimed to examine the relationships of equol production between mother and child in a birth cohort in Japan.Subjects were a part of the participants in a longitudinal study on pregnant women and their offspring. When children were 5–7 years old, mothers and children were asked to reply to a questionnaire on lifestyles and a 3-day child’s dietary record. Mothers and children were given a bar-shaped soy snack (Soyjoy®) daily on two consecutive days (soy challenge). The snack contained 14 mg of overall soy isoflavones as the sum of aglycones and the glucosides for mothers and 7.5 mg for children. On the morning of day 0 and 3, they were asked to mail their first-void urines. Urinary isoflavone metabolites of 159 mother–child pairs were measured by a high-performance liquid chromatography method.Equol producers were 35.5 % among mothers and 13.8 % among children. Equol producer status of a child was neither associated with dietary intake nor with urinary levels of daidzein and genistein. After multiple adjustments for potential confounders, the estimated relative risk of equol producer was 2.75 (95 % confidence interval 1.00, 7.52) among children whose mother was an equol producer, compared with children whose mother was a non-producer.Child’s equol production was associated with the mother’s equol producer status. The effects of maternal factors on child’s equol production should be studied further.
Keywords: Diet; Epidemiology; Equol; Isoflavones; Mother–child; Soy

Characterizing microbiota-independent effects of oligosaccharides on intestinal epithelial cells: insight into the role of structure and size by Peyman Akbari; Johanna Fink-Gremmels; Rianne H. A. M. Willems; Elisabetta Difilippo; Henk A. Schols; Margriet H. C. Schoterman; Johan Garssen; Saskia Braber (1919-1930).
The direct effects of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), including Vivinal® GOS syrup (VGOS) and purified Vivinal® GOS (PGOS), on the epithelial integrity and corresponding interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL8) release were examined in a Caco-2 cell model for intestinal barrier dysfunction. To investigate structure–activity relationships, the effects of individual DP fractions of VGOS were evaluated. Moreover, the obtained results with GOS were compared with Caco-2 monolayers incubated with fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin.Caco-2 monolayers were pretreated (24 h) with or without specific oligosaccharides or DP fractions of VGOS (DP2 to DP6) before being exposed for 12 or 24 h to the fungal toxin deoxynivalenol (DON). Transepithelial electrical resistance and lucifer yellow permeability were measured to investigate barrier integrity. A calcium switch assay was used to study the reassembly of tight junction proteins. Release of CXCL8, a typical marker for inflammation, was quantified by ELISA.In comparison with PGOS, FOS and inulin, VGOS showed the most pronounced protective effect on the DON-induced impairment of the monolayer integrity, acceleration of the tight junction reassembly and the subsequent CXCL8 release. DP2 and DP3 in concentrations occurring in VGOS prevented the DON-induced epithelial barrier disruption, which could be related to their high prevalence in VGOS. However, no effects of the separate DP GOS fractions were observed on CXCL8 release.This comparative study demonstrates the direct, microbiota-independent effects of oligosaccharides on the intestinal barrier function and shows the differences between individual galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides. This microbiota-independent effect of oligosaccharides depends on the oligosaccharide structure, DP length and concentration.
Keywords: Caco-2 cells; CXCL8; Degree of polymerization; Intestinal permeability; Non-digestible oligosaccharides; Tight junctions

The interaction between ApoA2 −265T>C polymorphism and dietary fatty acids intake on oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus by Elham Zamani; Haleh Sadrzadeh-Yeganeh; Gity Sotoudeh; Laleh Keramat; Mohammadreza Eshraghian; Masoumeh Rafiee; Fariba Koohdani (1931-1938).
Apolipoprotein A2 (APOA2) −265T>C polymorphism has been studied in relation to oxidative stress and various dietary fatty acids. Since the interaction between APOA2 polymorphism and dietary fatty acids on oxidative stress has not yet discussed, we aimed to investigate the interaction on oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients.The subjects were 180 T2DM patients with known APOA2 genotype, either TT, TC or CC. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was determined by colorimetric method. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and serum level of 8-isoprostane F2α were measured by spectrophotometry and ELISA, respectively. Dietary intake was collected through a food frequency questionnaire. Based on the median intake, fatty acids intake was dichotomized into high or low groups. The interaction between APOA2 polymorphism and dietary fatty acids intake was analyzed by ANCOVA multivariate interaction model.Higher than median intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFA) was associated with increased serum level of 8-isoprostane F2α in subjects with TT/TC genotype (p = 0.004), and higher than median intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) was associated with increased serum SOD activity in CC genotype (p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant interaction between APOA2 polymorphism and n-6 PUFA intake on 8-isoprostane F2α concentration as well as n-3 PUFA intake on serum SOD activity (p-interaction = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively).The current study shows the interaction between APOA2 polymorphism and dietary fatty acids intake on oxidative stress. More investigations on different populations are required to confirm the interaction.
Keywords: Oxidative stress; APOA2; Polymorphism; Fatty acids; Diabetes

Associations between food and beverage consumption and different types of sedentary behaviours in European preschoolers: the ToyBox-study by María L. Miguel-Berges; Alba M. Santaliestra-Pasias; Theodora Mouratidou; Odysseas Androutsos; Marieke de Craemer; An-Sofie Pinket; Julia Birnbaum; Berthold Koletzko; Violeta Iotova; Natalia Usheva; Zbigniew Kulaga; Magdalena Gozdz; Yannis Manios; Luis A. Moreno; Agneta Yngve; Andrea Aikenhead; Andreas Wildgruber; Angelika Strauß; Annemiek Dorgelo; Annette Payr; Annhild Mosdøl; Aviva Nethe; Axel Günthersberger; Beata Gurzkowska; Beatriz Oves; Bente B. Nilsen; Berthold Koletzko; Birgit Herbert; Boyd Swinburn; Carine Vereecken; Carolyn Summerbell; Catherine Nixon; Christel Lynch; Christina Katsarou; Christina-Paulina Lambrinou; Christine Geyer; Claus Voegele; Dianne Ward; Eftychia Apostolidou; Eirini Efstathopoulou; Ellen De Decker; Esther M. González-Gil; Eva Grammatikaki; Goof Buijs; Greet Cardon; Helen Moore; Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij; Jan Jansen; Jo Van Assche; John Reilly; Juan Fernandez; Julia Birnbaum; Julia Wildeis; Jutta Retterath; Kamila Zych; Katarzyna Szott; Kristin Duvinage; Lea Maes; Leigh Gibson; Lieven Annemans; Lore Pil; Luis Gracia-Marco; Luis Moreno; Lydia Tsirigoti; Magdalena Góźdź; Mai Chin A. Paw; Maribel Mesana; Marieke De Craemer; Mina Lateva; Natalya Usheva; Nevyana Feschieva; Odysseas Androutsos; Otto Gmeiner; Pilar De Miguel-Etayo; Piotr Socha; Sabine Ibrügger; Saskia te Velde; Sonya Galcheva; Stefaan De Henauw; Susanna Kugelberg; Susanne Kreichauf; Theodora Mouratidou; Tim Lobstein; Vanya Marinova; Violeta Iotova; Wayne Douthwaite; Yannis Manios; Zbigniew Kulaga; Zhaneta Radkova (1939-1951).
To examine the association between food and beverage consumption and time spent in different sedentary behaviours such as watching TV and DVDs, playing computer/video games and quiet play/activities in preschoolers.A sample of 6431 (51.8 % males) European preschoolers aged 3.5–5.5 years from six survey centres was included in the data analyses. Data on dietary habits and sedentary behaviours [watching TV, playing computer and quiet play (both during weekdays and weekend days)] were collected via standardized proxy-administered questionnaires. One-way analysis of covariance and general linear model (adjusted for sex, maternal education, body mass index and centre) were conducted.The results of the generalized linear model showed that the more strong associations in both males and females who were watching TV for > 1 h/day during weekdays were positively associated with increased consumption of fizzy drinks (β = 0.136 for males and β = 0.156 for females), fresh and packed juices (β = 0.069, β = 0.089), sweetened milk (β = 0.119, β = 0.078), cakes and biscuits (β = 0.116, β = 0.145), chocolate (β = 0.052, β = 0.090), sugar-based desserts and pastries (β = 0.234, β = 0.250), salty snacks (β = 0.067, β = 0.056), meat/poultry/processed meat (β = 0.067, β = 0.090) and potatoes (β = 0.071, β = 0.067), and negative associations were observed for the consumption of fruits (β = −0.057, β = −0.099), vegetables (β = −0.056, β = −0.082) and fish (β = −0.013, β = −0.013). During weekend days, results were comparable.In European preschoolers, sedentary behaviours were associated with consumption of energy-dense foods and fizzy drinks. The present findings will contribute to improve the strategies to prevent overweight, obesity and nutrition-related chronic diseases from early childhood.
Keywords: Sedentary behaviour; Food intake; Screen time

Amino acid changes during transition to a vegan diet supplemented with fish in healthy humans by Amany Elshorbagy; Fredrik Jernerén; Marianne Basta; Caroline Basta; Cheryl Turner; Maram Khaled; Helga Refsum (1953-1962).
To explore whether changes in dietary protein sources can lower plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), aromatic amino acids and sulfur amino acids (SAAs) that are often elevated in the obese, insulin-resistant state and in type 2 diabetes.Thirty-six subjects (mean age 31 ± 2 years) underwent a voluntary abstinence from meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products for 6 weeks, while enriching the diet with fish, in fulfillment of a religious fast. Subjects were assessed 1 week before the fast (V1), 1 week after initiation of the fast (V2) and in the last week of the fast (V3). Thirty-four subjects completed all three visits.Fasting plasma BCAAs decreased at V2 and remained low at V3 (P < 0.001 for all). Valine showed the greatest decline, by 20 and 19 % at V2 and V3, respectively. Phenylalanine and tryptophan, but not tyrosine, also decreased at V2 and V3. The two proteinogenic SAAs, methionine and cysteine, remained stable, but the cysteine product, taurine, decreased from 92 ± 7 μmol/L to 66 ± 6 (V2; P = 0.003) and 65 ± 6 μmol/L (V3; P = 0.003). A progressive decline in plasma glutamic acid, coupled with an increase in glutamine, was observed. Plasma total and LDL cholesterol decreased at V2 and V3 (P < 0.001 for all).Changing dietary protein sources to plant- and fish-based sources in an ad libitum setting lowers the plasma BCAAs that have been linked to diabetes risk. These findings point to habitual diet as a potentially modifiable determinant of fasting plasma BCAA concentrations.
Keywords: Egyptian Orthodox Christians; Body mass index; Lean mass; Branched-chain amino acids; Sulfur amino acids; Mass spectrometry

Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) contributes to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis by promoting vascular endothelial cell injury. Hibiscus sabdariffa leaf polyphenols (HLP), rich in flavonoids, have been shown to possess antioxidant and antiatherosclerotic activities. In this study, we examined the protective role of HLP and its main compound (−)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to ox-LDL in vitro.In a model of ox-LDL-impaired HUVECs, assessments of cell viability, cytotoxicity, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy were detected. To highlight the mechanisms of the antiapoptotic effects of HLP and ECG, the expressions of molecular proteins were measured by Western blotting, real-time PCR, and so on.HLP or ECG improved the survival of HUVECs from ox-LDL-induced viability loss. In addition, HLP or ECG showed potential in reducing ox-LDL-dependent apoptosis. Next, the ox-LDL-induced formation of acidic vesicular organelles and upregulation of the autophagy-related genes were increased by HLP or ECG. The HLP-triggered autophagic flux was further confirmed by increasing the LC3-II level under the pretreatment of an autophagy inhibitor chloroquine. Molecular data indicated the autophagic effect of HLP or ECG might be mediated via class III PI3K/Beclin-1 and PTEN/class I PI3K/Akt cascade signaling, as demonstrated by the usage of a class III PI3K inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and a PTEN inhibitor SF1670.Our data imply that ECG-enriched HLP upregulates the autophagic pathway, which in turn led to reduce ox-LDL-induced HUVECs injury and apoptosis and provide a new mechanism for its antiatherosclerotic activity.
Keywords: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein; Endothelial cells; Hibiscus sabdariffa leaf polyphenols; (−)-Epicatechin gallate; Apoptosis; Autophagy

Alcohol consumption is associated with DXA measurement of adiposity: the Pró-Saúde Study, Brazil by Thalita Fialho da Rocha; Maria Helena Hasselmann; Cíntia Chaves Curioni; Flávia Fioruci Bezerra; Eduardo Faerstein (1983-1991).
Evaluate the association between alcohol consumption and body adiposity.We analyzed cross-sectional data from a longitudinal investigation (Pró-Saúde Study), comprising a sample of 514 civil servants of both sexes (35–64 years). Daily alcohol consumption (wine, beer, and other alcoholic drinks) over the previous 6 months was assessed via food frequency questionnaire and categorized as no doses, up to 1 dose, and ≥1 dose. The total body mass, total fat mass (TFM), android fat mass (AFM), and gynoid fat mass (GFM) were measured via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. AFM (AFM%) and GFM (GFM%) were expressed as percentages relative to TFM. The ratio of AFM% and GFM% was calculated. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed after adjusting for age, calories not originating from alcohol, leisure-time physical activity and education.Among nondrinkers, 59 % were women, and the age range between 45 and 54 years was predominant (44.3 %); 63.7 % of the nondrinkers were overweight/obese. Among drinkers of 1 dose or more/day, 67 % were males aged between 45 and 54 years (43.7 %); 69.1 % were overweight/obese. Among men, the daily consumption of ≥1 alcohol dose (13 g) was associated with an approximately 2 % (β = 2.2, IC = 0.077; 4.303) adjusted for age, calories not originated from alcohol, leisure-time physical activity and education, increase in TFM, compared to those who reported no alcohol consumption during the previous 6 months. This association was not observed among women. In both sexes, no associations were observed between alcohol consumption and the other evaluated parameters of adiposity.Among men only, daily consumption of ≥1 alcohol dose was associated with increased adiposity, despite the relatively low average alcohol consumption in this study population.
Keywords: Alcohol; Body composition; Adiposity

An erratum to this article has been published.Alcoholic liver disease or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis are well-known risk factors for liver fibrosis or cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma; it is a major global health concern, but there are few effective and safe management options. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of fermented garlic extracts (FGEs) on hepatic function in adults with mild hepatic dysfunction without underlying hepatic disease.In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, seventy-five adults with elevated serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) levels were included in a FGE-administered group (n = 36) or a placebo group (n = 39), and received either two sachets/day containing FGEs or placebo over a 12-week period. Primary endpoint was the change in serum GGT levels. Data were analysed using a generalized linear mixed effects model.Significant group × time interactions for serum levels of GGT (F = 3.98, P = 0.022) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT; F = 3.28, P = 0.043) were observed with an improvement in levels of GGT (P = 0.066) and ALT (P = 0.014) in the FGE group compared to that reported for the placebo group at the 12-week visits. There was no intergroup difference in the prevalence of adverse events.Intake of FGEs improved serum GGT and ALT levels in adults with mildly elevated serum GGT level without reported adverse side effects. FGEs might be effective and safe management options for mild hepatic dysfunction.
Keywords: Alanine aminotransferase; Fatigue; Fermented garlic extract; Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase; Hepatic dysfunction

Erratum to: Coffee, tea and caffeine intake and the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer: a review of the literature and meta-analysis by Saverio Caini; Maria Sofia Cattaruzza; Benedetta Bendinelli; Giulio Tosti; Giovanna Masala; Patrizia Gnagnarella; Melania Assedi; Ignazio Stanganelli; Domenico Palli; Sara Gandini (2005-2005).

Erratum to: Houttuynia cordata aqueous extract attenuated glycative and oxidative stress in heart and kidney of diabetic mice by Cheng-chin Hsu; Hui-ting Yang; Jing-jing Ho; Mei-chin Yin; Jen-ying Hsu (2007-2007).