European Journal of Nutrition (v.55, #6)

Examining techniques for measuring the effects of nutrients on mental performance and mood state by Mark Hamer; Louise Dye; E. Siobhan Mitchell; Sophie Layé; Caroline Saunders; Neil Boyle; Jeroen Schuermans; John Sijben (1991-2000).
Intake of specific nutrients has been linked to mental states and various indices of cognitive performance although the effects are often subtle and difficult to interpret. Measurement of so-called objective variables (e.g. reaction times) is often considered to be the gold standard for assessing outcomes in this field of research. It can, however, be argued that data on subjective experience (e.g. mood) are also important and may enrich existing objective data. The aim of this review is to evaluate methods for measuring mental performance and mood, considering the definition of subjective mood and the validity of measures of subjective experience.A multi-stakeholder expert group was invited by ILSI Europe to come to a consensus around the utility of objective and subjective measurement in this field, which forms the basis of the paper. Therefore, the present review reflects a succinct overview of the science but is not intended to be a systematic review.The proposed approach extends the traditional methodology using standard ‘objective’ measurements to also include the consumers’ subjective experiences in relation to food. Specific recommendations include 1) using contemporary methods to capture transient mood states; 2) using sufficiently sensitive measures to capture effects of nutritional intervention; 3) considering the possibility that subjective and objective responses will occur over different time frames; and 4) recognition of the importance of expectancy and placebo effects for subjective measures.The consensus reached was that the most informative approach should involve collection and consideration of both objective and subjective data.
Keywords: Mood; Cognition; Objective; Subjective; Food; Mental health; Affective assessment

A multi-centre pilot study of iodine status in UK schoolchildren, aged 8–10 years by Sarah C. Bath; Emilie Combet; Patrick Scully; Michael B. Zimmermann; Katharine H. C. Hampshire-Jones; Margaret P. Rayman (2001-2009).
Iodine, as an essential constituent of thyroid hormones, is required for brain development. Iodine status is low in some UK population groups, notably in teenage girls, women of childbearing age and pregnant women. We aimed to assess iodine status of UK schoolchildren as there are no data on children below 14 years of age.Children (boys and girls) aged 8–10 years were recruited to a cross-sectional study from schools in three areas of the UK (Omagh, Northern Ireland; Glasgow, Scotland, and Guildford, South-East England). Spot urine samples, for measurement of urinary iodine concentration, were collected in the winter months (November 2012 to March 2013) and in the summer, in Omagh only (September 2013). A food frequency questionnaire was completed.A total of 168 schoolchildren provided 165 urine samples. The median urinary iodine concentration was 161 µg/L in winter samples (n = 134) and 127 µg/L in summer samples (n = 31). The median urinary iodine concentration for the whole group was 144 µg/L, weighted to account for the unequal proportion of samples from the two seasons. The children are classified as iodine-sufficient by WHO criteria (100–199 µg/L), even in the summer. Milk intake was positively associated with iodine status.This pilot study suggests that iodine deficiency is unlikely to be a problem in UK children aged 8–10 years. This could be a result of higher intake of milk, the principal UK dietary iodine source, in this age group than in teenagers and adults. Further assessment of iodine status in a representative sample of UK schoolchildren is required.
Keywords: Iodine; UK; Children; Diet

Rice bran prevents high-fat diet-induced inflammation and macrophage content in adipose tissue by Maria Luisa Justo; Carmen Claro; Maximilian Zeyda; Thomas M. Stulnig; María Dolores Herrera; Rosalía Rodríguez-Rodríguez (2011-2019).
The inflammatory process associated with obesity mainly arises from white adipose tissue (WAT) alterations. In the last few years, nutritional-based strategies have been positioned as promising alternatives to pharmacological approaches against these pathologies. Our aim was to determine the potential of a rice bran enzymatic extract (RBEE)-supplemented diet in the prevention of metabolic, biochemical and functional adipose tissue and macrophage changes associated with a diet-induced obesity (DIO) in mice.C57BL/6J mice were fed high-fat diet (HF), 1 and 5 % RBEE-supplemented high-fat diet (HF1 % and HF5 %, respectively) and standard diet as control. Serum cardiometabolic parameters, adipocytes size and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory biomarkers and macrophage polarization-related genes from WAT and liver were evaluated.RBEE administration significantly decreased insulin resistance in obese mice. Serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, glucose, insulin, adiponectin and nitrites from treated mice were partially restored, mainly by 1 % RBEE-enriched diet. The incremented adipocytes size observed in HF group was reduced by RBEE treatment, being 1 % more effective than 5 % RBEE. Pro-inflammatory biomarkers in WAT such as IL-6 and IL-1β were significantly decreased in RBEE-treated mice. Adiponectin, PPARγ, TNF-α, Emr1 or M1/M2 levels were significantly restored in WAT from HF1 % compared to HF mice. RBEE-supplemented diet attenuated insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and morphological and functional alterations of adipose tissue in DIO mice. These benefits were accompanied by a modulating effect in adipocytes secretion and some biomarkers associated with macrophage polarization. Therefore, RBEE may be considered an alternative nutritional complement over metabolic syndrome and its complications.
Keywords: Rice bran; γ-Oryzanol; Obesity; Inflammation; Adipose tissue; Macrophage polarization; DIO mice

Flavonoid-rich orange juice is associated with acute improvements in cognitive function in healthy middle-aged males by Mudi H. Alharbi; Daniel J. Lamport; Georgina F. Dodd; Caroline Saunders; Laura Harkness; Laurie T. Butler; Jeremy P. E. Spencer (2021-2029).
Epidemiological evidence suggests that chronic consumption of fruit-based flavonoids is associated with cognitive benefits; however, the acute effects of flavonoid-rich (FR) drinks on cognitive function in the immediate postprandial period require examination. The objective was to investigate whether consumption of FR orange juice is associated with acute cognitive benefits over 6 h in healthy middle-aged adults.Males aged 30–65 consumed a 240-ml FR orange juice (272 mg) and a calorie-matched placebo in a randomized, double-blind, counterbalanced order on 2 days separated by a 2-week washout. Cognitive function and subjective mood were assessed at baseline (prior to drink consumption) and 2 and 6 h post consumption. The cognitive battery included eight individual cognitive tests. A standardized breakfast was consumed prior to the baseline measures, and a standardized lunch was consumed 3 h post-drink consumption.Change from baseline analysis revealed that performance on tests of executive function and psychomotor speed was significantly better following the FR drink compared to the placebo. The effects of objective cognitive function were supported by significant benefits for subjective alertness following the FR drink relative to the placebo.These data demonstrate that consumption of FR orange juice can acutely enhance objective and subjective cognition over the course of 6 h in healthy middle-aged adults.
Keywords: Flavonoids; Flavanones; Cognition; Cognitive function; Orange juice

Time-dependent cellular response in the liver and heart in a dietary-induced obese mouse model: the potential role of ER stress and autophagy by Hsiu-Ching Hsu; Chia-Hsin Liu; Yi-Chen Tsai; Sin-Jin Li; Ching-Yi Chen; Chun-Han Chu; Ming-Fong Chen (2031-2043).
Both endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) and autophagy are essential for the response of the protein quality control system to cellular stresses. This study investigated the influence of the duration of a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice on tissue-specific cellular responses, specifically with regard to the role of autophagy and ER stress.Male mice aged 6–7 weeks were fed ad libitum with a standard chow diet or with a HFD for 2, 4, 8, or 16 weeks.The HFD progressively increased mean body weight and induced tissue hypertrophy. The expression of PERK was suppressed in the liver after 16 weeks of the HFD and in the heart after 8 weeks of the HFD. Procaspase 12 and its activated form were induced in the liver with the HFD after 2 weeks, but not in the heart over the 16-week period. The activation of hepatic AMPK was elevated following 4 weeks of the HFD, but was inhibited after 16 weeks of the HFD. The ratio of LC3II to LC3I in the liver did not increase except in those mice fed the HFD for 16 weeks. The expression of AMPK and LC3 in the heart did not change over the entire 16 weeks of feeding the HFD. Cleaved PARP was increased in the liver and heart of mice receiving the HFD for 8 weeks.This study provides evidence that a HFD affects the cellular protein quality control processes responsible for metabolic disorder in a tissue- and duration-dependent manner.
Keywords: High-fat diet; Hypertrophy; Endoplasmic reticulum stress; Autophagy; Apoptosis

Low birth weight (LBW) associates with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. LBW individuals exhibit disproportionately reduced peripheral insulin action and increased fat oxidation after a 5-day high-fat overfeeding (HFO) challenge. Furthermore, LBW men exhibit increased nocturnal fat oxidation during energy balance and low energy expenditure (EE) during fasting. We hypothesized that short-term HFO could further unmask key defects of whole-body energy metabolism in LBW men. Eighteen LBW (2717 ± 268 g) and 26 normal birth weight (NBW) (3893 ± 207 g) healthy young men were included in a 5-day HFO (60 E % fat, +50 % calories) study. The 24-h EE, respiratory quotient and substrate oxidation rates were assessed by indirect calorimetry using respiratory chambers. After adjusting for body composition, the LBW subjects displayed increased nighttime EE (P = 0.02) compared with NBW controls during HFO. Nighttime glucose oxidation rate was decreased (P = 0.06, adjusted P = 0.05), while both adjusted 24-h (P = 0.07) and nighttime (P = 0.02) fat oxidation rate was elevated in LBW subjects. The relative contribution of fat oxidation to EE was increased in LBW compared with NBW men during the entire 24-h period (P = 0.06) and during nighttime (P = 0.03). We suggest that disproportionally enhanced fat oxidation in LBW individuals during short-term HFO represents a compensatory response to reduced subcutaneous adipose tissue expandability and storage capacity. The extent to which this mechanism may lead to, or be replaced by insulin resistance, ectopic fat accumulation and/or glucose intolerance during long-term HFO in LBW needs further studies.
Keywords: Whole-body energy metabolism; Low birth weight; Fat overfeeding

l-Arginine supplementation does not enhance blood flow and muscle performance in healthy and physically active older women by Andreo Fernando Aguiar; Mario Carlos Welin Balvedi; Cosme Franklim Buzzachera; Leandro Ricardo Altimari; Marcell Alysson Batisti Lozovoy; Marcelo Bigliassi; Renata Selvatici Borges Januário; Rafael Mendes Pereira; Vanda Cristina Sanches; Douglas Kratki da Silva; Guilherme Atsushi Muraoka (2053-2062).
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute l-arginine (l-arg) supplementation on peripheral vasodilatation and muscle performance in older women.In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 20 elderly women were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to either an l-arg (ARG, N = 10) or placebo (PLA, N = 10) group. During the first visit, both groups underwent a Doppler ultrasound exam (to assess the femoral artery vasodilatation) at rest (baseline), and immediately before and after the isokinetic strength test (performed at 80 min after supplementation). On the second and third visits, the groups completed a battery of muscle performance tests (to assess the isometric and functional strength), initiated at the same time point (80 min after supplementation).The femoral artery blood flow (ARG: 443.9 ± 42.8 vs. PLA: 373.1 ± 40.8 ml/min; P > 0.05) and area (ARG: 0.45 ± 0.03 vs. PLA: 0.41 ± 0.02 cm2; P > 0.05) were similar between the groups at basal conditions, and they remained unchanged after supplementation. Following exercise, blood flow increased ~160 % above the basal level, and there was no significant (P > 0.05) difference between the ARG and PLA groups. Additionally, there were no significant (P > 0.05) differences between the ARG and PLA groups for any strength variable (isokinetic, isometric, and functional).These results show that acute l-arg supplementation provides no ergogenic effect on blood flow and muscle performance in older women.
Keywords: Nutritional supplementation; Strength; Aging; Ergogenic; Muscle

In vitro fermentation of nuts results in the formation of butyrate and c9,t11 conjugated linoleic acid as chemopreventive metabolites by W. Schlörmann; M. Birringer; A. Lochner; S. Lorkowski; I. Richter; C. Rohrer; M. Glei (2063-2073).
The consumption of foods rich in dietary fiber and polyunsaturated fatty acids such as nuts can contribute to a healthy diet. Therefore, the formation of fermentation end-products which might exert chemopreventive effects regarding colon cancer was investigated after an in vitro simulated digestion and fermentation of nuts using human fecal microbiota.Fermentation supernatants (FS) and pellets (FP) were obtained after an in vitro fermentation of hazelnuts, almonds, macadamia, pistachios and walnuts. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and bile acids (BA) in FS as well as fatty acids in FP were analyzed via gas chromatography. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in FS were determined photometrically.Fermentation of nuts resulted in 1.9- to 2.8-fold higher concentrations of SCFA compared to the control and a shift of molar ratios toward butyrate production. In vitro fermentation resulted in the formation of vaccenic acid (C18:1t11, 32.1 ± 3.2 % FAME; fatty acid methyl ester) and conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11 CLA, 2.4 ± 0.7 % FAME) exclusively in fermented walnut samples. Concentrations of secondary BA deoxycholic-/iso-deoxycholic acid (6.8–24.1-fold/4.9–10.9-fold, respectively) and levels of MDA (1.3-fold) were significantly reduced in fermented nut samples compared to the control.This is the first study that demonstrates the ability of the human fecal microbiota to convert polyunsaturated fatty acids from walnuts to c9,t11 CLA as a potential chemopreventive metabolite. In addition, the production of butyrate and reduction in potential carcinogens such as secondary BA and lipid peroxidation products might contribute to the protective effects of nuts regarding colon cancer development.
Keywords: Colon cancer; Conjugated fatty acids; Dietary fiber; In vitro fermentation; Nuts; trans fatty acids

Vitamin D status and insulin sensitivity are novel predictors of resting metabolic rate: a cross-sectional analysis in Australian adults by E. K. Calton; K. Pathak; M. J. Soares; H. Alfonso; K. N. Keane; P. Newsholme; N. K. Cummings; W. Chan She Ping-Delfos; A. Hamidi (2075-2080).
Resting metabolic rate (RMR) accounts for two-thirds of the total energy expenditure in sedentary individuals. After accounting for traditional factors, there still remains a considerable unexplained variance in RMR. There is a pandemic of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) which coexists with a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of vitamin D status, insulin sensitivity (IS) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) on RMR in Australian adults.RMR, respiratory quotient (RQ), McAuley’s insulin sensitivity index, fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) and vitamin D status were assessed in Australian adults. The presence of MetS was evaluated by current standard criteria. Predictors of RMR were examined through multiple linear regression based on stepwise and backward regression approaches with attention to multi-collinearity. All analyses were conducted on SPSS version 21.One hundred and twenty-seven participants (45 men, 82 women), aged 53.4 ± 11.7 years and BMI 31.9 ± 5.2 kg/m2, were included. Forty-one subjects were insufficient in vitamin D status (<50 nmol/L), and 75 participants had the MetS. A parsimonious regression model explained 85.8 % of RMR and was given by: RMR (kJ/d) = 1931 + 83.5 × FFM (kg) + 29.5 × FM (kg) + 5.65 × 25(OH)D (nmol/L) − 17.6 × age (years) − 57.51 × IS.Vitamin D status and IS are novel independent predictors of RMR in adults. Future studies could validate a causal role for these factors in human energy metabolism.
Keywords: Resting metabolic rate; Metabolic syndrome; Vitamin D; Insulin sensitivity

Dietary patterns are associated with excess weight and abdominal obesity in a cohort of young Brazilian adults by Soraia Pinheiro Machado Arruda; Antônio Augusto Moura da Silva; Gilberto Kac; Ana Amélia Freitas Vilela; Marcelo Goldani; Heloisa Bettiol; Marco Antônio Barbieri (2081-2091).
The objective of the present study was to investigate whether dietary patterns are associated with excess weight and abdominal obesity among young adults (23–25 years).A cross-sectional study was conducted on 2061 participants of a birth cohort from Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, started in 1978–1979. Twenty-seven subjects with caloric intake outside ±3 standard deviation range were excluded, leaving 2034 individuals. Excess weight was defined as body mass index (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), abdominal obesity as waist circumference (WC > 80 cm for women; >90 cm for men) and waist/hip ratio (WHR > 0.85 for women; >0.90 for men). Poisson regression with robust variance adjustment was used to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) adjusted for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables. Four dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis: healthy, traditional Brazilian, bar and energy dense.In the adjusted analysis, the bar pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of excess weight (PR 1.46; 95 % CI 1.23–1.73) and abdominal obesity based on WHR (PR 2.19; 95 % CI 1.59–3.01). The energy-dense pattern was associated with a lower prevalence of excess weight (PR 0.73; 95 % CI 0.61–0.88). Men with greater adherence to the traditional Brazilian pattern showed a lower prevalence of excess weight (PR 0.65; 95 % CI 0.51–0.82), but no association was found for women. There was no association between the healthy pattern and excess weight/abdominal obesity.In this sample, the bar pattern was associated with higher prevalences of excess weight and abdominal obesity, while the energy-dense (for both genders) and traditional Brazilian (only for men) patterns were associated with lower prevalences of excess weight.
Keywords: Dietary patterns; Excess weight; Abdominal obesity; Young adults

Main nutrient patterns are associated with prospective weight change in adults from 10 European countries by Heinz Freisling; Pedro T. Pisa; Pietro Ferrari; Graham Byrnes; Aurelie Moskal; Christina C. Dahm; Anne-Claire Vergnaud; Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault; Guy Fagherazzi; Claire Cadeau; Tilman Kühn; Jasmine Neamat-Allah; Brian Buijsse; Heiner Boeing; Jytte Halkjær; Anne Tjonneland; Camilla P. Hansen; J. Ramón Quirós; Noémie Travier; Esther Molina-Montes; Pilar Amiano; José M. Huerta; Aurelio Barricarte; Kay-Tee Khaw; Nicholas Wareham; Tim J. Key; Dora Romaguera; Yunxia Lu; Camille M. Lassale; Androniki Naska; Philippos Orfanos; Antonia Trichopoulou; Giovanna Masala; Valeria Pala; Franco Berrino; Rosario Tumino; Fulvio Ricceri; Maria Santucci de Magistris; H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Marga C. Ocké; Emily Sonestedt; Ulrika Ericson; Mattias Johansson; Guri Skeie; Elisabete Weiderpass; Tonje Braaten; Petra H. M. Peeters; Nadia Slimani (2093-2104).
Various food patterns have been associated with weight change in adults, but it is unknown which combinations of nutrients may account for such observations. We investigated associations between main nutrient patterns and prospective weight change in adults. This study includes 235,880 participants, 25–70 years old, recruited between 1992 and 2000 in 10 European countries. Intakes of 23 nutrients were estimated from country-specific validated dietary questionnaires using the harmonized EPIC Nutrient DataBase. Four nutrient patterns, explaining 67 % of the total variance of nutrient intakes, were previously identified from principal component analysis. Body weight was measured at recruitment and self-reported 5 years later. The relationship between nutrient patterns and annual weight change was examined separately for men and women using linear mixed models with random effect according to center controlling for confounders. Mean weight gain was 460 g/year (SD 950) and 420 g/year (SD 940) for men and women, respectively. The annual differences in weight gain per one SD increase in the pattern scores were as follows: principal component (PC) 1, characterized by nutrients from plant food sources, was inversely associated with weight gain in men (−22 g/year; 95 % CI −33 to −10) and women (−18 g/year; 95 % CI −26 to −11). In contrast, PC4, characterized by protein, vitamin B2, phosphorus, and calcium, was associated with a weight gain of +41 g/year (95 % CI +2 to +80) and +88 g/year (95 % CI +36 to +140) in men and women, respectively. Associations with PC2, a pattern driven by many micro-nutrients, and with PC3, a pattern driven by vitamin D, were less consistent and/or non-significant.We identified two main nutrient patterns that are associated with moderate but significant long-term differences in weight gain in adults.
Keywords: Dietary patterns; Nutrients; Weight gain; Obesity; Energy balance; Public health

Effects of an antioxidant beverage on biomarkers of oxidative stress in Alzheimer’s patients by Jose M. Rubio-Perez; Maria D. Albaladejo; Pilar Zafrilla; Maria L. Vidal-Guevara; Juana M. Morillas-Ruiz (2105-2116).
The purpose of the study was to test whether daily consumption of a beverage with high antioxidant power, combining extracts of green tea and apple over a period of 8 months, would affect blood and urinary concentrations of biomarkers of oxidative stress in Alzheimer’s patients.The study included 100 subjects, 48 of them were Alzheimer’s patients, aged 76.5 ± 3.5 years, and 52 were control subjects, aged 79 ± 4 years, without dementia. Three blood and urine samples were taken from each participant, the first (T i) before starting the antioxidant or placebo beverage intake, the second (T m) 4 months after the antioxidant or placebo beverage intake and the third (T f) 8 months after the antioxidant or placebo beverage intake, and concentrations of biomarkers of oxidative stress were measured on serum, lysed erythrocytes or urine by UV–Vis spectrophotometry or by competitive in vitro enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, according to the parameter analyzed.The administration of the antioxidant beverage to the Alzheimer’s patients prevented the decrease in total antioxidant status in the moderate phase of the disease (T i = 1.40 ± 0.10 mmol/L vs T f = 1.20 ± 0.08 mmol/L), increased values of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in initial (165 and 24 % respectively) and moderate phase (75 and 85 % respectively), and prevented the increase in protein carbonyls in moderate phase (T i = 0.17 ± 0.07 nmol/mg protein vs T f = 0.21 ± 0.06 nmol/mg protein), with a significant decrease in protein carbonyls since the fourth month of the intake in initial phase (T m = 0.21 ± 0.06 nmol/mg protein vs T f = 0.11 ± 0.05 nmol/mg protein).Our results suggest that antioxidant beverage could be used as a natural complementary therapy for alleviate or decrease the oxidative stress effects in the stages of Alzheimer’s disease.
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; Oxidative stress; Antioxidant; Apple; Green tea; Beverage

Protein intake in early childhood and cardiometabolic health at school age: the Generation R Study by Trudy Voortman; Edith H. van den Hooven; Myrte J. Tielemans; Albert Hofman; Jessica C. Kiefte-de Jong; Vincent W. V. Jaddoe; Oscar H. Franco (2117-2127).
High protein intake in infancy has been linked to obesity. We aimed to examine the associations of protein intake in early childhood with cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes at school age.This study was performed in 2965 children participating in a population-based prospective cohort study. Protein intake at 1 year was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire and was adjusted for energy intake. At the children’s age of 6 years, we measured their body fat percentage (BF%), blood pressure (BP), and insulin, HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride serum levels. These measures were incorporated into a cardiometabolic risk factor score, using age- and sex-specific SD scores.In covariate-adjusted models, higher protein intake was associated with a higher BF%, lower diastolic BP, and lower triglyceride levels. We observed a significant interaction of protein intake with child sex on metabolic outcomes. Stratified analyses showed that protein intake was positively associated with BF% [0.07 SD (95 % CI 0.02; 0.13) per 10 g/day] and insulin levels in girls, but not in boys. In boys, but not in girls, higher protein intake was associated with lower triglyceride levels [−0.12 SD (95 % CI −0.20; −0.04) per 10 g/day] and a lower cardiometabolic risk factor score. Protein intake was not consistently associated with systolic BP or HDL cholesterol levels.Protein intake in early childhood was associated with a higher BF% and higher insulin levels at 6 years in girls and with lower triglyceride levels in boys. Further studies are needed to explore these sex differences and to investigate whether the observed changes persist into adulthood.
Keywords: Dietary protein; Children; Body fat; Blood pressure; Insulin; Epidemiology

Changes of serum adipocytokines and body weight following Zingiber officinale supplementation in obese women: a RCT by Vahideh Ebrahimzadeh Attari; Alireza Ostadrahimi; Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi; Sajjad Mehralizadeh; Sepideh Mahluji (2129-2136).
The present randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study aimed to evaluate the effect of Zingiber officinale (ginger) consumption on some metabolic and clinical features of obesity.Eighty eligible obese women (aged 18–45 years) were randomly assigned to either ginger or placebo groups (receiving 2 g/day of ginger powder or corn starch as two 1 g tablets) for 12 weeks. Body mass index (BMI) and body composition were assessed every 4 weeks, and serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, insulin and glucose were determined before and after intervention. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were also calculated.Ginger consumption significantly decreased BMI, serum insulin and HOMA-IR index, along with increasing QUICKIs as compared to the placebo. Moreover, significant reductions in serum leptin, resistin and glucose were observed in both groups, especially in ginger group with nonsignificant differences between groups. The body composition and serum levels of adiponectin were not significantly changed in study groups.In conclusion, our findings demonstrate a minor beneficial effect of 2 g ginger powder supplementation for 12 weeks on weight loss and some metabolic features of obesity. However, given the lack of data in this area, ongoing clinical trials are needed to further explore ginger’s effectiveness.
Keywords: Zingiber officinale Roscoe ; Obesity; Adipocytokines

Energy compensation following consumption of sugar-reduced products: a randomized controlled trial by Oonagh Markey; Julia Le Jeune; Julie A. Lovegrove (2137-2149).
Consumption of sugar-reformulated products (commercially available foods and beverages that have been reduced in sugar content through reformulation) is a potential strategy for lowering sugar intake at a population level. The impact of sugar-reformulated products on body weight, energy balance (EB) dynamics and cardiovascular disease risk indicators has yet to be established. The REFORMulated foods (REFORM) study examined the impact of an 8-week sugar-reformulated product exchange on body weight, EB dynamics, blood pressure, arterial stiffness, glycemia and lipemia.A randomized, controlled, double-blind, crossover dietary intervention study was performed with fifty healthy normal to overweight men and women (age 32.0 ± 9.8 year, BMI 23.5 ± 3.0 kg/m2) who were randomly assigned to consume either regular sugar or sugar-reduced foods and beverages for 8 weeks, separated by 4-week washout period. Body weight, energy intake (EI), energy expenditure and vascular markers were assessed at baseline and after both interventions.We found that carbohydrate (P < 0.001), total sugars (P < 0.001) and non-milk extrinsic sugars (P < 0.001) (% EI) were lower, whereas fat (P = 0.001) and protein (P = 0.038) intakes (% EI) were higher on the sugar-reduced than the regular diet. No effects on body weight, blood pressure, arterial stiffness, fasting glycemia or lipemia were observed.Consumption of sugar-reduced products, as part of a blinded dietary exchange for an 8-week period, resulted in a significant reduction in sugar intake. Body weight did not change significantly, which we propose was due to energy compensation.
Keywords: Sugar; Sugar-reduced products; Obesity; Body weight; Dietary energy compensation; Artificial sweeteners

Cognitive effects following acute wild blueberry supplementation in 7- to 10-year-old children by Adrian R. Whyte; Graham Schafer; Claire M. Williams (2151-2162).
Previously, anthocyanin-rich blueberry treatments have shown positive effects on cognition in both animals and human adults. However, little research has considered whether these benefits transfer to children. Here we describe an acute time-course and dose–response investigation considering whether these cognitive benefits extend to children.Using a double-blind cross-over design, on three occasions children (n = 21; 7–10 years) consumed placebo (vehicle) or blueberry drinks containing 15 or 30 g freeze-dried wild blueberry (WBB) powder. A cognitive battery including tests of verbal memory, word recognition, response interference, response inhibition and levels of processing was performed at baseline, and 1.15, 3 and 6 h following treatment.Significant WBB-related improvements included final immediate recall at 1.15 h, delayed word recognition sustained over each period, and accuracy on cognitively demanding incongruent trials in the interference task at 3 h. Importantly, across all measures, cognitive performance improved, consistent with a dose–response model, with the best performance following 30 g WBB and the worst following vehicle.Findings demonstrate WBB-related cognitive improvements in 7- to 10-year-old children. These effects would seem to be particularly sensitive to the cognitive demand of task.
Keywords: Flavonoid; Children; Anthocyanin; Cognition; Memory; Executive function

The effect of vitamin D supplementation on selected inflammatory biomarkers in obese and overweight subjects: a systematic review with meta-analysis by Małgorzata Jamka; Małgorzata Woźniewicz; Jarosław Walkowiak; Paweł Bogdański; Jan Jeszka; Marta Stelmach-Mardas (2163-2176).
The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effect of vitamin D supplementation on selected inflammatory biomarkers in obese and overweight subjects.The search process was based on the selection of publications (DB-RCT and RCT) listed in the following databases: PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, the Cochrane Library and Embase. To assess the study quality, a nine-point scoring system according to the Newcastle–Ottawa scale was used, and a high-quality study was defined by a threshold of ≥7 points. Thirteen randomized controlled trials were included. The analysed population consisted of 1955 overweight and obese subjects. The mean age ranged from 13.6 to 71.7 years. Changes in the concentration of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were assessed. To combine individual study results, a meta-analysis was performed.The baseline levels of 25(OH)D suggested vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency in the analysed population. The vitamin D supplementation did not influence on CRP (std. mean differences −0.11; 95 % CI −0.27–0.04; p = 0.15), TNF-α (std. mean differences −0.13; 95 % CI −0.38–0.12; p = 0.31) and IL-6 concentrations (std. mean differences 0.1; 95 % CI −0.43–0.63; p = 0.71).This meta-analysis suggests that supplementation with vitamin D does not have a significant influence on changes in the concentration of selected inflammatory biomarkers in the obese and overweight subjects.
Keywords: Vitamin D; Adipokines; C-reactive protein; Cytokines; Dietary supplements; Obesity

Erratum to: Breast milk fat concentration and fatty acid pattern during the first six months in exclusively breastfeeding Greek women by Angeliki Antonakou; Katerina P. Skenderi; Antonia Chiou; Constantinos A. Anastasiou; Chryssa Bakoula; Antonia-Leda Matalas (2177-2177).