European Journal of Nutrition (v.55, #5)

The gut microbiota has been extensively studied in all health science fields because its imbalance is linked to many disorders, such as inflammation and oxidative stress, thereby contributing to cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) complications. Novel therapeutic strategies that aim to reduce the complications caused by this imbalance have increased in recent years. Studies have shown that prebiotic supplementation can beneficially modulate the gut microbiota in CKD patients. Prebiotics consist of non-digestible dietary soluble fiber, which acts as a substrate for the gut microbiota. Resistant starch (RS) is a type of dietary fiber that can reach the large bowel and act as a substrate for microbial fermentation; for these reasons, it has been considered to be a prebiotic. Few studies have analyzed the effects of RS on the gut microbiota in CKD patients. This review discusses recent information about RS and the potential role of the gut microbiota, with a particular emphasis on CKD patients.
Keywords: Microbiota; Gut; Uremic toxins; Prebiotic; Kidney disease

Maternal zinc supplementation improves hepatitis B antibody responses in infants but decreases plasma zinc level by Shaikh Meshbahuddin Ahmad; Mohammad Bakhtiar Hossain; Md. Monirujjaman; Sharmin Islam; Md. Nazmul Huda; Yearul Kabir; Rubhana Raqib; Bo L. Lönnerdal (1823-1829).
The World Health Report identifies zinc deficiency as one of the major causes of disease in developing countries, and infants are at particular risk. We aimed to investigate the effect of maternal zinc supplementation on the infant’s immune function in a population at risk of deficiency.In a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial, mothers were supplemented either with 20 mg/day of elemental zinc (n = 20) or placebo (n = 19) at the beginning of second trimester, which continued until 6 months postpartum. Indicators of the infants’ immune function measured included interleukin (IL)-7, thymic size and response to hepatitis B vaccination.Infants born from mothers receiving zinc supplements during pregnancy and postpartum had significantly lower plasma zinc (p < 0.05) but marginally higher IL-7 and antibody responses to hepatitis B vaccination (p < 0.10) than infants born from mothers not receiving zinc. Maternal zinc supplementation showed no negative impact on copper status of mothers or their infants. Maternal zinc supplementation did not influence infant thymic size, but cord blood IL-7 was found positively associated with thymus size at 1 month of age (r = 0.392) and with hepatitis B vaccine response at 6 months of age (r = 0.386).Prenatal and postnatal zinc supplementation marginally improved T cell-dependent antibody responses in infants along with IL-7, a cytokine involved in human T cell development and maintaining homeostasis.
Keywords: Zinc; Infant; HBV; IL-7

A comparison of resting metabolic rate (RMR), respiratory quotient (RQ) and body temperature between adults of African and European descent.Twenty-nine sub-Saharan Africans (SSA; 13 men and 16 women) and thirty-two Australians of European descent (EUR; eight men and 24 women) had RMR and RQ measured by indirect calorimetry. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to determine fat mass (FM), fat-free mass, bone mineral content (BMC), appendicular lean tissue mass and non-appendicular lean tissue mass. Total skeletal muscle mass (SMM) was predicted. Residual mass (RM) was the difference between body weight and the sum of FM, SMM and BMC. The short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to determine habitual physical activity (PA). Tympanic in the ear temperature (IET) and forearm to fingertip temperature gradients (FFG) were monitored throughout the protocol.The unadjusted RMR of SSA was significantly lower compared to EUR. Adjusted for age, sex, season, PA, FM, BMC, SMM and RM, this difference in RMR was still evident (mean ± SE, SSA: 4880 ± 161 kJ/d vs. EUR: 5979 ± 111, P < 0.005). The same model of adjustment also uncovered a significantly lower adjusted IET (SSA: 35.26 °C ± 0.133 vs. EUR: 35.60 ± 0.091, P < 0.05), a higher adjusted RQ (SSA: 0.86 ± 0.014 vs. EUR: 0.83 ± 0.010, P < 0.05) but no difference in adjusted FFG.In this study, SSA had a lower RMR, higher RQ and lower IET relative to EUR Australians.
Keywords: African; Resting metabolic rate; Muscle mass; Obesity; Body temperature; Thermoneutral zone

Dietary intake of 20 polyphenol subclasses in a cohort of UK women by Hanis Mastura Yahya; Andrea Day; Clare Lawton; Kyriaki Myrissa; Fiona Croden; Louise Dye; Gary Williamson (1839-1847).
Establishing and linking the proposed health benefits of dietary polyphenols to their consumption requires measurement of polyphenol intake in appropriate samples and an understanding of factors that influence their intake in the general population. This study examined polyphenol intake estimated from 3- and 7-day food diaries in a sample of 246 UK women aged 18–50 years. Estimation of the intake of 20 polyphenol subclasses commonly present in foods consumed by the sample studied was done using Phenol-Explorer® and USDA polyphenol databases. Women were participants in the Leeds Women’s Wellbeing Study (LWW) (n = 143), a dietary intervention study aimed at overweight women (mean age 37.2 ± 9.4 years; mean BMI 30.8 ± 3.1 kg/m2), and the Diet and Health Study (DH) (n = 103) which aimed to examine the relationship between polyphenol intake and cognitive function (mean age 25.0 ± 9.0 years; mean BMI 24.5 ± 4.6 kg/m2).The estimated intake of polyphenol subclasses was significantly different between the two samples (p < 0.01) with consumption of 1292 ± 844 and 808 ± 680 mg/day for the LWW and DH groups, respectively. Flavanols and hydroxycinnamic acids were the most important contributors to the polyphenols consumed by both groups, owing to tea and coffee consumption. Other major polyphenol food sources included fruits, vegetables and processed foods.Older women consumed more polyphenol-containing foods and beverages, which was due to the higher coffee and tea consumption amongst the LWW participants.
Keywords: Polyphenols; Flavonoids; Phenolic acids; Food diary; Phenol-Explorer

Folic acid attenuates the effects of amyloid β oligomers on DNA methylation in neuronal cells by Huan Liu; Wen Li; Shijing Zhao; Xumei Zhang; Meilin Zhang; Yanyu Xiao; John X. Wilson; Guowei Huang (1849-1862).
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a highly prevalent type of dementia. The epigenetic mechanism of gene methylation provides a putative link between nutrition, one-carbon metabolism, and disease progression because folate deficiency may cause hypomethylation of promoter regions in AD-relevant genes. We hypothesized that folic acid supplementation may protect neuron cells from amyloid β (Aβ) oligomer-induced toxicity by modulating DNA methylation of APP and PS1 in AD models.Primary hippocampal neuronal cells and hippocampal HT-22 cells were incubated for 24 h with a combination of folic acid and either Aβ oligomers or vehicle and were then incubated for 72 h with various concentrations of folic acid. AD transgenic mice were fed either folate-deficient or control diets and gavaged daily with various doses of folic acid (0 or 600 μg/kg). DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity, cell viability, methylation potential of cells, APP and PS1 expression, and the methylation of the respective promoters were determined.Aβ oligomers lowered DNMT activity, increased PS1 and APP expression, and decreased cell viability. Folic acid dose-dependently stimulated methylation potential and DNMT activity, altered PS1 and APP promoter methylation, decreased PS1 and APP expression, and partially preserved cell viability. Folic acid increased PS1 and APP promoter methylation in AD transgenic mice.These results suggest a mechanism by which folic acid may prevent Aβ oligomer-induced neuronal toxicity.
Keywords: Aβ oligomer; Alzheimer’s disease; APP ; Folic acid; Methylation; PS1

Prospective study of telomere length and LINE-1 methylation in peripheral blood cells: the role of B vitamins supplementation by Irene Pusceddu; Markus Herrmann; Susanne H. Kirsch; Christian Werner; Ulrich Hübner; Marion Bodis; Ulrich Laufs; Stefan Wagenpfeil; Jürgen Geisel; Wolfgang Herrmann (1863-1873).
Deficiencies of folate, vitamins B12 and D are common age-related conditions. Vitamin B12 and folate are necessary for DNA methylation. Telomeres appear to be regulated by DNA methylation. Here, we study the effect of B vitamins supplementation on telomere length and global DNA methylation in a prospective study.In total, 60 elderly subjects were supplemented for 1 year with either vitamin B12, B6, folate, vitamin D and calcium (group A n = 31) or only vitamin D and calcium (group B n = 29). LINE-1 methylation, relative telomere length (T/S), vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine (tHcy) , 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF), S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), cystathionine and vitamin D were quantified before and after supplementation.At baseline, tHcy was high, vitamin D was low, and T/S did not differ between groups A and B. Vitamin supplementation increased LINE-1 methylation in group A at site 317 but reduced LINE-1 methylation in group B at site 327. There was no correlation between T/S and LINE-1 methylation at baseline. Multiple backward regression analysis revealed baseline tHcy and 5-methylTHF are significant predictors of T/S. After supplementation in group B but not in group A, LINE-1 methylation correlated inversely with T/S, and LINE-1 methylation variation was an independent predictor of T/S variation. B vitamins decreased tHcy significantly in group A. Multiple backward regression analysis showed 5-methylTHF in group A and tHcy in group B were significant predictors for LINE-1 methylation. At baseline, the lower LINE-1 methylation observed in subjects with 5-methylTHF >10 nmol/l was in agreement with a reduced methyl group transfer due to a lower SAM formation. In group B, an increase in telomere length was correlated with lower LINE-1 methylation. Subjects with hyperhomocysteinemia >12 µmol/L had compared to those with normal tHcy a reduced LINE-1 methylation accompanied by a higher SAM and SAH (that inhibits demethylation of SAM) as well as lower 5-methylTHF. Additionally, subjects with tHcy > 12 µmol/L had longer telomeres when compared with subjects having tHcy < 12 µmol/L.The results suggest a possible effect of B vitamins for telomere biology in blood cells. Suboptimal B vitamins status and hyperhomocysteinemia are associated with altered DNA methylation and telomere length. These data have to be confirmed in future studies.
Keywords: B vitamins; Telomere length; DNA methylation

The imbalance of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the maternal diet impairs intestinal barrier development and sensitizes the colon response to inflammatory insults in the young rats. With a view to overcoming this issue, we designed this study to investigate the effect of maternal and neonatal intake of different proportions of n-6/n-3 fatty acids on colon inflammation in the young adult rats. Female Wistar rats were assigned into four groups, and each group fed one of four semisynthetic diets, namely n-6, low n-3, n-6/n-3 and n-3 fatty acids for 8 weeks prior to mating, during gestation and lactation periods. At weaning, the pups were separated from the dams and fed diet similar to the mothers. Colitis was induced on postnatal day 35, by administering 2 % dextran sulfate sodium in drinking water for 10 days. Colitis was assessed based on the clinical and inflammatory markers in the colon. Fatty acid analysis was done in liver, RBC, colon and spleen.A balanced n-6/n-3 PUFA diet significantly improved the body weight loss, rectal bleeding and mortality in rats. This was associated with lower myeloperoxidase activity, nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, TNF-α and IL-6, IL-8, COX-2 and iNOS levels in the colon tissues. Fatty acid analysis has shown that the arachidonic acid/docosahexaenoic acid ratio was significantly lower in liver, RBC, colon and spleen in n-6/n-3 and n-3 diet groups.We demonstrate that balanced n-6/n-3 PUFA supplementation in maternal and neonatal diet alters systemic AA/DHA ratio and attenuates colon inflammation in the young adult rats.
Keywords: Ulcerative colitis; Maternal and neonatal diet; Garden cress oil; Inflammatory mediators

Association between inflammatory potential of diet and mortality among women in the Swedish Mammography Cohort by Nitin Shivappa; Holly Harris; Alicja Wolk; James R. Hebert (1891-1900).
Diet and dietary components have been studied previously in relation to mortality; however, little is known about the relationship between the inflammatory potential of overall diet and mortality.We examined the association between the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) and mortality among 33,747 participants in the population-based Swedish Mammography Cohort. The DII score was calculated based on dietary information obtained from a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Mortality was determined through linkage to the Swedish Cause of Death Registry through 2013. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR). During 15 years of follow-up, 7095 deaths were identified, including 1996 due to cancer, 602 of which were due to digestive-tract cancer, and 2399 due to cardiovascular disease.After adjusting for age, energy intake, education, alcohol intake, physical activity, BMI, and smoking status, analyses revealed a positive association between higher DII score and all-cause mortality. When used as a continuous variable (range −4.19 to 5.10), DII score was associated with all-cause mortality (HRContinuous = 1.05; 95 % CI 1.01–1.09) and digestive-tract cancer mortality (HRContinuous = 1.15; 95 % CI 1.02–1.29). Comparing subjects in the highest quintile of DII (≥1.91) versus the lowest quintile (DII ≤ −0.67), a significant association was observed for all-cause mortality (HR = 1.25; 95 % CI 1.07–1.47, P trend = 0.003).These results indicate that a pro-inflammatory diet, as indicated by higher DII score, was associated with all-cause and digestive-tract cancer mortality.
Keywords: Dietary Inflammatory Index; Mortality; Swedish women

Validation of the FSA nutrient profiling system dietary index in French adults—findings from SUVIMAX study by Chantal Julia; Caroline Méjean; Mathilde Touvier; Sandrine Péneau; Camille Lassale; Pauline Ducrot; Serge Hercberg; Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot (1901-1910).
Population-wide nutritional recommendations give guidance on food groups’ consumption, though a wide variability in nutritional quality within groups may subsist. Nutrient profiling systems may help capturing such variability. We aimed to apply and validate a dietary index based on the British Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system (FSA-NPS DI) in French middle-aged adults. Dietary data were collected through repeated 24-h dietary records in participants of the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants study (N = 5882). An aggregated dietary index at the individual level was computed using the FSA-NPS for each food consumed as well as compliance to the French nutritional guidelines using the Programme National Nutrition Santé-Guideline Score (PNNS-GS). Cross-sectional associations between FSA-NPS DI and nutrient intake, PNNS-GS, socio-demographic factors, lifestyle and nutritional biomarkers were computed using ANOVAs.The FSA-NPS DI was able to characterize the quality of the diets at the individual level in terms of nutrient intake and of adherence to nutritional recommendations: +37.6 % in beta-carotene intakes between subjects with a healthier diet versus subjects with a poorer diet, +42.8 % in vitamin C intakes; +17 % in PNNS-GS, all P < 0.001. FSA-NPS-DI was also associated with nutritional status at the biological level: +21.4 % in beta-carotene levels between subjects with a healthier diet versus subjects with a poorer diet, +12.8 % in vitamin C levels, all P < 0.001.The FSA-NPS DI is a useful and validated tool to discriminate individuals according to the quality of the diet, accounting for nutritional quality within food groups. Taking into account nutritional quality of individual foods allows monitoring change in dietary patterns beyond food groups.
Keywords: Dietary index; Nutrient profiling; Biomarkers; Nutritional recommendations

Differential effects of calcium- and vitamin D-fortified milk with FOS-inulin compared to regular milk, on bone biomarkers in Chinese pre- and postmenopausal women by Marlena C. Kruger; Yoke Mun Chan; Barbara Kuhn-Sherlock; Lee Ting Lau; ChinChin Lau; Y. S. Chin; Joanne M. Todd; Linda M. Schollum (1911-1921).
To compare the effects of a high-calcium vitamin D-fortified milk with added FOS-inulin versus regular milk on serum parathyroid hormone, and bone turnover markers in premenopausal (Pre-M) and postmenopausal (PM) women over 12 weeks. Premenopausal women (n = 136, mean age 41 (±5) years) and postmenopausal women [n = 121, mean age 59 (±4) years] were recruited, and each age group randomised into two groups to take two glasses per day of control = regular milk (500 mg calcium per day) or intervention (Int) = fortified milk (1000 mg calcium for pre-M women and 1200 mg calcium for PM women, 96 mg magnesium, 2.4 mg zinc, 15 µg vitamin D, 4 g FOS-inulin per day). At baseline, week 4 and week 12 serum minerals and bone biochemical markers were measured and bone density was measured at baseline. Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) vitamin D3] levels among groups were between 49 and 65 nmol/L at baseline, and over the 12 weeks of supplementation, the fortified milk improved vitamin D status in both Int groups. CTx-1 and PINP reduced significantly in both Pre-M and PM groups over the 12 weeks, with the changes in CTx-1 being significantly different (P < 0.035) between PM control and PM Int groups at week 12. Parathyroid hormone levels were significantly reduced in all groups over time, except for control PM group where levels increased at 12 weeks.The overall pattern of responses indicates that while both regular milk and fortified milk reduce bone resorption in young and older women, fortified milk is measurably more effective.
Keywords: Chinese women; Postmenopausal women; Premenopausal women; Calcium-fortified milk; Bone markers; Bone turnover; Vitamin D status; 25(OH) vitamin D3 ; Malaysia

Prevalence and lifestyle determinants of central obesity in children by Dimitris A. Grigorakis; Michael Georgoulis; Glykeria Psarra; Konstantinos D. Tambalis; Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos; Labros S. Sidossis (1923-1931).
Central obesity is a strong risk factor for metabolic disorders and cardiometabolic diseases in children and adolescents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of central obesity and to determine its cross-sectional association with lifestyle habits in a sample of school-aged children in Greece.The study sample consisted of 124,113 children (9.9 ± 1.1 years old, 51 % boys) attending the third and fifth grade of primary school. Anthropometric measurements were performed by trained physical education teachers, and central obesity was defined as waist-to-height ratio ≥0.5. Children’s lifestyle habits were assessed through 7-day recall questionnaires.Of the participating children, 33.4 % were classified as centrally obese. Central obesity was significantly more prevalent in boys than in girls (36.0 vs. 30.7 %, P < 0.001) and was present in 95 % of obese children, as well as in a significant percentage of overweight (69.5 %) and normal-weight ones (12.0 %). Children with central obesity, compared to their non-centrally obese counterparts, reported poorer dietary habits and were less physically active. According to multiple logistic regression analysis, frequent breakfast (OR 0.72, 95 % CI 0.69–0.75) and snack consumption (OR 0.70, 95 % CI 0.67–0.74), as well as frequent participation in sedentary activities (OR 1.10, 95 % CI 1.07–1.14), were the strongest lifestyle determinants of central obesity.Strategies for the prevention of central obesity and associated comorbidities are urgently needed, for both obese and non-obese children. Our results suggest the need for a shift towards a healthier environment for our children, with emphasis on specific lifestyle habits, such as regular meal consumption and low sedentariness.
Keywords: Childhood central obesity; Abdominal adiposity; Lifestyle; Dietary habits; Physical activity; Sedentary activities

Iodine nutritional status in the adult population of Shandong Province (China) prior to salt reduction program by Chunxiao Xu; Xiaolei Guo; Junli Tang; Xiaowei Guo; Zilong Lu; Jiyu Zhang; Zhenqiang Bi (1933-1941).
Tremendous differences in iodine status and daily iodine intake persist across provinces of China. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the iodine status and dietary iodine intake of Shandong adults before the implementation of the salt reduction program and a new salt iodization standard.Data from a baseline survey of the Shandong and Ministry of Health Action on Salt Reduction and Hypertension project (2011) were analyzed. The iodine contents of 1949 24-h urine samples and 136 drinking water samples were assayed. Daily urinary iodine excretion and daily iodine intake were calculated, analyzed, stratified by different analytical variables and compared with Chinese Dietary Reference Values.The median urinary iodine concentration and median daily iodine intake of Shandong adults were 248.5 μg/L and 368.2 μg/day, respectively. The median iodine intake of different groups was between the estimated average requirements and the upper limit, except group in water iodine >300 μg/L with median iodine intake of 1200.7 μg/L. Salt intake and iodine levels in drinking water related to iodine intake significantly.Shandong adults had more than adequate iodine nutrition, and the dietary iodine intake of the population was generally appropriate and safe except residents in high water iodine areas. In the context of the implementation of a salt reduction program and a new salt iodization standard, the iodine status of high water iodine areas may remain in the recommended level, but in low water iodine areas, the risk of inadequate iodine intake may increase, needing monitoring of urine iodine excretion, dietary iodine intake and iodized salt consumption regularly.
Keywords: Iodine status; Urinary iodine concentration; Iodine intake; Water iodine; Salt reduction

Urine colour change as an indicator of change in daily water intake: a quantitative analysis by Erica T. Perrier; Evan C. Johnson; Amy L. McKenzie; Lindsay A. Ellis; Lawrence E. Armstrong (1943-1949).
Urine colour (U Col) is simple to measure, differs between low-volume and high-volume drinkers, and is responsive to changes in daily total fluid intake (TFI). However, to date, no study has quantified the relationship between a change in TFI and the resultant change in U Col. This analysis aimed to determine the change in TFI needed to adjust 24-h U Col by 2 shades on an 8-colour scale, and to evaluate whether starting U Col altered the relationship between the change in TFI and change in U Col.We performed a pooled analysis on data from 238 healthy American and European adults (50 % male; age, 28 (sd 6) years; BMI 22.9 (sd 2.6) kg/m2), and evaluated the change in TFI, urine volume (U Vol), and specific gravity (U SG) associated with a change in U Col of 2 shades.The mean [95 % CI] change in TFI and U Vol associated with a decrease in U Col by 2 shades (lighter) was 1110 [914;1306] and 1011 [851;1172] mL/day, respectively, while increasing U Col by 2 shades (darker) required a reduction in TFI and U Vol of −1114 [−885;−1343] and −977 [−787;−1166] mL/day. The change in U Col was accompanied by changes in U SG (lighter urine: −.008 [−.007;−.010]; darker urine: +.008 [.006;.009]). Starting U Col did not significantly impact the TFI change required to modify U Col by 2 shades.Our results suggest a quantifiable relationship between a change in daily TFI and the resultant change in U Col, providing individuals with a practical means for evaluating and adjusting hydration behaviours.
Keywords: Hydration biomarkers; Fluid intake; Urine colour; Specific gravity

The effect of consuming Palmaria palmata-enriched bread on inflammatory markers, antioxidant status, lipid profile and thyroid function in a randomised placebo-controlled intervention trial in healthy adults by Philip Allsopp; William Crowe; Bojlul Bahar; Pádraigín A. Harnedy; Emma S. Brown; Sonja S. Taylor; Thomas J. Smyth; Anna Soler-Vila; Pamela J. Magee; Chris I. R. Gill; Conall R. Strain; Vicky Hegan; Martin Devaney; Julie M. W. Wallace; Paul Cherry; Richard J. FitzGerald; J. J. Strain; John V. O’Doherty; Emeir M. McSorley (1951-1962).
Palmaria palmata (P. Palmata) is reported to contain anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compounds albeit no study has investigated these effects in humans. A randomised parallel placebo-controlled human intervention study was carried out to investigate the effect of consuming P. Palmata (5 g/day) incorporated into a bread on serum markers of inflammation [C-reactive protein (CRP); cytokine analysis] with secondary analysis investigating changes in lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides), thyroid function [thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)] and antioxidant status ferric reducing antioxidant power. ANCOVA with baseline values as covariates, controlling for age, BMI, sex and smoking status, was used to compare differences between treatment groups over time . In vitro studies investigated the inflammatory activity of P. Palmata extracts (hot water, cold water and ethanol extract), protein extracts and associated protein hydrolysates using a Caco-2 inflammation cell model.Consumption of P. Palmata-enriched bread significantly increased serum CRP (+16.1 %, P = 0.011), triglycerides (+31.9 %, P = 0.001) and TSH (+17.2 %, P = 0.017) when compared to the control group. In vitro evaluation of P. palmata extracts and protein hydrolysates identified a significant induction of IL-8 secretion by Caco-2 cells, and the hot water P. palmata extract was shown to increase adipocyte glycerol release (P < 0.05).Evidence from this human study suggests that P. palmata stimulates inflammation, increases serum triglycerides and alters thyroid function; however, these changes are not likely to impact health as changes remained within the normal clinical range. The data from the in vitro study provided indications that IL-8 may contribute to the apparent immunostimulation noted in the human study.
Keywords: Palmaria palmata ; Seaweed; Human intervention; Inflammation; Lipid

Chronic black tea extract consumption improves endothelial function in ovariectomized rats by Fung Ping Leung; Lai Ming Yung; Ching Yuen Ngai; Wai San Cheang; Xiao Yu Tian; Chi Wai Lau; Yang Zhang; Jian Liu; Zhen Yu Chen; Zhao-Xiang Bian; Xiaoqiang Yao; Yu Huang (1963-1972).
Menopause escalates the risk of cardiovascular diseases in women. There is an unmet need for better treatment strategy for estrogen-deficiency-related cardiovascular complications. Here we investigated the impact of chronic black tea extract (BT) consumption on cardiovascular function and lipid metabolism using a rat model of estrogen deficiency.Female Sprague–Dawley rats were ovariectomized (OVX) and treated with BT (15 mg/kg/day, 4 weeks; active ingredients: theaflavins) or estrogen (E2) treatment for 4 weeks. Serum was collected for measuring cholesterol, triacylglycerol and estradiol levels. Changes in vascular reactivity were examined. The protein levels of NADPH oxidases were assessed by Western blotting. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was measured using dihydroethidium fluorescence imaging. The concentrations of cGMP were measured using ELISA kit.Aortic rings from control, BT-treated and E2-treated OVX rats exhibited a greater increase in Phe-induced contraction after inhibition of NO synthase compared with those from OVX rats. ACh-induced endothelium-dependent relaxations were augmented in aortae and renal arteries in BT/E2-treated OVX rats than in OVX rats. BT/E2 treatment improved flow-mediated dilatation in small mesenteric resistance arteries of OVX rats. BT/E2 treatment restored the eNOS phosphorylation level and reversed the up-regulation of NADPH oxidases and ROS overproduction in OVX rat aortae. ACh-stimulated cGMP production was significantly elevated in the aortae from BT- and E2-treated rats compared with those from OVX rats. BT/E2 treatment reduced circulating levels of total cholesterol.The present study reveals the novel benefits of chronic BT consumption to reverse endothelial dysfunction and favorably modifying cholesterol profile in a rat model of estrogen deficiency and provides insights into developing BT as beneficial dietary supplements for postmenopausal women.
Keywords: Black tea; Oxidative stress; Endothelial dysfunction; Aorta; Postmenopause; Theaflavins

Associations between school meal-induced dietary changes and metabolic syndrome markers in 8–11-year-old Danish children by Camilla T. Damsgaard; Christian Ritz; Stine-Mathilde Dalskov; Rikard Landberg; Ken D. Stark; Anja Biltoft-Jensen; Inge Tetens; Arne Astrup; Kim F. Michaelsen; Lotte Lauritzen (1973-1984).
We recently showed that provision of Nordic school meals rich in fish, vegetables and potatoes and with reduced intakes of fat improved blood pressure, insulin resistance assessed by the homeostatic model (HOMA-IR), and plasma triacylglycerol despite increasing waist circumference in Danish 8–11-year-olds. This study explored whether intake or biomarkers of key dietary components in the schools meals were associated with these metabolic syndrome (MetS) markers during the 6-month intervention.Data from 7-day dietary records and measurements of whole-blood docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), blood pressure, fasting blood MetS markers, waist circumference and android/total fat mass assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry collected at baseline, 3 and 6 months from 523 children were analyzed in linear mixed-effects models adjusted for puberty, growth and fasting.After adjustment for multiple testing, whole-blood DHA was negatively associated with HOMA-IR (P < 0.001) and triacylglycerol (P < 0.0001). Potato intake was positively associated with waist circumference (P < 0.01), but not with android/total fat mass (P = 0.94). Intakes of whole-grain as well as dietary fiber, protein and fat were not associated with any of the MetS markers.DHA in whole-blood, an indicator of DHA and fish intake, seemed to be the main diet-related predictor of the beneficial effects of the school meals on MetS markers. Increased potato intake was associated with increased waist circumference, but this may not only be due to an increase in abdominal fat, as no association was seen with fat distribution.
Keywords: Nordic; Metabolic syndrome; Child; n-3 PUFA; Alkylresorcinols

Reply to the letter to the editor by Stavros A. Kavouras; Giannis Arnaoutis (1985-1987).

The effect of hypohydration on endothelial function in healthy adults by Ashley P. Akerman; Kate N. Thomas; James D. Cotter (1989-1990).