European Journal of Nutrition (v.54, #7)

Increased pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase expression in cultured myotubes from obese and diabetic individuals by A. J. McAinch; L. M. Cornall; R. Watts; D. H. Hryciw; P. E. O’Brien; D. Cameron-Smith (1033-1043).
To investigate the mechanisms of impairments in oxidative metabolism in obese and diabetic (T2DM) skeletal muscle, this study analysed the adaptive expression of genes involved in fatty acid (FA) oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis in primary myotubes treated with elevated FAs.Muscle samples from obese or obese T2DM donors were stored or processed into human primary skeletal muscle myotubes, which were treated for 6 h with a saturated (palmitic acid) or a monounsaturated (oleic acid) FA with or without a polyunsaturated FA (eicosapentaenoic acid: EPA). Real-time PCR analysis was used to determine mRNA expression.Basal pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) mRNA expression in whole muscle samples from obese and T2DM subjects was increased compared to lean (P < 0.05; n = 13–20/group). In obese- and T2DM-derived myotubes, oleic acid treatment alone and in combination with EPA increased PDK4 mRNA expression compared to control (P < 0.05; n = 7/group), whereas palmitic acid alone and in combination with EPA only increased PDK4 mRNA in T2DM-derived myotubes compared to control (P < 0.05; n = 7/group). EPA alone did not alter mRNA expression of PDK4.These findings show that FAs induce the expression of PDK4 mRNA, which was increased in myotubes cultured from obese and T2DM donors. This persistent difference in PDK4 expression, present after culturing, suggests a fundamental alteration in the FA-mediated gene expression. This may in turn translate to differences in the regulation of oxidative substrate flux to impact on insulin sensitivity.
Keywords: Fatty acids; mRNA; Metabolism; Skeletal muscle; PDK4

Besides the adverse health effects of a low folate intake, the risks of high intakes of folic acid have moved into the focus. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential range of folate and folic acid intake of the German population under consideration of different fortification scenarios. Food consumption data of 13,926 participants of the German National Nutrition Survey II (NVS II), collected with two 24-h recalls, were used to calculate the nutrient intake. The nutrient data are based on the German Nutrient Database (BLS), information from a market survey and analyses of multivitamin juices. The scenarios were modelled without, as well as with low and high fortification levels of folic acid.The median intake of dietary folate equivalents ranged from 191 µg/d (men) and 168 µg/d (women) without fortification to 425 µg/d (men) and 334 µg/d (women) in the highest fortification scenario. Thus, 12.4–68.2 % (men) and 5.9–56.1 % (women) met the 300 µg/d recommended by the nutrition societies of Germany, Austria and Switzerland. In the highest fortification scenario, 1.9 % (men) and 0.8 % (women) exceeded the tolerable upper intake level (UL) of 1,000 µg/d folic acid given by the European Food Safety Authority. For supplement users, this proportion was 5.2 and 5.4 %.Only a high fortification of several foods leads to a marked increase of the proportion of population reaching the recommendation. Simultaneously, with a high fortification a higher proportion exceeds the UL, especially in combination with supplements.
Keywords: Dietary folate intake; Folic acid; Fortification; Supplementation; German National Nutrition Survey

Effect of fish and krill oil supplementation on glucose tolerance in rabbits with experimentally induced obesity by Zhenya Ivanova; Bodil Bjørndal; Natalia Grigorova; Anton Roussenov; Ekaterina Vachkova; Kjetil Berge; Lena Burri; Rolf Berge; Spaska Stanilova; Anelia Milanova; Georgi Penchev; Rita Vik; Vladimir Petrov; Teodora Mircheva Georgieva; Boycho Bivolraski; Ivan Penchev Georgiev (1055-1067).
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of fish oil (FO) and krill oil (KO) supplementation on glucose tolerance in obese New Zealand white rabbits.The experiments were carried out with 24 male rabbits randomly divided into four groups: KO—castrated, treated with KO; FO—castrated, treated with FO; C—castrated, non-treated; NC—non-castrated, non-treated. At the end of treatment period (2 months), an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was performed in all rabbits.Fasting blood glucose concentrations in FO and KO animals were significantly lower than in group C. The blood glucose concentrations in FO- and KO-treated animals returned to initial values after 30 and 60 min of IVGTT, respectively. In liver, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (Cpt2) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (Hmgcs2) genes were significantly increased in FO-fed rabbits compared with the C group. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha (Acaca) expression was significantly reduced in both KO- and FO-fed rabbits. In skeletal muscle, Hmgcs2 and Cd36 were significantly higher in KO-fed rabbits compared with the C group. Acaca expression was significantly lower in KO- and FO-fed rabbits compared with the C group.The present results indicate that FO and KO supplementation decreases fasting blood glucose and improves glucose tolerance in obese New Zealand white rabbits. This could be ascribed to the ameliorated insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion and modified gene expressions of some key enzymes involved in β-oxidation and lipogenesis in liver and skeletal muscle.
Keywords: Fish oil; Krill oil; Glucose tolerance; Obesity; Gene expression; Lipogenesis

Fish and rapeseed oil consumption in infants and mothers: dietary habits and determinants in a nationwide sample in Germany by Madlen Stimming; Christina M. Mesch; Mathilde Kersting; Lars Libuda (1069-1080).
Fish and rapeseed oil are major sources of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in complementary food, but little is known about current consumption in Germany.We conducted a nationwide consumer survey to assess the consumption habits of fish and rapeseed oil and their determining factors in 985 mother–child dyads in Germany.One-fourth of infants ate fish as often as recommended, i.e. at least once per week. Half of the mothers stated that they mainly used rapeseed oil for self-prepared and/or commercial vegetable–potato–meat meals. In contrast, mothers more frequently met recommendations for fish consumption (41 %), but used rapeseed oil (34 %) less often for their own nutrition. Maternal eating behaviour was the most important predictor for both of these n-3 PUFA rich foods in infants’ nutrition. In contrast to infants’ fish consumption, rapeseed oil intake in infancy was found to be influenced by some further factors, i.e. mothers’ social class and omega-3 knowledge, which were also key determinants of mothers’ own fish and rapeseed oil consumption.To promote fish with complementary feeding, programs should focus on families whose mothers rarely eat fish. Nutritional campaigns to improve omega-3 knowledge—especially focusing on lower social classes—could be effective in increasing rapeseed oil consumption, although these programs should be combined with environmental improvements as it has been already started through the use of rapeseed oil in commercial baby jars.
Keywords: Complementary feeding; n-3 PUFA; Survey; Nutrition knowledge

Effect of polyphenol supplements on redox status of blood cells: a randomized controlled exercise training trial by Lucrecia Carrera-Quintanar; Lorena Funes; Nestor Vicente-Salar; Cristina Blasco-Lafarga; Antoni Pons; Vicente Micol; Enrique Roche (1081-1093).
The effect of endogenous antioxidants can be either an immediate response (relying on enzymatic activities) or a long-term adaptation (relying on gene modulation events), both susceptible to be modified by antioxidants from diet and supplementation. The aim of this work was to delve in these aspects in circulating white blood cells in a group of volunteers (n = 33, 20–22 years) performing eccentric exercises and consuming or not (n = 8) different polyphenolic antioxidants (Lippia citriodora extract-PLX® n = 8, almond beverage n = 9 or a mixture of both n = 8) during 21 days.We have designed a single-blind, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial. Antioxidant enzyme activities, oxidative stress markers, and antioxidant gene expression were determined.Neutrophils and lymphocytes expressed high amounts of oxidative markers compared to plasma. Concerning enzymatic activities, increased superoxide dismutase levels were detected when certain supplements were consumed. However, catalase levels did not change. As for glutathione peroxidase levels, no differences were detected in lymphocytes, while neutrophils expressed increased levels in both placebo and PLX® groups. Glutathione reductase activity was decreased in all groups, except in neutrophils of PLX® group. At the level of gene expression, neither PLX® nor the almond beverage interfered with the expression of genes coding for the corresponding enzymes. However, the combined intake of both supplements affected the expression of glutathione reductase and Cu–Zn and Mn-superoxide dismutases in neutrophils.Altogether, these results suggest that blood cell types respond and adapt differently to exercise-induced oxidative damage.
Keywords: Almond beverage; Lippia citriodora ; Phenolic compounds; Weight lifting

Soy and the soy isoflavone genistein promote adipose tissue development in male mice on a low-fat diet by Isabella Zanella; Eleonora Marrazzo; Giorgio Biasiotto; Marialetizia Penza; Annalisa Romani; Pamela Vignolini; Luigi Caimi; Diego Di Lorenzo (1095-1107).
Several nutrients act as phytoestrogens, being anti-adipogenic when consumed with a fat-rich diet. Their effect on a low-fat diet (LFD) background is unknown. We tested soy and genistein effects on adipose tissue in LFD-fed mice and genistein activity in the 3T3-L1 adipogenesis model.C57BL/6 J male mice were fed an 8.5 % soy-supplemented LFD (SS-LFD) or a soy-free LFD (SF-LFD) for 147 days. Groups of 3-week-old (pubertal) and 6-week-old (adult) mice on the SF-LFD were also treated with 17ß-estradiol (E2, 5 µg/kg/day) ip or pure genistein (5 mg/kg/day) by gavage for 15 days. Body fat deposition and gene expression profiles were evaluated. E2 and genistein effects on ERα, ERβ and PPARγ transcriptional activities were characterized in ERα- or ERβ-transfected 3T3L1 cells during differentiation, by the use of reporter plasmids.The SS-LFD group increased fat mass compared with the SF-LFD group. Genistein alone increased while E2 decreased fat pads in the 15-day-treated mice. In visceral fat, genistein differentially regulated 13 metabolic pathways compared to E2. PPARγ-controlled genes were downregulated by E2, while they were upregulated by genistein. In 3T3-L1 cells, genistein activated ERβ-driven transcription, differentiation and lipid accumulation, while inhibited ERα-driven transcription, without effects on lipid accumulation. E2 activated both ERs only in preadipocytes. In differentiated untransfected cells, genistein inhibited PPARγ, while activated PPARγ in the presence of ERβ.Soy and genistein at nutritional doses induce fat development in LFD-fed mice and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells, with a mechanism that involves, at least in vitro, ERβ and is dependent on cell differentiation stage.
Keywords: Phytoestrogens; Estrogen receptors; Adipose deposition; Adipocyte differentiation

A high dietary salt intake is a serious risk factor for the development of hypertension. Daily salt intake in most of the European countries substantially exceeds the current recommendations of salt intake. For Germany, so far, no valid biomarker-based data on current daily salt intake are available. Data basis for this biomarker-based estimation of salt intake in the German population was the representative DEGS Study (German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults) conducted 2008–2011 in 18–79 old adults living in Germany. Daily salt intake was estimated from 6,962 sodium and creatinine measurements in spot urine samples.Median estimated daily salt intake of the 18–79 olds was 10.0 g in men and 8.4 g in women. More than 75 % of men and about 70 % of women exceeded the current recommendation of a maximum salt intake of 6 g/day. Fifty percentage of men and more than 35 % of the women had a daily salt intake >10 g.Daily salt intake of the German population considerably exceeds the current recommendation to eat no more than 6 g salt per day. A general reduction of salt content in processed foods—which are currently the main source of salt intake—offers a promising and cost-effective potential for the improvement of all salt intake-dependent health outcomes in the population.
Keywords: Salt intake; Germany; DEGS Study; Urinary sodium excretion

Protective effect of thymoquinone against high-fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats by Pankaj Prabhakar; K. H. Reeta; S. K. Maulik; A. K. Dinda; Y. K. Gupta (1117-1127).
Thymoquinone (TQ), a bioactive constituent of Nigella sativa (Linn.) seed, which is commonly used as a spice in Asian food, has been reported to possess a wide range of biological effects. The present study evaluated the effect of TQ on high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome (MetS) in male Wistar rats.MetS was induced by 60 % HFD over 42 days. TQ (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o. once daily) was administered along with HFD for 42 days. Pioglitazone (10 mg/kg, p.o. once daily) was used as a standard drug. Plasma glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were estimated on days 0 and 42. Change in blood pressure, oral glucose tolerance and insulin resistance were measured. Hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase levels were estimated as measures of hepatic oxidative stress. Hepatic mRNA of PPAR-α and PPAR-γ was also studied.TQ prevented the characteristic features of HFD-induced MetS, such as hyperglycaemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolaemia and elevated systolic blood pressure. TQ also prevented impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. It also ameliorated HFD-induced increase in hepatic TBARS and depletion of SOD, catalase and GSH. TQ prevented reduction in hepatic mRNA of PPAR-α and PPAR-γ in HFD rats, and the effects were comparable to those of pioglitazone.This study demonstrates protective effect of TQ against HFD-induced MetS on rats which might have been mediated via PPAR mechanism.
Keywords: Thymoquinone; High-fructose diet; Metabolic syndrome; Insulin resistance; Oxidative stress; Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs)

Association of daily coffee and tea consumption and metabolic syndrome: results from the Polish arm of the HAPIEE study by Giuseppe Grosso; Urszula Stepaniak; Agnieszka Micek; Roman Topor-Mądry; Hynek Pikhart; Krystyna Szafraniec; Andrzej Pająk (1129-1137).
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether daily consumption of coffee and tea was associated with components and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the Polish arm of the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe cohort study.A cross-sectional population-based survey including 8,821 adults (51.4 % female) was conducted in Krakow, Poland. Coffee and tea consumption was evaluated using food frequency questionnaires. MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation definition. Linear and logistic regression models were performed to estimate odds ratios and confidence intervals.Among high coffee and tea consumers (3 or more cups/day), high prevalence of female gender, young age, medium–high educational and occupational level, high total energy intake, and smoking habit were found. High coffee drinkers had lower BMI, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, and higher HDL cholesterol than those drinking less than 1 cup/day. In contrast, high tea consumers had lower BMI, waist circumference, but not diastolic blood pressure, which was higher than low drinkers. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, both higher coffee and tea consumption were negatively associated with MetS (OR 0.75, 95 % CI 0.66, 0.86 and OR 0.79, 95 % CI 0.67, 0.92, respectively). Among specific components of MetS, high coffee consumption was negatively associated with waist circumference, hypertension, and triglycerides, whereas tea consumption with central obesity and fasting plasma glucose in women, but not in men.Coffee and tea consumption was negatively associated with MetS and some of its components.
Keywords: Coffee; Tea; Metabolic syndrome; Blood pressure; Waist circumference; Dyslipidemia; Hyperglycemia

Increased body fat mass and tissue lipotoxicity associated with ovariectomy or high-fat diet differentially affects bone and skeletal muscle metabolism in rats by Camille Tagliaferri; Jérôme Salles; Jean-François Landrier; Christophe Giraudet; Véronique Patrac; Patrice Lebecque; Marie-Jeanne Davicco; Audrey Chanet; Corinne Pouyet; Amélie Dhaussy; Alain Huertas; Yves Boirie; Yohann Wittrant; Véronique Coxam; Stéphane Walrand (1139-1149).
The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the musculoskeletal effects induced by ovariectomy-related fat mass deposition against the musculoskeletal effects caused by a high-fat diet. A group of adult female rats was ovariectomized and fed a control diet. Two additional groups were sham-operated and fed a control or a high-fat diet for 19 weeks. Distal femur and serum bone parameters were measured to assess bone metabolism. Muscle protein metabolism, mitochondrial markers and triglyceride content were evaluated in tibialis anterior. Triglyceride content was evaluated in liver. Circulating inflammatory and metabolic markers were determined.The high-fat diet and ovariectomy led to similar increases in fat mass (+36.6–56.7 %; p < 0.05) but had different impacts on bone and muscle tissues and inflammatory markers. Consumption of the high-fat diet led to decreased bone formation (−38.4 %; p < 0.05), impaired muscle mitochondrial metabolism, muscle lipotoxicity and a 20.9 % increase in tibialis anterior protein synthesis rate (p < 0.05). Ovariectomy was associated with higher bone turnover as bone formation increased +72.7 % (p < 0.05) and bone resorption increased +76.4 % (p < 0.05), leading to bone loss, a 17.9 % decrease in muscle protein synthesis rate (p < 0.05) and liver lipotoxicity. In female rats, high-fat diet and ovariectomy triggered similar gains in fat mass but had different impacts on bone and muscle metabolism. The ovariectomy-induced mechanisms affecting the musculoskeletal system are mainly caused by estrogen depletion, which surpasses the potential-independent effect of adiposity.
Keywords: Osteoporosis; Sarcopenia; Adipose tissue; Skeletal muscle; Bone

Studies in rats suggest that fish proteins may improve lipid and glucose regulation and could thus be a potential tool in the treatment of obesity-related comorbidities. To date, all published rat studies on dietary fish protein have been designed with 50 or 100 % of dietary proteins from fish. As it is not common, nor advised, to consume fish as the only protein source in a healthy diet, mechanistic studies on the effects of diets with low dose fish proteins are needed. Here, we investigate whether a low dose of cod protein would affect glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism in obese Zucker fa/fa rats.Twelve male obese Zucker fa/fa rats consumed diets where cod proteins accounted for 25 % of the total protein intake with the remaining 75 % from casein (COD) or 100 % of protein as casein (CAS) for 4 weeks.Rats fed COD achieved a higher body weight without affecting adiposity and thigh muscle mass after 4 weeks, but liver weight and hepatic cholesterol level were higher than in CAS-fed rats. Fasting serum level of non-esterified fatty acids and 2 h postprandial glucose level were lower in COD than in CAS. The fatty acid metabolism was beneficially affected by the COD diet, with e.g., higher ratio of n-3/n-6 PUFAs in serum, liver and adipose tissue when compared to CAS.A low intake of cod protein (25 % of protein intake) was sufficient to beneficially affect lipid metabolism and postprandial glucose regulation in obese fa/fa rats.
Keywords: Obesity; Fish protein; Insulin; Tumor necrosis factor-alpha; Inflammation

Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 7315/7316 intake modulates the acute and chronic innate inflammatory response by Gemma Vilahur; Sergi López-Bernal; Sandra Camino; Guiomar Mendieta; Teresa Padró; Lina Badimon (1161-1171).
Probiotics may confer health benefits for the host. Although Lactobacillus has demonstrated to stimulate the immune response, only a few strains have demonstrated immunomodulatory properties. The newly identified Lactobacillus plantarum strains CECT7315 and CECT7316 (LP3457) seem to boost the immune system in individuals that immune decline. We aimed to investigate whether LP3457 protects against inflammation and the mechanism behind. LP3457 potential anti-inflammatory effects were assessed in an acute model LPS-induced inflammation in healthy rats and in a chronic model of low-grade inflammation in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Wistar rats received LP3457 or placebo control for 20 days. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally at day 14, and animals were sacrificed 6 days after. Blood was collected at baseline (day 0) and consecutively at day 7, 14, 17, and 20 for haematological evaluation and assessment of anti-inflammatory/pro-inflammatory systemic markers. Myeloperoxidase activity was investigated in the ileum. ZDF rats received LP3457 or placebo control during 8 weeks, and changes in inflammasome-related transcripts were assessed in the ileum.LPS induced a comparable and significant leucocytosis 3 days post-injection (day 17) in both LP3457-treated and LP3457-untreated rats. However, the probiotic supplementation attenuated IL-1β, IL-6, and CRP release and increased anti-inflammatory IL-10 levels 6 days post-LPS induction (p < 0.05 vs. placebo). LP3457-supplemented animals also displayed lower intestinal myeloperoxidase activity (p < 0.05 vs. placebo). Chronic administration of LP3457 to ZDF rats resulted in a significant downregulation of the inflammasome signalling pathway (p < 0.05 vs. placebo).Intake of LP3457 attenuates both acute endotoxemia-induced and chronic metabolically induced inflammatory reactions and the inflammasome signalling pathway. The stabilization and regulation of the gut microbiota is an important target for reducing the impact of organ-related inflammatory reactions.
Keywords: Probiotic; Lactobacillus plantarum ; Inflammasome; Inflammation

The effect of consumption of low-glycemic-index and low-glycemic-load desserts on anthropometric parameters and inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus by Vasiliki Argiana; Panagiotis Τ. Kanellos; Konstantinos Makrilakis; Ioanna Eleftheriadou; Georgios Tsitsinakis; Alexander Kokkinos; Despina Perrea; Nikolaos Tentolouris (1173-1180).
The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of consumption of desserts with low glycemic index (GI) and low glycemic load (GL), as part of a balanced hypo-caloric diet, on anthropometric and biochemical parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).A total of 61 subjects with T2DM were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 30) or to the control group (n = 31). Both groups followed the same hypo-caloric (−500 kcal) diet for 12 weeks. Consumption of four portions of low-GI/low-GL desserts/week was included in the diet in the intervention group while one portion of a favorite usual sweet/week was allowed to be consumed in the control group.Thirty subjects in the control and 28 subjects in the intervention group completed the trial. Body weight, body mass index, and waist circumference were reduced significantly in both groups. Arterial blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin, and γ-GT were reduced significantly only in the intervention group; however, there were no significant differences between the two groups at endpoint. C-reactive protein was reduced in the intervention, and HDL cholesterol was also reduced in the control group; the reductions were significantly different at the end of the trial. No significant changes were observed in the other plasma lipids, uric acid, leptin, adiponectin, and interleukin-6 in either study group.Consumption of desserts with low GI/GL in a balanced hypo-caloric diet has a positive impact on anthropometric and metabolic parameters of patients with T2DM.
Keywords: Glycemic index; Glycemic load; Lipids; Low-grade inflammation; Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Differences in micronucleus frequency and acrylamide adduct levels with hemoglobin between vegetarians and non-vegetarians by Natalia Kotova; Cecilia Frostne; Lilianne Abramsson-Zetterberg; Eden Tareke; Rolf Bergman; Siamak Haghdoost; Birgit Paulsson; Margareta Törnqvist; Dan Segerbäck; Dag Jenssen; Jan Grawé (1181-1190).
Nutrients and food constituents can prevent or contribute to genotoxicity. In this study, the possible influence of a vegetarian/non-vegetarian diet on genotoxic effects was investigated in 58 non-smoking healthy vegetarians (V) and non-vegetarians (NV), age 21–37 years from the Stockholm area in Sweden.Physical activity and dietary habits were similar in both groups, with the exception of the intake of meat and fish. Using flow cytometry, we determined the formation of micronuclei (MN) in transferrin-positive immature peripheral blood reticulocytes (Trf-Ret) (Total: n = 53; V: n = 27; NV: n = 26). Dietary exposure to acrylamide was measured through hemoglobin (Hb) adducts in peripheral erythrocytes (Total: n = 53; V: n = 29; NV: n = 24). Hb adducts of both acrylamide and its genotoxic metabolite glycidamide were monitored as a measure of the corresponding in vivo doses.Our data demonstrated that compared with the non-vegetarians, the vegetarians exhibited lower frequencies of MN (fMN) in the Trf-Ret (p < 0.01, Student’s t test). A multivariate analysis demonstrated that there was no association between the fMN and factors such as age, sex, intake of vitamins/minerals, serum folic acid and vitamin B12 levels, physical activity, and body mass index. The mean Hb adduct levels of acrylamide and glycidamide showed no significant differences between vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Furthermore, there were no significant relationships between the adduct levels and fMN in the individuals. The ratio of the Hb adduct levels from glycidamide and acrylamide, however, showed a significant difference (p < 0.04) between the two groups.These data suggest that the vegetarian diet might be beneficial in lowering genomic instability in healthy individuals. The measured Hb adduct levels indicate that the total intake of acrylamide does not differ between the two studied groups and does not contribute to the observed difference in fMN, although an influence of the diet on the metabolic rates of acrylamide was indicated. In addition, the observed significant difference in the background fMN in the two groups demonstrated that the MN analysis method has a sensitivity applicable to the biomonitoring of human lifestyle factors.
Keywords: Vegetarian; Non-vegetarian; Biomonitoring; Micronuclei; Hemoglobin adducts

Adherence to Mediterranean diet during pregnancy and serum lipid, lipoprotein and homocysteine concentrations at birth by Eva Gesteiro; Sara Bastida; Beatriz Rodríguez Bernal; Francisco J. Sánchez-Muniz (1191-1199).
Mediterranean diet consumption is associated to low prevalence of major degenerative diseases. Low Mediterranean-diet-adherence (MDA) score has been related to high insulin and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance levels at birth. The relationship between maternal MDA and offspring lipoprotein profile at birth has been scarcely reported.Cross-sectional study aimed to study the relationship between pregnancy diet quality and serum lipid, arylesterase and homocysteine values at birth. Cord blood of the offspring of 35 women whose diets were classified as “adequate” or “inadequate” according to their 13-point MDA-score (≥7 or <7, respectively) were studied.MDA-scores did not significantly change through pregnancy. Low-MDA-score diets presented a higher atherogenic index, contained less fiber and folates, and had a lower (polyunsaturated + monounsaturated)/saturated fatty acids (PUFA + MUFA/SFA) ratio, more cholesterol, and higher SFA/carbohydrates (SFA/CHO) and ω-6/ω-3 PUFA ratios than their respective high-MDA-score counterparts. Mothers at the low MDA-score delivered neonates with high LDL-c (P = 0.049), Apo B (P = 0.040), homocysteine (P = 0.026) and Apo A1/Apo B ratio (P = 0.024).Neonates whose mothers consumed low MDA diets presented impaired lipoprotein and increased homocysteine levels at birth. A follow-up study on early cardiovascular disease prevention is needed to understand the importance of present findings later in life.
Keywords: Arylesterase; Homocysteine; Lipids; Lipoproteins; Mediterranean diet adherence; Pregnancy; Neonates

The adequate supply of methyl donors is critical for the normal development of brain. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal betaine supplementation on hippocampal gene expression in neonatal piglets and to explore the possible mechanisms.Gestational sows were fed control or betaine-supplemented (3 g/kg) diets throughout the pregnancy. Immediately after birth, male piglets were killed, and the hippocampus was dissected for analyses. The mRNA abundance was determined by reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction. Protein content was measured by Western blot, and DNA methylation was detected by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation assay.Prenatal betaine supplementation did not alter the body weight or the hippocampus weight, but increased the hippocampal DNA content as well as the mRNA expression of proliferation-related genes. Prenatal betaine supplementation increased serum level of methionine (P < 0.05) and up-regulated (P < 0.05) the mRNA and protein expression of betaine–homocysteine methyltransferase, glycine N-methyltransferase and DNA methyltransferase 1 in the neonatal hippocampus. Hippocampal expression of insulin growth factor II (IGF2) and its receptors IGF1R and IGF2R were all significantly up-regulated (P < 0.05) in betaine-treated group, together with a significant activation (P < 0.01) of the downstream extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Moreover, the differentially methylated region (DMR) 1 and 2 on IGF2 locus was found to be hypermethylated (P < 0.05) in the hippocampus of betaine-treated piglets.These results indicate that maternal betaine supplementation enhances betaine/methionine metabolism and DNA methyltransferase expression, causes hypermethylation of DMR on IGF2 gene, which was associated with augmented expression of IGF2 and cell proliferation/anti-apoptotic markers in the hippocampus of neonatal piglets.
Keywords: Piglets; Betaine; Hippocampus; IGF2; DNA methylation; Cell proliferation