European Journal of Nutrition (v.54, #6)

Food protein-derived bioactive peptides in management of type 2 diabetes by Prasad Patil; Surajit Mandal; Sudhir Kumar Tomar; Santosh Anand (863-880).
Type 2 diabetes (T2D), one of the major common human health problems, is growing at an alarming rate around the globe. Alpha-glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) enzymes play a significant role in development of T2D. Hence, reduction or inhibition of their activity can be one of the important strategies in management of T2D. Studies in the field of bioactive peptides have shown that dietary proteins could be natural source of alpha-glucosidase and DPP-IV inhibitory peptides.The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of food protein-derived peptides as potential inhibitors of alpha-glucosidase and DPP-IV with major focus on milk proteins.Efforts have been made to review the available information in literature on the relationship between food protein-derived peptides and T2D. This review summarizes the current data on alpha-glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitory bioactive peptides derived from proteins and examines the potential value of these peptides in the treatment and prevention of T2D. In addition, the proposed modes of inhibition of peptide inhibitors are also discussed.Studies revealed that milk and other food proteins-derived bioactive peptides play a vital role in controlling T2D through several mechanisms, such as the satiety response, regulation of incretin hormones, insulinemia levels, and reducing the activity of carbohydrate degrading digestive enzymes.The bioactive peptides could be used in prevention and management of T2D through functional foods or nutraceutical supplements. Further clinical trials are necessary to validate the findings of in vitro studies and to confirm the efficiency of these peptides for applications.
Keywords: Type 2 diabetes (T2D); Alpha-glucosidase; Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV); Food protein; Bioactive peptides

Benefits of foods supplemented with vegetable oils rich in α-linolenic, stearidonic or docosahexaenoic acid in hypertriglyceridemic subjects: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trail by Manja Dittrich; Gerhard Jahreis; Kristin Bothor; Carina Drechsel; Michael Kiehntopf; Matthias Blüher; Christine Dawczynski (881-893).
The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of foods enriched with vegetable oils varying in their n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids profile on cardiovascular risk factors for hypertriglyceridemic subjects. Fifty-nine hypertriglyceridemic subjects (triglycerides ≥ 1.5 mmol/L) were included in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. The placebo group received sunflower oil [linoleic acid (LA) group; 10 g LA/day]. The intervention groups received linseed oil [α-linolenic acid (ALA) group; 7 g ALA/day], echium oil [stearidonic acid (SDA) group; 2 g SDA/day] or microalgae oil [docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) group; 2 g DHA/day] over 10 weeks. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of each period.Total cholesterol (TC) and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly in the LA and ALA groups (LA: P ≤ 0.01, ALA: P ≤ 0.05). No changes in blood lipids were observed in the SDA group. Significant increases in TC and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol occurred in the DHA group (P ≤ 0.05). In the ALA and SDA groups, the content of eicosapentaenoic acid in erythrocyte lipids increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) after 10 weeks (ALA group: 38 ± 37 %, SDA group: 73  ± 59 %).Foods enriched with different vegetable oils rich in ALA or SDA are able to increase the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids content in erythrocyte lipids; echium oil is more potent in comparison with linseed oil. Blood lipids were beneficially modified through the consumption of food products enriched with sunflower, linseed and microalgae oils, whereas echium oil did not affect blood lipids. NCT01437930.
Keywords: n-3 PUFA; Linseed oil; Echium oil; Microalgae oil; Human intervention study

High-fructose corn syrup-induced hepatic dysfunction in rats: improving effect of resveratrol by Gokhan Sadi; Volkan Ergin; Guldal Yilmaz; M. Bilgehan Pektas; O. Gokhan Yildirim; Adnan Menevse; Fatma Akar (895-904).
The increased consumption of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) may contribute to the worldwide epidemic of fatty liver. In this study, we have investigated whether HFCS intake (20 % beverages) influences lipid synthesis and accumulation in conjunction with insulin receptor substrate-1/2 (IRS-1; IRS-2), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and inducible NOS (iNOS) expressions in liver of rats. Resveratrol was tested for its potential efficacy on changes induced by HFCS.Animals were randomly divided into four groups as control, resveratrol, HFCS and resveratrol plus HFCS (resveratrol + HFCS). HFCS was given as 20 % solutions in drinking water. Feeding of all rats was maintained by a standard diet that enriched with or without resveratrol for 12 weeks.Dietary HFCS increased triglyceride content and caused mild microvesicular steatosis in association with up-regulation of fatty acid synthase and sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1c in liver of rats. Moreover, HFCS feeding impaired hepatic expression levels of IRS-1, eNOS and SIRT1 mRNA/proteins, but did not change iNOS level. Resveratrol promoted IRS, eNOS and SIRT1, whereas suppressed SREBP-1c expression in rats fed with HFCS.Resveratrol supplementation considerably restored hepatic changes induced by HFCS. The improvement of hepatic insulin signaling and activation of SIRT1 by resveratrol may be associated with decreased triglyceride content and expression levels of the lipogenic genes of the liver.
Keywords: High-fructose corn syrup; Resveratrol; Hepatic lipid; FASN; SREBP-1c; IRS-1; eNOS; SIRT1

Impact of removing iodized salt on the iodine nutrition of children living in areas with variable iodine content in drinking water by Shengmin Lv; Yinglu Zhao; Yanxia Li; Yuchun Wang; Hua Liu; Yang Li; Jun Zhao; Shannon Rutherford (905-912).
Excess iodine in drinking water has emerged as a public health issue in China. This study assesses the effectiveness of removing iodized salt on reducing the iodine excess in populations living in high-iodine areas and also to identify the threshold value for safe levels of iodine in water.Twelve villages from 5 cities of Hebei Province with iodine content in drinking water ranging from 39 to 313 µg/l were selected to compare the urinary iodine content of children aged 8–10 years before and after removing iodized salt from their diet.For 3 villages where median water iodine content (MWIC) was below 110 µg/l, following the removal of iodized salt (the intervention), the median urinary iodine content (MUIC) reduced to under 300 µg/l decreasing from 365, 380, 351 to 247, 240, 281 µg/l, respectively. However, the MUIC in the 9 villages with MWIC above 110 µg/l remained higher than 300 µg/l. The children’s MUIC correlated positively with the MWIC in the 12 villages (p ≤ 0.001). The linear regression equation after removing iodized salt was MUIC = 0.6761MWIC + 225.67, indicating that to keep the MUIC below 300 µg/l (the iodine excess threshold recommended by the WHO) requires the MWIC to be under 110 µg/l.Removing iodized salt could only correct the iodine excess in the population living in the areas with MWIC below 110 µg/l. In the areas with water iodine above 110 µg/l, interventions should be focused on seeking water with lower iodine content. This study suggests a threshold value of 110 µg/l of iodine in drinking water to maintain a safe level of dietary iodine.
Keywords: Iodine excess; Urinary iodine; Drinking water; Iodized salt

Effect of a combination GOS/FOS® prebiotic mixture and interaction with calcium intake on mineral absorption and bone parameters in growing rats by Gabriel Bryk; Magalí Zeni Coronel; Gretel Pellegrini; Patricia Mandalunis; María Ester Rio; María Luz Pita Martín de Portela; Susana Noemí Zeni (913-923).
Increasing calcium intake is the most effective strategy for avoiding Ca deficit. However, if intake remains inadequate, improving Ca absorption becomes an important tool to optimize Ca homeostasis and bone health.The effect of a mixture of GOS/FOS® 9:1 added to a normal- or low-Ca diets on Ca absorption and bone mineralization, density and structure was investigated, in a model of growing rats. Several colonic parameters to help support the findings were also evaluated. Weanling Wistar rats received one of the four experimental AIN-93G diets: C5: 0.5 % Ca; C3: 0.3 % Ca; P5: 0.5 % Ca + 5.3 % GOS/FOS®; P3: 0.3 % Ca + 5.3 % GOS/FOS® until 50 days (T = 50). At T = 50, lactobacillus and cecum weights were higher, whereas cecum pH was lower in P5 and P3 versus C5 and C3 (p < 0.001). At T = 50, fecal Ca, Mg and P were lower and their absorptions (mg/dL) were higher in P5 and P3 versus C5 and C3, respectively (p < 0.05). Ca, Mg and P absorption % was higher in P5 and P3 versus C5 and C3 (p < 0.001). Femur Ca and P content, bone mineral content, trabecular bone mineral density, tibia length, bone volume, osteoblast surface, stiffness and elastic modulus were higher in P5 and P3 versus C5 and C3 (p < 0.05). Despite the lower Ca content, P3 group reached similar values than C5 in all these latter parameters.Supplementing diets with the GOS/FOS® mixture increased bone mineralization, density and structure due to an increase in Ca, P and Mg absorptions. Thus, this prebiotic mixture may help to improve bone development in a period of high calcium requirements.
Keywords: Calcium absorption; Calcium retention; Galacto-oligosaccharides; Fructo-oligosaccharides; Growing rats; Growth plate cartilage

Inverse association between the frequency of nut consumption and obesity among Iranian population: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program by Noushin Mohammadifard; Narges Yazdekhasti; Gabriele I. Stangl; Nizal Sarrafzadegan (925-931).
Recently, controversies have arisen concerning the association between nut intake and obesity. This study was performed to investigate the relationship between nut consumption and obesity among Iranian adults.In a cross-sectional survey, 9,660 randomly chosen adults aged ≥19 years were selected based on gender, age and their settlement distributions in three districts of central Iran in 2007. Nutritional behaviors including regular intake of walnuts, almonds, pistachios, hazelnuts and sunflower seed were assessed by validated 48-item-food-frequency questionnaire and a 24-h recall questionnaire. Using hierarchical logistic regression test, odds ratio (OR) 95 % CI of obesity based on nut consumption was determined in an unadjusted and four adjusted models.The results showed a significant association between high nut consumption and lower prevalence of overweight or general obesity as well as abdominal obesity in women (p = 0.01 and p = 0.047, respectively), but not men. The frequency of nut consumption was associated with lower risk of overweight or general obesity [OR (95 % CI) 0.57 (0.38–0.86)] and abdominal obesity [OR (95 % CI) 0.51 (0.28−0.95)] only in women. After adjusting for gender, age and other potential confounders, the strength of the associations was blunted, but they were still significant.Frequent nuts and seeds consumption, particularly ≥1 time/day, had an inverse association with all classes of obesity among women.
Keywords: Nut; Obesity; Overweight; Body mass index; Waist circumference; Iran; Adult

The effect of tomato juice supplementation on biomarkers and gene expression related to lipid metabolism in rats with induced hepatic steatosis by Gala Martín-Pozuelo; Inmaculada Navarro-González; Rocío González-Barrio; Marina Santaella; Javier García-Alonso; Nieves Hidalgo; Carlos Gómez-Gallego; Gaspar Ros; María Jesús Periago (933-944).
Tomato products are a dietary source of natural antioxidants, especially lycopene, which accumulates in the liver, where it exerts biological effects. Taking into consideration this fact, the aim of the present study was to ascertain the effect of tomato consumption on biomarkers and gene expression related to lipid metabolism in rats with induced steatosis. Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were randomly grouped (n = 6 rats/group) in four experimental groups: NA (normal diet and water), NL (normal diet and tomato juice), HA (high fat diet and water) and HL (high fat diet and tomato juice). After 7 weeks, rats were euthanized, and plasma, urine, feces and liver were sampled to analyze the biomarkers related to lipid metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress.The H diet induced steatosis (grade II) in the HA and HL groups, which was confirmed by the levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, histological examination and the presence of dyslipidemia. The intake of tomato juice led to an accumulation of all-E and Z-lycopene and its metabolites in the livers of these animals; levels were higher in HL than in NL, apparently due to higher absorption (63.07 vs. 44.45 %). A significant improvement in the plasma level of high-density lipoprotein was observed in the HL group compared with HA animals, as was an alleviation of oxidative stress through reduction of isoprostanes in the urine. In relation to fatty acid gene expression, an overexpression of several genes related to fatty acid transport, lipid hydrolysis and mitochondrial and peroxisomal β-fatty acid oxidation was observed in the HL group.The consumption of tomato juice and tomato products reduced hallmarks of steatosis, plasmatic triglycerides and very low-density lipoproteins, and increased lipid metabolism by inducing an overexpression of genes involved in more efficient fatty acid oxidation.
Keywords: Lycopene; NAFLD; Inflammatory biomarkers; Oxidative biomarkers; Fatty acid; Gene expression

Postprandial lipid and insulin responses among healthy, overweight men to mixed meals served with baked herring, pickled herring or baked, minced beef by Cecilia Svelander; Britt G. Gabrielsson; Annette Almgren; Johan Gottfries; Johan Olsson; Ingrid Undeland; Ann-Sofie Sandberg (945-958).
The aim was to compare postprandial lipid, insulin and vitamin D responses after consumption of three otherwise identical meals served either with baked herring, pickled herring or with baked, minced beef. Seventeen healthy, overweight men (mean age 58 years, BMI 26.4–29.5 kg/m2) consumed standardized lunches together with baked herring, pickled herring or baked, minced beef on three occasions in a crossover design. Blood samples were taken just before and up to 7 h after the meal. The postprandial response was measured as serum concentrations of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol and lipoproteins (LDL, HDL and VLDL), insulin, 25-OH vitamin D and plasma fatty acid composition. There was no difference in postprandial lipid responses between the two herring meals, whereas a slower TG clearance was observed after the baked, minced beef meal. The 150 g servings of baked and pickled herring provided 3.3 and 2.8 g of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA), respectively, which was reflected in a substantial postprandial increase in plasma LC n-3 PUFA levels. The pickled herring contained 22 % sugar and consequently gave a higher insulin response compared with the other two meals.Both pickled and baked herring are good sources of LC n-3 PUFA in the diet, but the presence of sugar in pickled herring should be taken into consideration, especially if large amounts are consumed. The faster postprandial TG clearance after a meal with baked herring compared with baked beef supports previous studies on the beneficial effects of herring on cardiovascular health.
Keywords: Postprandial; Triglycerides; Insulin; Whole foods; n-3 Fatty acids

Pulverized konjac glucomannan ameliorates oxazolone-induced colitis in mice by Toshiko Onitake; Yoshitaka Ueno; Shinji Tanaka; Shintaro Sagami; Ryohei Hayashi; Kenta Nagai; Michihiro Hide; Kazuaki Chayama (959-969).
Pulverized konjac glucomannan (PKGM) is a natural biologically active compound extracted from konjac, a Japanese traditional food. In the present study, we investigated the role of PKGM in intestinal immunity in a mouse model of oxazolone (OXA)-induced colitis. C57BL/6(B6) mice were fed PKGM or control food from 2 weeks before the induction of OXA colitis. Body weight change, colon length, and histological change in the colon were examined. The mononuclear cells were purified from colon and stimulated with PMA/ionomycin. The levels of TNF-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-13 from the supernatant were measured by ELISA.Oral administration of PKGM prevented the body weight loss and shortening of colon length associated with OXA-induced colitis. Histological analysis revealed that the colonic inflammation was improved by the administration of PKGM. The levels of IL-4 and IL-13, the critical inflammatory cytokines in OXA colitis, derived from mononuclear cells from the lamina propria of the colon were significantly suppressed by PKGM administration. PKGM-fed mice showed a significantly lower IL-4/IFN-γ ratio in the colonic lamina propria compared with that in control-fed mice. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis revealed that natural killer (NK) 1.1+ T cells in the liver were significantly decreased in PKGM-fed mice. Finally, the preventive role of PKGM in OXA-induced colitis was not observed in invariant natural killer T cell-deficient mice.PKGM ameliorated OXA-induced colitis in mice. This effect is associated with a decreased population of NK1.1+ T cells and induction of Th1-polarized immune responses.
Keywords: Konjac glucomannan; Oxazolone colitis; IL-13; Th1/Th2 balance; NKT cell

Maternal low-protein diet affects myostatin signaling and protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of offspring piglets at weaning stage by Xiujuan Liu; Shifeng Pan; Xiao Li; Qinwei Sun; Xiaojing Yang; Ruqian Zhao (971-979).
We tested the hypothesis that maternal low-protein (LP) diet during gestation and lactation can program myostatin (MSTN) signaling and protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of offspring at weaning stage (35 days).Fourteen Meishan sows were fed either LP or standard-protein diets throughout gestation and lactation, male offspring piglets were killed at weaning stage and longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles were taken. The cross-sectional areas (CSA) of LD muscles were measured by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The levels of free amino acids in plasma were measured by amino acid auto-analyzer. Proteins and mRNA were determined by Western blot and RT-qPCR, respectively.Body weight, LD muscle weight and the myofiber CSA were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in LP piglets; meanwhile, the concentration of branched-chain amino acids was also significantly decreased (P < 0.001). MSTN protein content tended to be higher (P = 0.098) in LP piglets, while the expression of MSTN receptors, activin type II receptor-beta and transforming growth factor type-beta type I receptor kinase, was significantly up-regulated (P < 0.05). Furthermore, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, the downstream signaling factor of MSTN, was also enhanced significantly (P < 0.05). In addition, key factors of translation initiation, phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 4E and the 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase, were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in LP piglets.Our results suggest that maternal LP diet during gestation and lactation affects MSTN signaling and protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of offspring at weaning stage.
Keywords: Low-protein diet; Myostatin; Protein synthesis; Skeletal muscle; Meishan pigs

Dairy products and the risk of stroke and coronary heart disease: the Rotterdam Study by Jaike Praagman; Oscar H. Franco; M. Arfan Ikram; Sabita S. Soedamah-Muthu; Mariëlle F. Engberink; Frank J. A. van Rooij; Albert Hofman; Johanna M. Geleijnse (981-990).
We examined whether consumption of total dairy and dairy subgroups was related to incident stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD) in a general older Dutch population.The study involved 4,235 participants of the Rotterdam Study aged 55 and over who were free of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes at baseline (1990–1993). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for the intake of total dairy and dairy subgroups in relation to incident CVD events.Median intake of total dairy was 397 g/day, which mainly comprised low-fat dairy products (median intake of 247 g/day). During a median follow-up time of 17.3 years, 564 strokes (182 fatal) and 567 CHD events (350 fatal) occurred. Total dairy, milk, low-fat dairy, and fermented dairy were not significantly related to incident stroke or fatal stroke (p > 0.2 for upper vs. lower intake categories). High-fat dairy was significantly inversely related to fatal stroke (HR of 0.88 per 100 g/day; 95 % CI 0.79, 0.99), but not to incident stroke (HR of 0.96 per 100 g/day; 95 % CI 0.90, 1.02). Total dairy or dairy subgroups were not significantly related to incident CHD or fatal CHD (HRs between 0.98 and 1.05 per 100 g/day, all p > 0.35).In this long-term follow-up study of older Dutch subjects, total dairy consumption or the intake of specific dairy products was not related to the occurrence of CVD events. The observed inverse association between high-fat dairy and fatal stroke warrants confirmation in other studies.
Keywords: Dairy; Milk; Coronary heart disease; Stroke; Population-based study

Disparate metabolic effects of blackcurrant seed oil in rats fed a basal and obesogenic diet by Adam Jurgoński; Bartosz Fotschki; Jerzy Juśkiewicz (991-999).
It was hypothesised that blackcurrant seed oil beneficially modulates metabolic disorders related to obesity and its complications. The study also aimed to investigate the potentially adverse effects of an unbalanced diet on the distal intestine.Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups of eight animals each and were fed a basal or obesogenic (high in fat and low in fibre) diet that contained either rapeseed oil (Canola) or blackcurrant seed oil. A two-way analysis of variance was then applied to assess the effects of diet and oil and the interaction between them.After 8 weeks, the obesogenic dietary regimen increased the body weight, altered the plasma lipid profile and increased the liver fat content and the plasma transaminase activities. In addition, the obesogenic diet decreased bacterial glycolytic activity and short-chain fatty acid formation in the distal intestine. Dietary blackcurrant seed oil improved the lipid metabolism by lowering liver fat accumulation and the plasma triglyceride concentration and atherogenicity as well by increasing the plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration. However, in rats fed an obesogenic diet containing blackcurrant seed oil, the plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration was comparable with both rapeseed oil-containing diets, and a significant elevation of the plasma transaminase activities was noted instead.The obesogenic dietary regimen causes a number of metabolic disorders, including alterations in the hindgut microbial metabolism. Dietary blackcurrant seed oil ameliorates the lipid metabolism; however, the beneficial effect is restricted when it is provided together with the obesogenic diet, and a risk of liver injury may occur.
Keywords: Blackcurrant seed oil; Essential fatty acids; Lipid metabolism; Liver function; Caecum; Rats

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3/vitamin D receptor suppresses brown adipocyte differentiation and mitochondrial respiration by Carolyn J. Ricciardi; Jiyoung Bae; Debora Esposito; Slavko Komarnytsky; Pan Hu; Jiangang Chen; Ling Zhao (1001-1012).
The vitamin D system plays a role in metabolism regulation. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) suppressed 3T3-L1 white adipocyte differentiation. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) knockout mice showed increased energy expenditure, whereas mice with adipose-specific VDR over-expression showed decreased energy expenditure. Brown adipose tissue (BAT), now known to be present in adult humans, functions in non-shivering thermogenesis by uncoupling ATP synthesis from respiration and plays an important role in energy expenditure. However, the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3/VDR on brown adipocyte differentiation and mitochondrial respiration have not been reported.mRNA expression of VDR and the metabolizing enzymes 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) and 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) were examined in BAT of mice models of obesity and during brown adipocyte differentiation. The effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and VDR over-expression on brown adipocyte differentiation and functional outcomes were evaluated.No significant changes in mRNA of VDR and CYP27B1 were noted in both diet-induced obese (DIO) and ob/ob mice, whereas uncoupling protein 1 mRNA was downregulated in BAT of ob/ob, but not DIO mice when compared to the controls. In contrast, mRNA of VDR, CYP24A1, and CYP27B1 were downregulated during brown adipocyte differentiation in vitro. 1,25(OH)2D3 dose-dependently suppressed brown adipocyte differentiation, accompanied by suppressed isoproterenol-stimulated oxygen consumption rates (OCR), maximal OCR and OCR from proton leak. Consistently, over-expression of VDR also suppressed brown adipocyte differentiation. Further, both 1,25(OH)2D3 and VDR over-expression suppressed PPARγ transactivation in brown preadipocytes.Our results demonstrate the suppressive effects of 1,25(OH)2D3/VDR signaling on brown adipocyte differentiation and mitochondrial respiration. The role of 1,25(OH)2D3/VDR system in regulating BAT development and function in obesity warrant further investigation.
Keywords: Vitamin D receptor; Brown adipocyte; UCP1; Mitochondrial respiration

Although previous research has associated the glycaemic load (GL) of a meal with cognitive functioning, typically the macro-nutrient composition of the meals has differed, raising a question as to whether the response was to GL or to the energy, nutrients or particular foods consumed. Therefore, the present study contrasted two breakfasts that offered identical levels of energy and macro-nutrients, although they differed in GL.Using a repeated-measures, double-blind design, 75 children aged 5–11 years, from socially deprived backgrounds, attended a school breakfast club and on two occasions, at least a week apart, they consumed a meal sweetened with either isomaltulose (Palatinose™) (GL 31.6) or glucose (GL 59.8). Immediate and delayed verbal memory, spatial memory, sustained attention, reaction times, speed of information processing and mood were assessed 1 and 3 h after eating.The nature of the meals did not influence any measure of cognition or mood after an hour; however, after 3 h, children’s memory and mood improved after the lower-GL breakfast. If children had eaten the lower-GL meal on the second day of testing, they were able to process information faster and had better spatial memory later in the morning.Towards the end of a morning in school, having consumed a lower-GL breakfast resulted in better mood and aspects of cognitive functioning.
Keywords: Breakfast; Children; Cognition; Glycaemic load; Mood; Isomaltulose

Glycaemic index of some commercial gluten-free foods by Francesca Scazzina; Margherita Dall’Asta; Nicoletta Pellegrini; Furio Brighenti (1021-1026).
Gluten-free products present major challenges for the food industry in terms of organoleptic, technological and nutritional characteristics. The absence of gluten has been shown to affect starch digestibility, thus increasing the postprandial glycaemic response. However, in recent years, gluten-free technologies have been improved, thus possibly modifying this quality parameter. We investigated the glycaemic index (GI) of 10 commercial foods aiming to update the GI values of the most common gluten-free products consumed in Italy.The in vivo GI was evaluated for six bakery products and four types of pasta. The postprandial glucose response was obtained in two groups with 10 healthy volunteers each.The overall GI values ranged from 37.5 for breakfast biscuits to 66.7 for puffed multigrain cake. Breads and pasta had GI values consistently lower than those previously reported in the literature.The present study showed that several commercial GF products exhibited low and medium GI values, not confirming the previous observations on the high GI of GF. However, considering the multiple formulations and processes for preparation of these products, further studies are recommended.
Keywords: Glycaemic index; Gluten-free products; Coeliac patients; Pasta; Bakery products

Triticum monococcum in patients with celiac disease: a phase II open study on safety of prolonged daily administration by Barbara Zanini; Vincenzo Villanacci; Luigina De Leo; Alberto Lanzini (1027-1029).
To assess safety of prolonged daily administration of Triticum monococcum (Tm) using clinical, serological and histological criteria. Tm is an ancient wheat suitable for production of palatable baked goods that contains gluten devoid of strongly immunostimulatory epitopes and potentially safe for celiac disease (CD) patients as suggested by in vitro and ex vivo studies.Protocol involved 60-day administration of 100 g/day Tm water biscuits to CD patients in remission on gluten-free diet. Symptoms Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale questionnaire (GSRS) and CD-related serology were assessed at time (T) 0, T30 and T60 days, and duodenal biopsy was obtained at T0 and T60.Eight patients (F/M: 6/2, median age 26) were enrolled. One patient was excluded at T0 because of positive serology, and two patients dropped out because of symptoms recurrence. In the five patients completing the study, there was no difference in GSRS score at T0 to T60. All patients had Marsh II lesion at T0, four had Marsh III and one had recurrence of dermatitis herpetiformis at T60. CD-related antibodies converted from negative to positive at T60 in three patients.Our study shows that Tm is toxic for CD patients as judged on histological and serological criteria, but it was well tolerated by the majority of patients, suggesting that Tm is not a safe cereal for celiacs, but that it may be of value for patients with gluten sensitivity or for prevention of CD.
Keywords: Celiac disease; Gluten; Toxicity; Triticum monococcum ; Gluten-free diet