European Journal of Nutrition (v.54, #4)

Effects of red wine on postprandial stress: potential implication in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease development by Ilaria Peluso; Husseen Manafikhi; Raffaella Reggi; Maura Palmery (497-507).
Red wine consumption is considered to be protective against oxidative stress. Diet strongly influences non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is associated with oxidative stress and is considered the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome.We reviewed the available evidence that investigated the effects of red wine on the postprandial-induced metabolic and oxidative stress in humans.After red wine consumption with meal, despite the improvement in non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and lipoperoxidation markers, the influence of confounding factors such as uric acid should be taken into account. Both uric acid and triglycerides increases, induced by ethanol, could cause liver damage. On the other hand, further researches are required in order to understand the meaning of the induction of antioxidant enzymes by red wine and red wine polyphenols in the context of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.In conclusion, inconsistent and contrasting findings exist regarding the potential benefits of red wine consumption against postprandial stress.
Keywords: Postprandial stress; Red wine; Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) aggregation is linked to loss of pancreatic beta cells in type 2 diabetes, in part due to oxidative stress. Currently, little is known about the effects of selenium-enriched Spirulina on beta cells with the presence of hIAPP. In this study, INS-1E rat insulinoma cells were used as a model to evaluate in vitro protective effects of Se-enriched Spirulina extract (Se-SE) against hIAPP-induced cell death, as well as the underlying mechanisms.Flow cytometric analysis was used to evaluate cell apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and ROS generation. Caspase activity was measured using a fluorometric method. Western blotting was applied to detect protein expression.Our results showed that exposure of INS-1E cells to hIAPP resulted in cell viability loss, LDH release and appearance of sub-G peak. However, cytotoxicity of hIAPP was significantly attenuated by co-treatment with Se-SE. Se-SE also inhibited hIAPP-induced activation of caspase-3, -8 and -9. Additionally, hIAPP-induced accumulation of ROS and superoxide was suppressed by co-treatment with Se-SE. Moreover, Se-SE was able to prevent hIAPP-induced depletion of ΔΨm and intracellular ATP, reduction in mitochondrial mass, changes in the expression of Bcl-2 family members, release of mitochondrial apoptogenic factors. Furthermore, hIAPP-mediated AKT inhibition was restored by co-treatment with Se-SE.Our results showed that Se-SE protects INS-1E cells from hIAPP-induced cell death through preventing ROS overproduction, mitochondrial dysfunction and modulating PI3K/AKT pathway.
Keywords: Human islet amyloid polypeptide; Selenium-enriched Spirulina ; Pancreatic beta cells; Apoptosis

Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in a rural elderly population (60–74 years of age) and their relationship with cardiovascular risk factors by Itandehui Castro-Quezada; Reyes Artacho; Esther Molina-Montes; Francisca Aguilera Serrano; María Dolores Ruiz-López (523-534).
To examine the association between dietary glycaemic index (GI) and dietary glycaemic load (GL) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a rural elderly population. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 343 subjects (60–74 years) residing in a Spanish rural area (Priego de Córdoba). Subjects were selected using stratified random sampling. Food intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We assigned GI values to each item of the FFQ to estimate dietary GI and GL. Multivariate linear regression models were fitted to assess the association between GI/GL with CVD risk factors (blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein A1, body mass index, waist circumference and blood pressure). The potential modifying effect of sex, smoking status, diabetes and medication has been explored.A statistically significant inverse association between dietary GI and blood glucose was found in the multivariate model (p = 0.029): for every 10 unit increment of GI, serum glucose levels decreased by 0.2 units. However, statistical significance was lost after controlling for diabetes or hypoglycaemic medication. In the crude model, dietary GL was associated with triglycerides (ß for every 10 GL units increase = 0.70, p = 0.005), but statistical significance was lost in the multivariate model (p = 0.508). No associations were found between dietary GI/GL and the rest of the variables studied.Neither dietary GI nor GL were associated with CVD risk factors in the study population of Priego de Córdoba. Results obtained suggest the necessity to consider the diagnosis of diabetes in these studies.
Keywords: Glycaemic index; Glycaemic load; Cardiovascular risk factors; Cross-sectional study; Elderly

Hormesis is induced in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum through ingestion of charred toast by Stefanie Grünwald; Janine Niedermeier; Uwe Wenzel (535-541).
Charred foods are generally suspected to exert health threats by providing toxicants, such as acrylamide or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Using the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum as a model organism, we tested its survival under heat stress in response to feeding charred toast.Survival of beetles was measured at 42 °C after a pre-feeding phase with flour enriched with increasing concentrations of charred toast. In order to assess the influence of key transcription factors for phase-I and phase-II xenobiotic metabolism, gene homologs for ahr and nrf-2, respectively, were knocked down by the use of RNA interference (RNAi).Beetles fed only charred toast died off much earlier than control beetles fed on flour, whereas beetles fed flour enriched with 5 % charred toast survived significantly longer than the control. Both, ahr and nrf-2 proved essential in order to enable the increase in survival by the feeding of 5 % charred toast. Moreover, functional loss of ahr and nrf-2 made the beetles hypersensitive versus the feeding of 100 % charred toast. Finally, at the transcriptional level, it was shown that RNAi for ahr blocked the inducing activities of charred toast on nrf-2. Our studies suggest a hormetic response of the red flour beetle to feeding of charred toast that causes an increased stress resistance through the activation of ahr and nrf-2. Those adaptations, however, are saturable and accordingly the hormetic effects at increasing concentrations of the toxicants become expended.
Keywords: Red flour beetle; Pyrolysis products; Survival; Xenobiotic metabolism; RNA interference; Hormesis

The associations between yogurt consumption, diet quality, and metabolic profiles in children in the USA by Yong Zhu; Huifen Wang; James H. Hollis; Paul F. Jacques (543-550).
Recent studies have shown that yogurt consumption was associated with better diet quality and a healthier metabolic profile in adults. However, such associations have not been investigated in children. The present study examined the associations in children using data from a nationally representative survey.Data from 5,124 children aged 2–18 years, who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) between 2003 and 2006 in the USA were analyzed. The frequency of yogurt consumption over 12 months was determined using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Diet quality was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI-2005) using one 24-HR dietary recall, and metabolic profiles were obtained from the NHANES laboratory data.It was found that only 33.1 % of children consumed yogurt at least once per week (frequent consumers). Adjusting for covariates, frequent consumers had better diet quality than infrequent consumers, as indicated by a higher HEI-2005 total score (P = 0.04). Frequent yogurt consumption was associated with a lower fasting insulin level (P < 0.001), a lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (P < 0.001), and a higher quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (P = 0.03). However, yogurt consumption was not associated with body weight, fasting glucose, serum lipid profiles, C-reactive protein, and blood pressures (all P > 0.05).These results suggest that frequent yogurt consumption may contribute to improved diet quality and a healthier insulin profile in children. Future longitudinal studies and clinical trials in children are warranted to explore the health benefits of yogurt consumption.
Keywords: NHANES; Yogurt; Glucose; Insulin; Children

Whey peptide ingestion suppresses body fat accumulation in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 6 (SAMP6) by Noriko Ichinoseki-Sekine; Ryo Kakigi; Susumu Miura; Hisashi Naito (551-556).
Body weight in young growing and young adult animals was reduced by a high dietary density of whey protein concentrate; however, it is unclear whether dietary proteins similarly affect body weight in aging animals. Here, we examined whether whey protein or whey peptide ingestion suppressed body fat accumulation and affected protein expression and phosphorylation in skeletal muscle in aging mice.Twenty-six male senescence-accelerated mouse prone 6 (SAMP6) mice were assigned randomly to three dietary treatment groups: 18.7 % casein control (CON), 18.7 % whey protein (WPR), and 18.7 % whey peptide (WPE). After 28 weeks of treatment, skeletal tissues were dissected and weighed for analysis. Western blotting was performed to examine the expression of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) in quadriceps muscles.Body (CON: 47.6 ± 2.2 g, WPR: 48.2 ± 2.7 g, WPE: 38.3 ± 2.0 g) and relative white adipose tissue (CON: 38.5 ± 3.5 mg/g, WPR: 43.8 ± 4.0 mg/g, WPE: 21.1 ± 4.4 mg/g) weights were lower in the WPE group compared with the other two groups (p < 0.05), and no significant differences were observed between the CON and WPR groups. The relative weights of tibialis anterior muscle (CON: 1.04 ± 0.04 mg/g, WPR: 0.97 ± 0.03 mg/g, 1.23 ± 0.05 mg/g) and gastrocnemius muscle (CON: 3.02 ± 0.12 mg/g, WPR: 2.92 ± 0.15 mg/g, WPE: 3.65 ± 0.18 mg/g) were higher in the WPE group compared with the other groups (p < 0.05). The phosphorylation of AMPK (WPR: 1.03 ± 0.11, WPE: 1.36 ± 0.12; fold change from control) and ACC (WPR: 1.08 ± 0.07, WPE: 1.18 ± 0.05; fold change from control) in WPE was higher than in CON (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the expression levels of ATGL among the three groups.These data suggest that a normal (or moderate excess) dietary density of whey peptide attenuates body fat accumulation via upregulation of fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle in aging mice.
Keywords: Whey peptide hydrolysate; Adipose tissue; Fatty acid oxidation; Skeletal muscle; Mouse

Dietary glycaemic load associated with cognitive performance in elderly subjects by Susan E. Power; Eibhlís M. O’Connor; R. Paul Ross; Catherine Stanton; Paul W. O’Toole; Gerald F. Fitzgerald; Ian B. Jeffery (557-568).
Ageing is associated with loss of cognitive function and an increased risk of dementia which is expected to place growing demands on health and long-term care providers. Among multiple causative factors, evidence suggests that cognitive impairment in older subjects may be influenced by diet. The objective of this study was to examine the association between dietary patterns, dietary glycaemic load (GL) and cognition in older Irish adults. Community-dwelling subjects (n 208; 94 males and 114 females; aged 64–93 years) were analysed. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Cognitive capacity was tested using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The data were clustered to derive patterns of dietary intake. Multivariable-adjusted logistic and Poisson regression models were used to examine the relationship between dietary GL and MMSE score.Elderly subjects consuming ‘prudent’ dietary patterns (high in fruit, vegetables, fish, low-fat dairy and salad dressings and low in red meat and white bread) had higher MMSE scores (better cognitive function) than those consuming ‘Western’ dietary pattern (high in red meat and white bread and low in fruit and vegetables; P < 0.05). Logistic and Poisson regression analyses both indicated that the MMSE score was inversely associated with the GL of the diet (P < 0.05) even after adjusting for age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, healthy food diversity, nutritional status, residential property price, cardiovascular medications and energy intake.In this community-dwelling elderly Irish cohort, consumption of a high glycaemic diet is associated with poorer cognitive performance as assessed by the MMSE.
Keywords: Diet; Glycaemic; Cognition; Elderly

Resveratrol is a natural polyphenolic stilbene widely found in grapes, berries, and other plants. Caloric restriction-like effects of resveratrol have been associated with suppressive and apoptotic effects on adipocyte differentiation in vitro when used at high doses (≥20 µM), which may not be achievable in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol at physiologically achievable low doses (1 and 10 μM) on 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation.3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes using a modified adipogenic cocktail in the presence or absence of resveratrol. Differentiation was determined by lipid accumulation and mRNA expression of marker genes. Activation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) was determined by transcription factor-mediated reporter assays and mRNA expression of target genes. Protein samples were collected for the study of AMPK activation.Resveratrol at physiologically achievable doses (1 and 10 µM) significantly enhanced 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation although the effect was less pronounced compared with that achieved under optimal differentiation cocktail in vitro. Resveratrol (1–50 µM) dose dependently activated or synergized with the synthetic ligand or adipogenic treatment to activate GR and PPARγ. However, resveratrol induced cell death when used at doses above 10 µM in differentiating cells.Our results report for the first time that resveratrol at physiologically achievable doses (1 and 10 µM) enhances 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation, which supports the emerging paradigm that enhanced adipocyte differentiation may be associated with caloric restriction-like metabolic effects for resveratrol.
Keywords: Resveratrol; Adipocyte differentiation; GR; PPARγ; AMPK

The effect of aspartate on the energy metabolism in the liver of weanling pigs challenged with lipopolysaccharide by Ping Kang; Yulan Liu; Huiling Zhu; Shuang Li; Haifeng Shi; Feng Chen; Weibo Leng; Dinan Pi; Yongqing Hou; Dan Yi (581-588).
This study was conducted to investigate whether aspartate (Asp) could improve liver energy status in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged pigs.Twenty-four weaned pigs were assigned to four treatments: (1) nonchallenged control (control diet and saline-treated); (2) LPS-challenged control (the same control diet and LPS-challenged); (3) LPS + 0.5 % Asp treatment (0.5 % Asp diet and LPS-challenged); and (4) LPS + 1.0 % Asp treatment (a 1.0 % Asp diet and LPS-challenged). On d 19, the pigs were injected intraperitoneally with Escherichia coli LPS at 100 μg/kg body weight, and the same volume of 0.9 % NaCl solution, respectively. All pigs were slaughtered at 24 h after LPS or saline injection, and the liver was collected for further analysis. Dietary supplementation with Asp improved liver energy status evidenced by the increased ATP concentration and adenylate energy charges, and the decreased AMP concentration and AMP/ATP ratio (p < 0.05). Asp supplementation increased the mRNA expression of key enzymes in hepatic glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, including pyruvate kinase and citrate synthase (p < 0.05), and had a tendency to increase hepatic pyruvate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase β mRNA expression (p < 0.10). In addition, Asp increased the mRNA expressions of hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α1, AMPKα2, silent information regulator (Sirt1), and proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC1α) (p < 0.05). Moreover, Asp increased AMPKα phosphorylation (p < 0.05). These results indicated that dietary supplementation of Asp could improve energy status in LPS-injured liver, which might result from motivating the metabolism pathway of TCA cycle and glycolysis and stimulating the AMPK signaling pathway.
Keywords: Aspartate; Energy status; Liver; Piglets; Lipopolysaccharide

Metabolic syndrome in Spanish adolescents and its association with birth weight, breastfeeding duration, maternal smoking, and maternal obesity: a cross-sectional study by Emilio González-Jiménez; Miguel A. Montero-Alonso; Jacqueline Schmidt-RioValle; Carmen J. García-García; Cristina Padez (589-597).
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents is a growing problem. The objectives were to verify the association among early predictors such as birth weight, breastfeeding, maternal weight status, smoking during pregnancy, and the development of MetS.A cross-sectional study was performed of 976 children and adolescents, 10–15 years of age, at schools in the provinces of Granada and Almeria (Spain). For this purpose, we analyzed the physical characteristics as well as the biochemical markers of the participants with a view to ascertaining the prevalence of the MetS. Relevant data were also extracted from the clinical histories of their mothers.It was found that 3.85 % of the female subjects and 5.38 % of the male subjects in the sample population suffered from MetS. In both sexes, there was an association between birth weight and positive MetS diagnosis (OR 1.27). For both males and females, there was an inverse association between the length of time that they had been breastfed and positive MetS diagnosis (OR1–3 months 3.16; OR4–6 months 1.70; OR>6 months 0.13). There was also a significant association between maternal weight (ORoverweight 30.79; ORobesity 49.36) and cigarette consumption during pregnancy (OR 1.47) and the subsequent development of MetS in the children of these mothers.Those subjects born with a higher than average birth weight had a greater risk of developing MetS in childhood and adolescence. Breastfeeding children for longer than 6 months protected them from MetS in their early years as well as in their teens. Other risk factors for MetS were maternal smoking during pregnancy as well as maternal overweight and obesity.
Keywords: Metabolic syndrome; Adolescents; Related factors

Consumption of berries, fruits and vegetables and mortality among 10,000 Norwegian men followed for four decades by Anette Hjartåker; Markus Dines Knudsen; Steinar Tretli; Elisabete Weiderpass (599-608).
The association between vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been investigated by several studies, whereas fewer studies have examined consumption of vegetables and fruits in relation to all-cause mortality. Studies on berries, a rich source of antioxidants, are rare. The purpose of the current study was to examine the association between intake of vegetables, fruits and berries (together and separately) and the risk of all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality due to cancer and CVD and subtypes of these, in a cohort with very long follow-up.We used data from a population-based prospective Norwegian cohort study of 10,000 men followed from 1968 through 2008. Information on vegetable, fruit and berry consumption was available from a food frequency questionnaire. Association between these and all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality due to cancers and CVDs were investigated using Cox proportional hazard regression models.Men who in total consumed vegetables, fruit and berries more than 27 times per month had an 8–10 % reduced risk of all-cause mortality compared with men with a lower consumption. They also had a 20 % reduced risk of stroke mortality. Consumption of fruit was inversely related to overall cancer mortality, with hazard rate ratios of 0.94, 0.84 and 0.79 in the second, third and firth quartile, respectively, compared with the first quartile.Increased consumption of vegetables, fruits and berries was associated with a delayed risk of all-cause mortality and of mortality due to cancer and stroke.
Keywords: Vegetables; Fruits; Berries; All-cause mortality; Cancer; CVD

Dietary patterns and breast cancer: a case–control study in women by Niki Mourouti; Christos Papavagelis; Petrini Plytzanopoulou; Meropi Kontogianni; Tonia Vassilakou; Nikolaos Malamos; Athena Linos; Demosthenes Panagiotakos (609-617).
Since dietary habits have been associated with breast cancer, the tested research hypothesis was the associations between food patterns, as derived through multivariate methods, and breast cancer.In a case–control study, Two-hundred and fifty consecutive, newly diagnosed breast cancer female patients (56 ± 12 years) and 250 one-to-one age-matched, healthy controls were studied. A standardized, validated questionnaire assessing various socio-demographic, clinical, lifestyle, and dietary characteristics was applied through face-to-face interviews. Factor analysis, with principal components method, was applied to extract dietary patterns from 86 foods or food groups consumption reported by the controls.Three components were derived explaining 43 % of the total variation in consumption. Component 1 was characterized by the consumption of potatoes, red meat and its products, poultry and white meat, dairy products, use of margarine/butter in cooking or at the table, consumption of sausages, fried food as well as grilled meat or fish; component 2 was characterized by the consumption of whole grains, fruits, and vegetables; and component 3 was characterized by olive oil and fish consumption. After adjusting for various confounders, components 2 and 3 were favorably associated with the absence of having breast cancer [odds ratio (OR) 0.60, 95 % CI 0.47–0.75 and OR 0.81, 95 % CI 0.66–0.99, respectively], while component 1 was not significantly associated with the disease.Adherence to healthy dietary patterns (including whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, olive oil, and fish) seems to be favorable in not having breast cancer, among middle-aged women.
Keywords: Breast cancer; Dietary patterns; Factor analysis

Higher intake of carotenoid is associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer in Chinese adults: a case–control study by Min-Shan Lu; Yu-Jing Fang; Yu-Ming Chen; Wei-Ping Luo; Zhi-Zhong Pan; Xiao Zhong; Cai-Xia Zhang (619-628).
The associations between specific carotenoid intake and colorectal cancer risk remain inconsistent. The aim of this study was to examine the association between specific dietary carotenoid intake with colorectal cancer risk in Chinese adults.From July 2010 to October 2013, 845 eligible colorectal cancer cases and 845 frequency-matched controls (age and sex) completed in-person interviews. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate dietary intake. Multivariate logistical regression models were used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) of colorectal cancer risk after adjusting for various confounders.A strong inverse association was found between β-cryptoxanthin intake and colorectal cancer risk. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile intake showed a risk reduction of 77 % (OR 0.23, 95 % CI 0.17–0.33, P trend < 0.01) after adjustment for various confounding variables. The inverse associations were also observed for α-carotene (OR 0.50, 95 % CI 0.37–0.68, P trend < 0.01), β-carotene (OR 0.67, 95 % CI 0.49–0.91, P trend < 0.01), and lycopene (OR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.37–0.70, P trend < 0.01). There was no statistically significant association between lutein/zeaxanthin intake and colorectal cancer risk. These findings were consistent across cancer site, sources of controls, and smoking status. The inverse associations between dietary α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and lycopene intake and colorectal cancer risk were found in both males and females, while inverse associations between β-carotene intake and colorectal cancer risk were only observed in males.Consumption of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and lycopene was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. No significant association was found between lutein/zeaxanthin intake and colorectal cancer risk.
Keywords: Carotenoid; Colorectal cancer; Case–control study; China

The effects of season and gender on the serum aflatoxins and ochratoxin A levels of healthy adult subjects from the Central Anatolia Region, Turkey by Suna Sabuncuoglu; Pinar Erkekoglu; Sevtap Aydin; Gönül Şahin; Belma Kocer-Gumusel (629-638).
This study was undertaken to determine the effects of season and gender on serum aflatoxin (AF) levels (AFG1, AFB1, AFG2 and AFB2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) concentrations of healthy adult population living in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey.AF levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and OTA levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in serum samples of healthy adults (n = 233).In summer and winter, total AF levels in females were 0.98 ± 0.10 and 0.94 ± 0.12 ng/ml and in males 1.35 ± 0.17 and 0.93 ± 0.11 ng/ml, respectively. Male subjects had significantly higher serum total AF levels in summer compared with females (~38 %). There was no marked seasonal change in AFG1, AFB1 and AFG2 concentrations in the whole population, except AFB2. Both of the genders had significantly higher OTA levels in winter compared with summer (~60 %).Overall results suggest that Central Anatolia residents are continuously exposed to AFs and OTA. Besides, season and gender can be effective in mycotoxin exposure.
Keywords: Mycotoxin; Aflatoxin; Ochratoxin A; HPLC; Healthy adult population; Turkey

Ulcerative colitis (UC), a chronic gastrointestinal disorder, is a debilitating disease affecting many people across the globe. Research suggests that the levels of several antioxidants, including β-carotene (β-CAR), decrease in the serum of patients with UC. The present study was aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in β-CAR-mediated protection against UC in mice.UC was induced in mice using 3 %w/v dextran sulfate sodium in drinking water for two cycles; one cycle comprised of 7 days of dextran sulfate sodium-treated water followed by 14 days of normal drinking water. β-CAR was administered at the doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg bw/day, po throughout the experiment. The effect of β-CAR in mice with UC was evaluated using biochemical parameters, histological evaluation, comet and micronucleus assays, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis.The results indicated that β-CAR treatment ameliorated the severity of UC by modulating various molecular targets such as nuclear factor-kappa B, cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin 17, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and connective tissue growth factor. Further, β-CAR treatment maintained the gut integrity by increasing the expression of a tight junction protein, occludin, which was decreased in the colon of mice with UC. Also β-CAR treatment significantly reduced UC-associated elevated plasma lipopolysaccharide level, systemic inflammation and genotoxicity.β-CAR ameliorated UC-associated local and systemic damage in mice by acting on multiple targets.
Keywords: Ulcerative colitis; Inflammation; Oxidative stress; Fibrosis; DNA damage; β-Carotene

European adolescent ready-to-eat-cereal (RTEC) consumers have a healthier dietary intake and body composition compared with non-RTEC consumers by Nathalie Michels; Stefaan De Henauw; Christina Breidenassel; Laura Censi; Magdalena Cuenca-Garcí; Marcela Gonzalez-Gross; Frederic Gottrand; Lena Hallstrom; Anthony Kafatos; Mathilde Kersting; Yannis Manios; Ascension Marcos; Denes Molnar; Luis A. Moreno; Maria Plada; Michael Sjostrom; Béatrice Reye; Frank Thielecke; Jara Valtueña; Kurt Widhalm; Mandy Claessens (653-664).
This study aims to analyse the association of European adolescents’ ready-to-eat-cereal (RTEC) consumption frequency with their dietary intake by applying the concept of diet quality index and nutritional status.From the multi-centre European HELENA study, relevant data were available in 1,215 adolescents (12.5–17.5 years). RTEC consumption was identified from a food frequency questionnaire. A diet quality index, daily nutrient intakes and daily milk/yoghurt and fruit intake were calculated from two 24-h dietary recalls. BMI, waist and hip circumference and body fat were measured for body composition. Cross-sectional regression analyses were adjusted for sex, age, socio-economic status, city and breakfast skipping. Differences in sub-regions within Europe were explored. RTEC consumers showed a more favourable daily micronutrient intake (vitamin B2, B5, B7, D, calcium, phosphorus and potassium), a better diet quality index, more frequent fruit (57 vs. 51 %) and milk/yoghurt consumption (81.2 vs. 56 %) and less breakfast skipping (25.1 vs. 36.7 %). No differences in energy and macronutrient intake were observed. Daily RTEC consumers were 57 % less likely to be overweight than RTEC non-consumers but did not differ in glucose and lipid status (N = 387). This is the first comprehensive pan-European survey elucidating socio-demographic determinants of European adolescents’ RTEC consumption and indicating better dietary habits in RTEC consumers. The improved dietary profile was reflected in a more beneficial body composition. Our results have also shown the advantage of using an all-integrating diet quality index by capturing the diet complexity.
Keywords: Adolescents; Ready-to-eat-cereals; Diet quality index; Overweight; Glucose homoeostasis; Blood lipids

Erratum to: European adolescent ready-to-eat-cereal (RTEC) consumers have a healthier dietary intake and body composition compared with non-RTEC consumers by Nathalie Michels; Stefaan De Henauw; Christina Breidenassel; Laura Censi; Magdalena Cuenca-García; Marcela Gonzalez-Gross; Frederic Gottrand; Lena Hallstrom; Anthony Kafatos; Mathilde Kersting; Yannis Manios; Ascension Marcos; Denes Molnar; Luis A. Moreno; Maria Plada; Michael Sjostrom; Béatrice Reye; Frank Thielecke; Jara Valtueña; Kurt Widhalm; Mandy Claessens (665-666).

Maternal vitamin C deficiency during pregnancy results in transient fetal and placental growth retardation in guinea pigs by Janne Gram Schjoldager; Maya Devi Paidi; Maiken Marie Lindblad; Malene Muusfeldt Birck; Astrid Birch Kjærgaard; Vibeke Dantzer; Jens Lykkesfeldt; Pernille Tveden-Nyborg (667-676).
Recently, we reported that preferential maternal–fetal vitamin C (vitC) transport across the placenta is likely to be impaired by prolonged maternal vitC deficiency. Maintenance of a basal maternal vitC supply at the expense of the fetus may impair fetal development; however, the knowledge of vitC’s impact on intrauterine development is sparse. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of maternal vitC status on fetal and placental development in guinea pigs.Twenty pregnant Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs were randomized into four groups to receive diets either sufficient (918 mg/kg CTRL) or deficient (100 mg/kg DEF) in vitC. Cesarean sections at gestational day (GD) 45 or 56 allowed for fetal and placental measurements.At GD45, body, brain and placental weights were significantly reduced in DEF pups compared with CTRL (p < 0.05, p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). DEF plasma vitC levels were ~6 % of those of CTRL (p < 0.0001), and the fetal/maternal plasma vitC ratio was significantly reduced at GD56 in the DEF animals compared with controls (p = 0.035). Placental vitC levels were reduced in DEF animals (p < 0.0001) and the ascorbate oxidation ratio and glutathione elevated compared with controls (p < 0.0001).Although no clinical differences between CTRL and DEF pups were observed at GD56, the present data suggest that vitC plays a role in early fetal development. Although no clinical differences between CTRL and DEF pups were observed at GD56, the present data suggest that vitC plays a role in early fetal development. Low maternal vitC intake during pregnancy may compromise maternal weight gain, placental function and intrauterine development.
Keywords: Vitamin C deficiency; Guinea pigs; Placenta; Fetal development

Erratum to: Maternal vitamin C deficiency during pregnancy results in transient fetal and placental growth retardation in guinea pigs by Janne Gram Schjoldager; Maya Devi Paidi; Maiken Marie Lindblad; Malene Muusfeldt Birck; Astrid Birch Kjærgaard; Vibeke Dantzer; Jens Lykkesfeldt; Pernille Tveden-Nyborg (677-678).