European Journal of Nutrition (v.53, #5)

n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation: effects on infant and maternal outcomes by Rachele De Giuseppe; Carla Roggi; Hellas Cena (1147-1154).
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid, are, respectively, n-3 and n-6 family members and play an important role in fetal and infant growth and development. Pregnancy and lactation impose special nutritional needs for the mother-fetus situation. Since the LC-PUFA required by the fetus is supplied by preferential placental transfer of preformed LC-PUFA rather than their precursor, it has been hypothesized that additional maternal supply of LC-PUFA, especially DHA, during pregnancy may improve maternal and infant outcomes.To summarize evidences of the effect of n-3 LC-PUFA intake during pregnancy and lactation on maternal and infant outcomes in order to offer a comprehensive view of this issue that should be useful for clinical practice.Maternal n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation may reduce risk for early preterm birth >34 weeks and seems very promising for primary allergy prevention during childhood. On the contrary, there are not sufficient data proving that the consumption of oils rich in n-3 LC-PUFA during pregnancy optimizes child’s visual and neurodevelopment and reduces the risk for preeclampsia and perinatal depression; the implications of these findings remain to be elucidated.The implications of n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation on fetal development, maternal outcomes and later infant growth is worth being elucidated and is promising in its potential for a positive impact on fetal and maternal outcomes.
Keywords: Pregnancy; Docosahexaenoic acid; α-Linolenic acid; Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids

Pomegranate and its derivatives can improve bone health through decreased inflammation and oxidative stress in an animal model of postmenopausal osteoporosis by Mélanie Spilmont; Laurent Léotoing; Marie-Jeanne Davicco; Patrice Lebecque; Sylvie Mercier; Elisabeth Miot-Noirault; Paul Pilet; Laurent Rios; Yohann Wittrant; Véronique Coxam (1155-1164).
Recently, nutritional and pharmaceutical benefits of pomegranate (PG) have raised a growing scientific interest. Since PG is endowed with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, we hypothesized that it may have beneficial effects on osteoporosis. We used ovariectomized (OVX) mice as a well-described model of postmenopausal osteoporosis to study the influence of PG consumption on bone health. Mice were divided into five groups as following: two control groups sham-operated and ovariectomized (OVX CT) mice fed a standard diet, versus three treated groups OVX mice given a modified diet from the AIN-93G diet, containing 5.7 % of PG lyophilized mashed totum (OVX PGt), or 9.6 % of PG fresh juice (OVX PGj) or 2.9 % of PG lyophilized mashed peel (OVX PGp).As expected, ovariectomy was associated with a decreased femoral bone mineral density (BMD) and impaired bone micro-architecture parameters. Consumption of PGj, PGp, or PGt induced bone-sparing effects in those OVX mice, both on femoral BMD and bone micro-architecture parameters. In addition, PG (whatever the part) up-regulated osteoblast activity and decreased the expression of osteoclast markers, when compared to what was observed in OVX CT animals. Consistent with the data related to bone parameters, PG consumption elicited a lower expression of pro-inflammatory makers and of enzymes involved in ROS generation, whereas the expression of anti-inflammatory markers and anti-oxidant actors was enhanced.These results indicate that all PG parts are effective in preventing the development of bone loss induced by ovariectomy in mice. Such an effect could be partially explained by an improved inflammatory and oxidative status.
Keywords: Pomegranate; Nutritional prevention; Osteoporosis; Animal model; Inflammation; Oxidative stress

Goat milk supplemented with folic acid protects cell biomolecules from oxidative stress-mediated damage after anaemia recovery in comparison with cow milk by Javier Díaz-Castro; Ana Sánchez-Alcover; Silvia Hijano; María J. M. Alférez; Teresa Nestares; Miguel Moreno; Margarita S. Campos; Inmaculada López-Aliaga (1165-1175).
Fe overload is a common consequence of the anaemia treatment, increasing the oxidative stress and promoting the accumulation of damaged biomolecules, with the subsequently impairment of cell functions. Oxidative stress and the role of folic acid preventing free radical damage have been extensively studied; nevertheless, no studies are available about the influence of folic acid-supplemented goat milk consumption on the oxidative stress-mediated damage.The objective of the present study was to assess the influence of folic acid supplementation of goat milk- or cow milk-based diets, after Fe-overload treatment to palliate anaemia, on oxidative stress-mediated biomolecular damage in the liver, brain, erythrocytes, duodenal mucosa and plasma.Control and anaemic rats were fed goat milk- or cow milk-based diets, either with normal Fe or Fe overload (450 mg/kg), and normal folic acid (2 mg/kg) or folic acid supplemented (40 mg/kg) for 30 days.During chronic Fe repletion, background DNA damage was significantly lower in anaemic rats fed folic acid-supplemented goat milk-based diet, as revealed by tail DNA (%), and folic acid-supplemented goat milk also had a beneficial effect, reducing the extent of lipid peroxidation in liver, plasma, erythrocytes and especially in brain and duodenal mucosa. Furthermore, protein oxidative damage was lower in anaemic rat duodenal mucosa for all goat milk-based diets.Folic acid supplement in goat milk avoids the undesirable effects of Fe overload during anaemia recovery in all the tissues studied, especially in the liver and duodenal mucosa, which are the tissues with higher exposition to dietary Fe.
Keywords: Oxidative damage; Fe deficiency anaemia; Goat and cow milk; Fe overload; Folic acid supplementation

Diversity of oat varieties in eliciting the early inflammatory events in celiac disease by Marco Silano; Elena Penas Pozo; Francesca Uberti; Sara Manferdelli; Tamara Del Pinto; Cristina Felli; Andrea Budelli; Olimpia Vincentini; Patrizia Restani (1177-1186).
Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune enteropathy, triggered by dietary gluten. The only treatment is a strict gluten-free diet. Oats are included in the list of gluten-free ingredients by European Regulation, but the safety of oats in CD is still a matter of debate. The present study examined the capability of different oat cultivars of activating the gliadin-induced transglutaminase-2 (TG2)-dependent events in some in vitro models of CD. In addition, we compared this capability with the electrophoresis pattern of peptic–tryptic digests of the proteins of the oat cultivars.K562(S) cells agglutination, transepithelial electrical resistance of T84-cell monolayers, intracellular levels of TG2 and phosphorylated form of protein 42–44 in T84 cells were the early gliadin-dependent events studied.The results showed that the Nave oat cultivar elicited these events, whereas Irina and Potenza varieties did not. The ability of a cultivar to activate the above-described events was associated with the electrophoretic pattern of oat proteins and their reactivity to anti-gliadin antibodies.We found significant differences among oat cultivars in eliciting the TG2-mediated events of CD inflammation. Therefore, the safety of an oat cultivar in CD might be screened in vitro by means of biochemical and biological assays, before starting a clinical trial to definitely assess its safety.
Keywords: Celiac disease; Gluten-free diet; Oats; Avenins

Self-reported faster eating is positively associated with accumulation of visceral fat in middle-aged apparently healthy Japanese men by Kazuki Mochizuki; Masami Yamada; Rie Miyauchi; Yasumi Misaki; Nobuhiko Kasezawa; Kazushige Tohyama; Toshinao Goda (1187-1194).
Faster eating is positively associated with body mass index in apparently healthy Japanese populations. In the present study, we examined the associations between self-reported rate of eating and visceral and subcutaneous fat areas in apparently healthy middle-aged Japanese men.We conducted a cross-sectional study of men who participated in health checkups in Japan. We removed participants who were diagnosed with metabolic diseases by the time of their health checkups. A total of 320 subjects aged 30–64 years (mean ± standard deviation, 47.4 ± 8.6 years) were selected. We compared the associations between rate of eating and various clinical parameters including visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), which was adjusted by age and lifestyle factors such as alcohol intake, energy intake, smoking, and physical activity. Multivariate logistic regression analyses (MLRA) were performed with visceral fat area (cm2) as the dependent variable and independent variables that included self-reported rate of eating.Tukey’s multiple test following ANCOVA showed that self-reported rate of eating was positively associated with visceral fat area (cm2), but not with subcutaneous fat area (cm2). MLRA showed that the odds ratio of rate of eating for visceral fat area in tertile (T) 3 (>100 cm2) compared with T1 (≤70 cm2) was 1.99 (95 % CI 1.40–2.90, P < 0.01), and the association remained after adjustment for the subcutaneous fat area.The present results show that self-reported faster eating is positively associated with visceral fat accumulation, independently of subcutaneous fat accumulation, in apparently healthy Japanese men.
Keywords: Faster eating; Visceral fat; Apparently healthy Japanese men; Cross-sectional study

The α′ subunit of β-conglycinin and the A1–5 subunits of glycinin are not essential for many hypolipidemic actions of dietary soy proteins in rats by Qixuan Chen; Carla Wood; Christine Gagnon; Elroy R. Cober; Judith A. Frégeau-Reid; Stephen Gleddie; Chao Wu Xiao (1195-1207).
This study examined the effects of dietary soy protein (SP) lacking different storage protein subunits and isoflavones (ISF) on the abdominal fat, blood lipids, thyroid hormones, and enzymatic activities in rats.Weanling Sprague–Dawley rats (8 males and 8 females/group) were fed diets containing either 20 % casein without or with supplemental isoflavones or alcohol-washed SP isolate or SP concentrates (SPC) prepared from 6 different soy bean lines for 8 weeks.Feeding of diets containing SPC regardless of their subunit compositions significantly lowered relative liver weights, blood total, free, and LDL cholesterol in both genders (P < 0.05) and also reduced serum free fatty acids (FFA) and abdominal fat in females (P < 0.05) compared to the casein or casein + ISF diets. Dietary SPC significantly elevated the plasma free triiodothyronine (T3) in both genders and total T3 in females compared to the casein diet (P < 0.05). The SPC lacking β-conglycinin α′ and either the glycinin A1–3 or A1–5 subunits increased total T3 in males and reduced plasma enzymatic activities of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase compared to casein or casein + ISF diet (P < 0.05).Soy isoflavones were mainly responsible for the hypocholesterolemic effects and increased plasma free T3, whereas reduction in FFA, abdominal fat, liver weight and increased plasma total T3 were the effects of the soy proteins. Neither the α′ subunit of β-conglycinin nor the A1–5 subunits of glycinin are essential for the hypolipidemic properties of soy proteins.
Keywords: Soy protein; Isoflavones; Lipid profiles; Thyroid hormones; Rats

Effect of using repeated measurements of a Mediterranean style diet on the strength of the association with cardiovascular disease during 12 years: the Doetinchem Cohort Study by Marieke P. Hoevenaar-Blom; Annemieke M. W. Spijkerman; Hendriek C. Boshuizen; Jolanda M. A. Boer; Daan Kromhout; W. M. Monique Verschuren (1209-1215).
In cohort studies, often only one baseline measurement of dietary intake is available. This may underestimate the strength of the association with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The main objective is to compare the strength of the association of a Mediterranean style diet with CVD using one baseline measurement of diet versus three repeated measurements over a 10-year period.We used dietary and lifestyle data of three rounds of the Doetinchem Cohort Study. At baseline, 7,769 persons aged 20–65 years were examined. Diet was assessed with a 178 item validated food-frequency questionnaire and operationalized with the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) ranging from 0 to 9. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and repeated measurements of smoking, sports, total energy intake, and educational level.Comparing an MDS of ≥5.5–9 to an MDS of 0–<3.5, baseline MDS was associated with a 23 % lower risk [HR 0.77 (95 % CI 0.53–1.11)] and the updated mean with a 35 % lower risk [HR 0.65 (0.43–0.97)] of a composite of fatal CVD, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and stroke (composite CVD). For fatal CVD, baseline MDS was associated with a 13 % lower risk [HR 0.87 (0.36–2.07)] and the updated mean with a 56 % lower risk [HR 0.44 (0.19–1.05)].The strength of the association between a Mediterranean style diet and CVD is likely underestimated because most studies so far used only one baseline measurement.
Keywords: Repeated measurements; Mediterranean style diet; Cardiovascular diseases; Measurement error

Role of flavonoids on oxidative stress and mineral contents in the retinoic acid-induced bone loss model of rat by Nada Oršolić; Eleonora Goluža; Domagoj Đikić; Duje Lisičić; Kristijan Sašilo; Edi Rođak; Želko Jeleč; Maja Vihnanek Lazarus; Tatjana Orct (1217-1227).
Reactive oxygen species play a role in a number of degenerative conditions including osteoporosis. Flavonoids as phyto-oestrogens exert physiological effects against oxidative stress diseases. We developed a retinoic acid-induced bone loss model of rats to assess whether flavonoids and alendronate as positive control have role against oxidative stress and mineral contents in osteoporosis in vivo.Three-month-old female rats of the Y59 strain were given quercetin, chrysin, naringenin (100 mg kg−1) or alendronate (40 mg kg−1, a positive control) immediately before retinoic acid treatment (80 mg kg−1) once daily for 14 days by a single intragastric (i.g.) application. In the second part of the study, we assessed the effect of those flavonoids on the skeletal system of healthy rats using single i.g. application on the respective flavonoids during 14 days. Twenty-four hours after the treatment, we analysed bone mineral density and the total content of bone calcium and phosphorus in the femur, the geometric and physical characteristics of thigh bones and lipid peroxidation and glutathione levels of liver and kidney cells.All flavonoids improved the decrease in bone weight coefficient, the length and the diameter of the bone, the content of bone ash and calcium and phosphorus content induced by retinoic acid. Chrysin and quercetin showed promise as preventive agents. Flavonoids were superior to alendronate according to some criteria.These results suggest that the dietary flavonoids could reduce retinoic acid-induced oxidative stress and bone loss and that flavonoids may be useful therapeutics for prevention of skeletal diseases.
Keywords: Flavonoids; Retinoic acid; Bone loss prevention; Oxidative stress; Rat

Supplementing healthy rats with a high-niacin dose has no effect on muscle fiber distribution and muscle metabolic phenotype by Kristen Scholz; Anna Marie Kynast; Aline Couturier; Frank-Christoph Mooren; Karsten Krüger; Erika Most; Klaus Eder; Robert Ringseis (1229-1236).
It was recently shown that niacin prevents the obesity-induced type I to type II fiber switching in skeletal muscle of obese rats and favors the development of a more oxidative metabolic phenotype and thereby increases whole body utilization of fatty acids. Whether niacin also causes type II to type I fiber switching in skeletal muscle of healthy rats has not been investigated yet. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate whether niacin supplementation influences fiber distribution and metabolic phenotype of different skeletal muscles with a distinct type I-to-type II fiber ratio in healthy rats.Twenty-four male, 10-week-old Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly assigned into two groups of 12 rats each and fed either a control diet with 30 mg supplemented niacin/kg diet (control group) or a high-niacin diet with 780 mg supplemented niacin/kg diet (high-niacin group).After 27 days of treatment, the percentage number of type I fibers in rectus femoris, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior muscles was 5–10 % greater in the niacin group than in the control group, but did not differ between groups in soleus and vastus intermedius muscles. Transcript levels of genes encoding transcription factors regulating fiber switching, fiber-specific myosin heavy chain isoforms, and proteins involved in fatty acid utilization, oxidative phosphorylation, and angiogenesis did not differ between groups.The results show that niacin has only negligible effects on fiber distribution and its regulation as well as the metabolic phenotype of skeletal muscle in healthy rats.
Keywords: Niacin; Healthy rats; Fiber distribution; Fiber switching

This work determined the ability of hemp seed meal protein hydrolysate (HMH)-containing diets to attenuate elevated blood pressure (hypertension) development in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Effects of diets on plasma levels of renin and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) in the SHRs were also determined.Defatted hemp seed protein meal was hydrolyzed using simulated gastrointestinal tract digestion with pepsin followed by pancreatin, and the resulting HMH used as a source of antihypertensive peptides. The HMH was substituted for casein at 0.5 and 1.0 % levels and fed to young growing rats for 8 weeks (preventive phase) or adult rats for 4 weeks (treatment phase).Feeding of young growing SHRs with HMH resulted in attenuation of the normal increases in systolic blood pressure (SBP) with an average value of ~120 mmHg when compared to the casein-only group of rats (control) with a maximum of 158 mm Hg (p < 0.05). Feeding adult rats (SBP ~145 mmHg) with same diets during a 4-week period led to significant (p < 0.05) reduction in SBP to ~119 mmHg in comparison with 150 mmHg for the control rats. Plasma ACE activity was significantly (p < 0.05) suppressed (0.047–0.059 U/mL) in HMH-fed rats when compared to control rats (0.123 U/mL). Plasma renin level was also decreased for HMH-fed rats (0.040–0.054 μg/mL) when compared to control rats that were fed only with casein (0.151 μg/mL).The results suggest that HMH with strong hypotensive effects in SHRs could be used as a therapeutic agent for both the prevention and treatment of hypertension.
Keywords: Hemp seed meal; Protein hydrolysate; Spontaneously hypertensive rats; Systolic blood pressure; Plasma ACE activity; Plasma renin activity

Dietary patterns and risk of urinary tract tumors: a multilevel analysis of individuals in rural and urban contexts by Sonia Alejandra Pou; Camila Niclis; Aldo Renato Eynard; María del Pilar Díaz (1247-1253).
Bladder cancer is the fourth most frequently diagnosed malignancy in males in Córdoba, Argentina. The evidence regarding an association between urinary tract tumors and dietary factors still remains controversial. Argentina has particular dietary habits, which have already been associated with cancer occurrence.(a) To estimate the association of typical dietary patterns in Argentina on the occurrence of urinary tract tumors and (b) to assess the urban–rural context of residence and cancer occurrence dependency.A case–control study of urinary tract tumors (n = 123, 41/82 cases/controls) was performed in Córdoba Province (Argentina), 2006–2011. A two-level logistic regression model was fitted, taking into account rural–urban residence. An exhaustive probabilistic sensitivity analysis (bias analysis) was performed.Southern Cone pattern, characterized by red meat, starchy vegetables and wine consumptions (OR 1.75 high versus low level of adherence to the pattern), and a medium adherence to a high-sugar drinks pattern, with high loadings for soft drinks (OR 2.55), were associated with increasing risk of urinary tract tumors. High adherence to the latter pattern was inversely associated (OR 0.72). The occurrence of urinary tract tumors was also linked to place of residence (urban–rural), explaining more than 20 % of outcome variability and improving the above risk estimations.A high intake of red meat, starchy vegetables and wine, and a moderate intake of high-sugar drinks seem to be associated with increased risk of urinary tract tumors, with differences related to the context of residence.
Keywords: Urinary tract tumor; Dietary patterns; Multilevel model; Argentina

The effect of antioxidant vitamins E and C on cognitive performance of the elderly with mild cognitive impairment in Isfahan, Iran: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial by A. M. Alavi Naeini; I. Elmadfa; A. Djazayery; M. Barekatain; M. R. Aghaye Ghazvini; M. Djalali; A. Feizi (1255-1262).
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of vitamins E and C on cognitive performance among the elderly in Iran.About 256 elderly with mild cognitive impairment, aged 60–75 years, received 300 mg of vitamin E plus 400 mg of vitamin C or placebo daily just for 1 year.Demographic characteristics, anthropometric variables food consumption, cognitive function by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and some of the oxidative stress biomarkers were examined.Antioxidant supplementation reduced malondialdehyde level (P < 0.001) and raised total antioxidant capacity (P < 0.001) and glutathione (P < 0.01). The serum 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine remained unchanged (P < 0.4). After adjusting for the covariates effects, MMSE scores following 6- (25.88 ± 0.17) and 12-month antioxidant supplementation (26.8 ± 0.17) did not differ from control group (25.86 ± 0.18 and 26.59 ± 0.18, respectively). Despite significant improvement in most of the oxidative stress biomarkers, antioxidants’ supplementation was not observed to enhance cognitive performance. A large number of kinetic and/or dynamic factors could be suspected.
Keywords: Supplementation; The elderly; Mild cognitive impairment; Vitamin E; Vitamin C

Iron deficiency and anemia in iron-fortified formula and human milk-fed preterm infants until 6 months post-term by Monique van de Lagemaat; Eline M. Amesz; Anne Schaafsma; Harrie N. Lafeber (1263-1271).
An iron intake of >2 mg/kg/d is recommended for preterm infants. We hypothesized that human milk (HM)-fed preterm infants require iron supplementation after discharge, whereas iron-fortified formulae (IFF; 0.8–1.0 mg iron/100 ml) may provide sufficient dietary iron until 6 months post-term. At term age, 3 and 6 months post-term, ferritin (μg/l) was measured in 92 IFF-fed infants (gestational age (median (interquartile range)) 30.7 (1.4) weeks, birth weight 1,375 (338) gram) and 46 HM-fed infants (gestational age 30.0 (1.7) weeks, birth weight 1,400 (571) gram). Iron intake (mg/kg/d) between term age and 6 months post-term was calculated.Iron was supplemented to 71.7 % of HM-fed and 83.7 % of IFF-fed infants between term age and 3 months post-term and to 13 % of HM-fed and 0 % of IFF-fed infants between 3 and 6 months post-term. IFF-fed infants had an iron intake from supplements and formula of 2.66 (1.22) mg/kg/d between term age and 3 months post-term and 1.19 (0.32) mg/kg/d between 3 and 6 months post-term. At 3 and 6 months post-term, the incidence of ferritin <12 μg/l was higher in HM-fed compared to IFF-fed infants (23.8 vs. 7.8 % and 26.3 vs. 9.5 %, P < 0.02).This observational study demonstrates that ferritin <12 μg/l is more prevalent in HM-fed infants until 6 months post-term. This may be due to early cessation of additional iron supplementation. We speculate that additional iron supplementation is not necessary in preterm infants fed IFF (0.8–1.0 mg iron/100 ml), as they achieve ferritin ≥12 μg/l without additional iron supplements between 3 and 6 months post-term.
Keywords: Iron deficiency; Preterm infant; Iron supplements; Human milk; Formula

We investigated the long-term effect of pre-weaning nutrition on positive and/or adverse regulation of obesity risk and health complications in male Sprague–Dawley rats.Two experimental models were used in the present work: (1) To induce postnatal over- or normal nutrition, the litter size was adjusted to 4 (small litters—SL) and to 10 pups (normal litters—NL) in the nest, (2) in suckling pups at day 10, we used cross-fostering to identify the effect of altered dietary environment on their future body fat regulation, food intake, blood pressure, and the duodenal and jejunal alkaline phosphatase activity. After weaning, these control (NL, SL) and cross-fostered (NL–SL, SL–NL) groups were exposed to standard laboratory diet.On day 50, the SL in comparison with NL rats became heavier and displayed enhanced adiposity accompanied by significantly increased systolic blood pressure (19 %) and duodenal (16 %) and jejunal (21 %) alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity. The impact of pre-weaning over-nutrition of NL–SL pups was associated with long-lasting positive effect on obesity. In contrast, SL–NL rats submitted until weaning to the opposite normalized feeding condition on day 50 showed significantly decreased fat deposition (21 %), systolic blood pressure (20 %), and AP activity in duodenum and jejunum (14 %).These results contribute to a better understanding of how early-acquired dietary habits determine the attenuation or prevention of obesity development in later life and can provide some benefit for optimizing the future dietary strategies in young and adult obese individuals.
Keywords: Pre-weaning nutrition; Obesity; Health complications

Obesity represents a growing public health concern worldwide. The latest data in Switzerland rely on self-reported body mass index (BMI), leading to underestimation of prevalence. We reassessed the prevalence of obesity and overweight in a sample of the Swiss population using measured BMI and waist circumference (WC) and explored the association with nutritional factors and living in different linguistic-cultural regions.Data of 1,505 participants of a cross-sectional population-based survey in the three linguistic regions of Switzerland were analyzed. BMI and WC were measured, and a 24-h urine collection was performed to evaluate dietary sodium, potassium and protein intake.The prevalence of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity was 32.2, 14.2 and 33.6 %, respectively. Significant differences were observed in the regional distribution, with a lower prevalence in the Italian-speaking population. Low educational level, current smoking, scarce physical activity and being migrant were associated with an higher prevalence of obesity. Sodium, potassium and protein intake increased significantly across BMI categories.Obesity and overweight affect almost half of the Swiss adolescents and adults, and the prevalence appears to increase. Using BMI and WC to define obesity led to different prevalences. Differences were furthermore observed across Swiss linguistic-cultural regions, despite a common socio-economic and governmental framework. We found a positive association between obesity and salt intake, with a potential deleterious synergistic effect on cardiovascular risk.
Keywords: Obesity; Overweight; Abdominal obesity; Nutrition assessment; Cultural root; Salt intake

Comment: Dietary glycemic load and stroke: What is needed for stable risk assessment? by Marta Rossi; Federica Turati; Pagona Lagiou; Dimitrios Trichopoulos; Carlo La Vecchia; Antonia Trichopoulou (1293-1294).

Erratum to: Associations between energy intake, daily food intake and energy density of foods and BMI z-score in 2–9 year old European children by A. Hebestreit; C. Börnhorst; G. Barba; A. Siani; I. Huybrechts; G. Tognon; G. Eiben; L. A. Moreno; J. M. Fernández Alvira; H. M. Loit; E. Kovacs; M. Tornaritis; V. Krogh (1297-1298).