European Journal of Nutrition (v.53, #4)
Dietary patterns and the risk of depression in adults: a systematic review of observational studies by Corinna Rahe; Michael Unrath; Klaus Berger (997-1013).
Diet, a modifiable lifestyle factor, may influence the development of depression. We performed a systematic review of observational studies examining the relationship between dietary patterns and depression in healthy adults.A literature research was conducted searching various electronic databases up to May 2013. Study selection was based on predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Included studies were reviewed, and relevant data were extracted by two independent researchers. Due to a high level of heterogeneity, no meta-analysis was conducted. Therefore, main results are presented in a descriptive way.In total, 16 studies met the inclusion criteria and are part of this review. Dietary patterns most commonly found were traditional/healthy patterns, Western/unhealthy patterns and Mediterranean patterns. The available literature suggests a protective effect of healthy and Mediterranean patterns, as well as a potential positive association of Western patterns and depression. However, comparison of the included studies was difficult, due to differences in relevant study characteristics and methodological limitations.There are indications that dietary patterns may have influence on the onset of depression, but no firm conclusion can be drawn at this point. Further research is needed to clarify the diet–depression relationship, preferably in the form of methodological strong prospective studies using more homogeneous methods.
Keywords: Diet; Dietary patterns; Depression; Depressive symptoms; Systematic review; Observational studies
Bioavailability of phenolics from an oleuropein-rich olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract and its acute effect on plasma antioxidant status: comparison between pre- and postmenopausal women by R. García-Villalba; M. Larrosa; S. Possemiers; F. A. Tomás-Barberán; J. C. Espín (1015-1027).
Preclinical studies suggest a potential protective effect of oleuropein in osteoporosis, and one of the proposed mechanisms is the modulation of the oxidative stress. Oleuropein bioavailability and its effect on antioxidant status in pre- and postmenopausal women are unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the oral bioavailability of an olive leaf extract rich in oleuropein (40 %) and its effect on antioxidant status in postmenopausal women compared to premenopausal women.Premenopausal (n = 8) and postmenopausal women (n = 8) received 250 mg of olive leaf extract, blood samples (t = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16 and 24 h) were taken, and 24-h urine divided into five fractions was collected. Olive-leaf-extract-derived metabolites were analyzed in plasma and urine by HPLC-ESI-QTOF and UPLC-ESI-QqQ, and pharmacokinetics parameters were determined. Ferric reducing antioxidant ability and malondialdehyde levels were measured in plasma.Plasma levels of hydroxytyrosol glucuronide, hydroxytyrosol sulfate, oleuropein aglycon glucuronide and oleuropein aglycon derivative 1 were higher in postmenopausal women. MDA levels were significantly decreased (32 %) in postmenopausal women and inversely correlated with hydroxytyrosol sulfate levels. Postmenopausal women excreted less sulfated metabolites in urine than premenopausal women.Our results suggest that postmenopausal women could be a target population for the intake of olive phenolics in order to prevent age-related and oxidative stress-related processes such as osteoporosis.
Keywords: Malondialdehyde; Oleuropein; Hydroxytyrosol glucuronide; Pharmacokinetics; Bioavailability; Postmenopausal; Antioxidant
Adipose tissue fatty acid composition and colon cancer: a case–control study by A. Giuliani; F. Ferrara; M. Scimò; F. Angelico; L. Olivieri; L. Basso (1029-1037).
An increased dietary intake of fat, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), has been related to an increased risk of breast, prostate and colon cancers. Patients with and without colon cancer were tested for differences in their fatty stores composition.The fatty acid levels were determined by gas–liquid chromatography in adipose tissue samples, subcutaneous and visceral, obtained intra-operatively from 52 colon cancer and 50 nonneoplastic abdominal disease patients. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA, SNK test and Dunnet test. Differences in the composition of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, in visceral and in subcutaneous samples of colon cancer and nonneoplastic patients, were assessed.The sum of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, respectively, in visceral and in subcutaneous samples, was higher in neoplastic patients (p < 0.001). The sum of some n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), the dietary precursor linoleic acid (LA-18:2n-6), and their metabolites, gammalinolenic acid (GLA-18:3n-6) + dihomogammalinolenic acid (DGLA-20:3n-6) + arachidonic acid (AA-22:4n-6), was higher in subcutaneous fat of controls (p < 0.05). The samples from these patients had a fatty acid composition, both subcutaneous and visceral, with a higher content of alphalinolenic acid (ALA-18:3n-3) and stearidonic acid (SDA-18:4n-3) compared to neoplastic patients (p < 0.001). These had subcutaneous and visceral fat stores statistically higher in GLA, DGLA and AA (p < 0.001). Colon cancer patients had subcutaneous adipose stores higher in ALA and LA than visceral sites (p < 0.001).Fatty acids may be involved in colon carcinogenesis and there is a depot-specific impact on this process by visceral fat.
Keywords: Dietary lipids; Adipose tissue; Fatty acids; Polyunsaturated fatty acids; Colon cancer
Comparative evaluation of cow β-casein variants (A1/A2) consumption on Th2-mediated inflammatory response in mouse gut by Mohammad Raies Ul Haq; Rajeev Kapila; Rohit Sharma; Vamshi Saliganti; Suman Kapila (1039-1049).
Recently, apprehension has been raised regarding “A1/A2 hypothesis” suggesting relationship between consumption of A1 “like” variants of cow β-casein and various physiological disorders. The information available is based on either the human epidemiological data of milk consumption or in vitro trials on cell lines with β-casomorphin peptides. The direct scientific evidence establishing the link between consumption of A1/A2 “like” milk and health is scanty. Thus, under present investigation, in vivo trials in mice were undertaken to study the effect of feeding three genetic variants (A1A1, A1A2 and A2A2) of cow β-casein milk on gastrointestinal immune system as it is the first and foremost site of immunological interactions.Animals were divided into four groups for feeding with basal diet (control) and β-casein isolated from milk of genotyped (A1A1, A1A2 and A2A2) dairy animals, respectively. Gut immune response was analyzed by spectrophotometric assessment of MPO activity, quantitative sandwich ELISA of inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1 and IL-4), antibodies (total IgE, IgG, sIgA, IgG1 and IgG2a) and qRT-PCR of mRNA expression for toll-like receptors (TLR-2 and TLR-4). Histological enumeration of goblet cells, total leukocytes and IgA+ cells was also carried out.It was observed that consumption of A1 “like” variants (A1A1 and A1A2) significantly increased (p < 0.01) the levels of MPO, MCP-1, IL-4, total IgE, IgG, IgG1, IgG2a and leukocyte infiltration in intestine. TLR-2 and TLR-4 mRNA expression was also up-regulated (p < 0.01) on administration of A1 “like” variants. However, no changes in sIgA, IgA+ and goblet cell numbers were recorded on consumption of any of the β-casein variants.It is reasonable to conclude that consumption of A1 “like” variants of β-casein induced inflammatory response in gut by activating Th2 pathway as compared to A2A2 variants. The present study thus supports the purported deleterious impacts of consumption of A1 “like” variants of β-casein and suggests possible aggravation of inflammatory response for etiology of various health disorders.
Keywords: β-Casein variants; β-Casomorphins; Inflammation; Humoral response; Cytokines
Association of dietary type with fecal microbiota in vegetarians and omnivores in Slovenia by Bojana Bogovič Matijašić; Tanja Obermajer; Luka Lipoglavšek; Iztok Grabnar; Gorazd Avguštin; Irena Rogelj (1051-1064).
The purpose of this study was to discover differences in the human fecal microbiota composition driven by long-term omnivore versus vegan/lacto-vegetarian dietary pattern. In addition, the possible association of demographic characteristics and dietary habits such as consumption of particular foods with the fecal microbiota was examined.This study was conducted on a Slovenian population comprising 31 vegetarian participants (11 lacto-vegetarians and 20 vegans) and 29 omnivore participants. Bacterial DNA was extracted from the frozen fecal samples by Maxwell 16 Tissue DNA Purification Kit (Promega). Relative quantification of selected bacterial groups was performed by real-time PCR. Differences in fecal microbiota composition were evaluated by PCR–DGGE fingerprinting of the V3 16S rRNA region. Participants’ demographic characteristics, dietary habits and health status information were collected through a questionnaire.Vegetarian diet was associated with higher ratio (% of group-specific DNA in relation to all bacterial DNA) of Bacteroides–Prevotella, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Clostridium clostridioforme and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, but with lower ratio (%) of Clostridium cluster XIVa. Real-time PCR also showed a higher concentration and ratio of Enterobacteriaceae (16S rDNA copies/g and %) in female participants (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01) and decrease in Bifidobacterium with age (p < 0.01). DGGE analysis of the 16S rRNA V3 region showed that relative quantity of DGGE bands from certain bacterial groups was lower (Bifidobacterium, Streptococus, Collinsella and Lachnospiraceae) or higher (Subdoligranulum) among vegetarians, indicating the association of dietary type with bacterial community composition. Sequencing of selected DGGE bands revealed the presence of common representatives of fecal microbiota: Bacteroides, Eubacterium, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcaceae, Bifidobacterium and Lachnospiraceae. Up to 4 % of variance in microbial community analyzed by DGGE could be explained by the vegetarian type of diet.Long-term vegetarian diet contributed to quantity and associated bacterial community shifts in fecal microbiota composition. Consumption of foods of animal origin (eggs, red meat, white meat, milk, yoghurt, other dairy products, fish and seafood) and vegetarian type of diet explained the largest share of variance in microbial community structure. Fecal microbiota composition was also associated with participants’ age, gender and body mass.
Keywords: Vegetarian diet; Fecal microbiota; PCR–DGGE; Real-time PCR
Who uses multivitamins? A cross-sectional study in the Physicians’ Health Study by Susanne Rautiainen; Lu Wang; J. Michael Gaziano; Howard D. Sesso (1065-1072).
The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of self-reported multivitamin use in the Physicians’ Health Study (PHS) cohort and its association with various lifestyle, clinical, and dietary factors to improve our understanding of who tends to use multivitamins.Among 18,040 middle-aged and older men, information on lifestyle and clinical factors was collected from a baseline enrollment questionnaire, and supplement use and dietary factors were assessed through a food-frequency questionnaire. Four categories of multivitamin use were considered: (1) no supplement use, (2) use of multivitamins only, (3) use of multivitamins with other individual vitamin/mineral supplements, and (4) use of other supplements only. We used logistic regression to calculate multivariate odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals of taking multivitamin supplements for various lifestyle, clinical and dietary factors.Overall, 36 % of men reported current multivitamin use. Men who were older, current smokers, and currently using aspirin were 143, 43, and 74 % more likely to use multivitamins only. Men having a history of hypercholesterolemia were 16 % more likely to use multivitamins only. A 14, 24, and 26 % greater likelihood of using multivitamins was also observed among men consuming more fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and tea, respectively. Similar associations were observed for the likelihood of using multivitamins with other supplements; however, men with higher physical activity, history of cancer, hypertension, higher consumption of nuts, and lower consumption of red meat and coffee were also more likely to use multivitamins with other supplements (all P < 0.05).Self-reported multivitamin use associated with lifestyle, clinical and dietary factors may be an indicator of healthy behaviors. These results provide important information for the interpretation of the recent findings from the PHS II trial and consideration of results from observational studies of multivitamin use and chronic disease.
Keywords: Multivitamin; Cross-sectional; Cohort; Diet
Impact of a functionalized olive oil extract on the uterus and the bone in a model of postmenopausal osteoporosis by Annekathrin Martina Keiler; Oliver Zierau; Ricardo Bernhardt; Dieter Scharnweber; Nikolaos Lemonakis; Aikaterini Termetzi; Leandros Skaltsounis; Günter Vollmer; Maria Halabalaki (1073-1081).
The Mediterranean diet rich in fruits, vegetables and olive oil has been related to a lower osteoporosis incidence and accordingly to a reduced fracture risk. These observations might be mediated by the active constituents of extra virgin olive oil, and especially polyphenols. In the context of exploring the features of olive oil active constituents on postmenopausal osteoporosis, an extra virgin olive oil total polyphenolic fraction (TPF) was isolated and its effect on the bone loss attenuation was investigated.Female Lewis rats were ovariectomized and fed a diet enriched with a total phenolic extract of extra virgin olive oil in a concentration of 800 mg/kg diet.Oleocanthal, one compound of the polyphenolic fraction, showed a higher relative estrogen receptor binding affinity to the ERα compared to the ERβ. While the TPF only slightly induced the uterine wet weight (490.7 ± 53.7 vs. 432.7 ± 23, p = 0.058), TPF regulated estrogen response genes in the uterus (progesterone receptor, antigen identified by monoclonal antibody Ki67, complement C3). Comparing the quantified bone parameters, the oral TPF substitution did not attenuate the ovariectomy-induced bone loss.The administration of extra virgin olive oil polyphenols regulated uterine estrogen response marker genes in an E2-agonistic manner. The bone loss induced by estrogen ablation was not mitigated by treatment with the polyphenolic extract.
Keywords: Extra virgin olive oil; Osteoporosis; Polyphenolic fraction; Oleacein; Oleocanthal
The effect of iron and zinc supplementation and its discontinuation on liver antioxidant status in rats fed deficient diets by Joanna Kaluza; Dawid Madej; Anna Rusaczonek; Ewa Siedlecka; Barbara Pietruszka (1083-1092).
The aim was to investigate the effect of iron or combined iron/zinc supplementation on rat liver antioxidant status.The 6-week male Wistar rats were examined in 3 stages: (1) 4-week adaptation to the diets (C—control AIN-93M diet, D—iron deficient and R—with 50 % reduction in all vitamin and mineral amounts); (2) 4-week supplementation with the same regimen enriched with tenfold more iron or iron/zinc; (3) 2-week post-supplementation period (the same diets as in the stage I).Combined iron/zinc supplementation similarly to iron supplementation alone significantly (p values ≤ 0.05) increased the iron content in the liver in D and R rats after stages II and III. Moreover, iron/zinc supplementation compared to iron supplementation alone significantly decreased the liver concentration of 8-isoprostane (after stage II in D and after stage III in R rats), protein carbonyl groups (only after stage III in R rats) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (after stage II in R and after stage III in D and R rats). In rats fed R-type of diets after stage II hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity, but not glutathione peroxidation activity and total antioxidant capacity, was lower in iron and iron/zinc supplemented than in non-supplemented rats, whereas after stage III in iron/zinc supplemented SOD was lower and CAT activity was higher in comparison with non-supplemented and iron supplemented rats.The simultaneous iron/zinc supplementation can protect liver against peroxidative damage induced by high doses of iron during and after the intervention in rats fed iron-deficient diet and diet with reduced amounts of vitamins and minerals. The post-intervention observation is relevant because the effect may be delayed and visible only after this period.
Keywords: Iron; Zinc; Liver; Antioxidant status; Rats; Supplementation
Changes in body anthropometry and composition in obese adolescents in a lifestyle intervention program by Yi Ning; Shibing Yang; Ronald K. Evans; Marilyn Stern; Shumei Sun; Gary L. Francis; Edmond P. Wickham III (1093-1102).
Impact of lifestyle modification on obesity control during adolescence, a period of significant physical growth and development, is less quantitatively evaluated. Therefore, we investigated the impact of changes in reported energy intake and physical activity on anthropometrics and body composition in adolescents.Participants were obese adolescents aged 11–18 years. All of them have a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 95th percentile specific for age and gender according to the 2000 CDC Growth Charts. The intervention consists of supervised physical activity, structured nutrition education and dietary modification, and behavioral support in 6 months. Hundred and forty-five obese adolescents completed the study.Compared to baseline, significant reductions in body weight (−1.4 kg, p < 0.001) and BMI (−0.1 kg/m2, p < 0.001) were observed at 6 months. When compared to expected growth trajectories on the 2000 CDC Growth Charts, body weight and BMI were reduced by 3.6 kg and 1.5 kg/m2, respectively, in boys and 5.6 kg and 1.9 kg/m2 in girls. Age was inversely associated with changes in weight (β = −1.48 kg, p < 0.01) and BMI (β = −0.32 kg/m2, p = 0.03). There was a dose–response relationship between reduction in energy intake and weight loss. A decrease of 100 kcal/day was significantly associated with reductions in body weight 0.30 kg, BMI 0.09 kg/m2, and BMI Z score 0.01 (all p < 0.01). Physical activity was not significantly associated with changes in anthropometrics or body composition.Reduction in energy intake was a significant predictor of obesity reduction in these adolescents. A quantitative evaluation of adolescent weight loss programs should account for natural growth and development.
Keywords: Obesity; Intervention; Nutrition; Physical activity; Evaluation
Differential effects of high-carbohydrate and high-fat diets on hepatic lipogenesis in rats by Alessandra Ferramosca; Annalea Conte; Fabrizio Damiano; Luisa Siculella; Vincenzo Zara (1103-1114).
Hepatic fatty acid synthesis is influenced by several nutritional and hormonal factors. In this study, we have investigated the effects of distinct experimental diets enriched in carbohydrate or in fat on hepatic lipogenesis.Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups and fed distinct experimental diets enriched in carbohydrates (70 % w/w) or in fat (20 and 35 % w/w). Activity and expression of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic enzymes acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase were analyzed through the study with assessments at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Liver lipids and plasma levels of lipids, glucose, and insulin were assayed in parallel.Whereas the high-carbohydrate diet moderately stimulated hepatic lipogenesis, a strong inhibition of this anabolic pathway was found in animals fed high-fat diets. This inhibition was time-dependent and concentration-dependent. Moreover, whereas the high-carbohydrate diet induced an increase in plasma triglycerides, the high-fat diets determined an accumulation of triglycerides in liver. An increase in the plasmatic levels of glucose and insulin was observed in all cases.The excess of sucrose in the diet is converted into fat that is distributed by bloodstream in the organism in the form of circulating triglycerides. On the other hand, a high amount of dietary fat caused a strong inhibition of lipogenesis and a concomitant increase in the level of hepatic lipids, thereby highlighting, in these conditions, the role of liver as a reservoir of exogenous fat.
Keywords: Fatty acid synthesis; Mitochondrial citrate carrier; Lipogenic enzymes
Vitamin D is not linked to folate status and mRNA expression of intestinal proton-coupled folate transporter by C. Brandsch; J. Zibolka; M. Frommhagen; U. Lehmann; J. Dierkes; H. Kühne; F. Hirche; G. I. Stangl (1115-1122).
In vitro studies discovered intestinal proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) as a vitamin D hormone-responsive gene. In vivo effects of vitamin D on PCFT and folate status are currently not available.Three experiments were conducted. At first, vitamin D receptor knockout (VDR−/−) mice and corresponding wild-type (WT) mice were compared for their plasma and hepatic folate concentration and PCFT mRNA expression in intestinal mucosa. In a second experiment with rats, we analyzed the folate status of offspring in response to a maternal vitamin D-adequate (1,000 IU/kg) or vitamin D-deficient (0 IU/kg) diet that was fed for 11 weeks. Finally, the plasma folate concentration of healthy individuals was studied at baseline (in winter) and in response to an oral treatment for 8 weeks with 2,000 IU vitamin D3 per day or a placebo, respectively.Here, we show that folate status and intestinal PCFT mRNA abundance did not differ between the VDR−/− and the WT mice. No effect of vitamin D on folate status was also found in rat dams and their offspring, and plasma folate levels of individuals did not change in response to vitamin D.Current data from studies with model animals and humans provide no indication for a vitamin D effect on intestinal uptake and status of folate.
Keywords: Vitamin D; Folate; PCFT; VDR−/− mouse; Rat; Human
Effects of a healthy Nordic diet on plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in subjects with metabolic syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial (SYSDIET) by Lea Brader; Lars Rejnmark; Carsten Carlberg; Ursula Schwab; Marjukka Kolehmainen; Fredrik Rosqvist; Lieselotte Cloetens; Mona Landin-Olsson; Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir; Kaisa S. Poutanen; Karl-Heinz Herzig; Ulf Risérus; Markku J. Savolainen; Inga Thorsdottir; Matti Uusitupa; Kjeld Hermansen (1123-1134).
At northern latitudes, vitamin D is not synthesized endogenously during winter, causing low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of a healthy Nordic diet based on Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR) on plasma 25(OH)D and explored its dietary predictors.In a Nordic multi-centre trial, subjects (n = 213) with metabolic syndrome were randomized to a control or a healthy Nordic diet favouring fish (≥300 g/week, including ≥200 g/week fatty fish), whole-grain products, berries, fruits, vegetables, rapeseed oil and low-fat dairy products. Plasma 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone were analysed before and after 18- to 24-week intervention.At baseline, 45 % had vitamin D inadequacy (<50 nmol/l), whereas 8 % had deficiency (<25 nmol/l). Dietary vitamin D intake was increased by the healthy Nordic diet (P < 0.001). The healthy Nordic and the control diet reduced the prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy by 42 % (P < 0.001) and 19 % (P = 0.002), respectively, without between-group difference (P = 0.142). Compared with control, plasma 25(OH)D (P = 0.208) and parathyroid hormone (P = 0.207) were not altered by the healthy Nordic diet. Predictors for 25(OH)D were intake of vitamin D, eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA), docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), vitamin D supplement, plasma EPA and plasma DHA. Nevertheless, only vitamin D intake and season predicted the 25(OH)D changes.Consuming a healthy Nordic diet based on NNR increased vitamin D intake but not plasma 25(OH)D concentration. The reason why fish consumption did not improve vitamin D status might be that many fish are farmed and might contain little vitamin D or that frying fish may result in vitamin D extraction. Additional ways to improve vitamin D status in Nordic countries may be needed.
Keywords: Vitamin D; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; Healthy Nordic diet; Nordic nutrition recommendations; Metabolic syndrome
Comment to “Sugar-sweetened beverage and diet soda consumption and the 7-year risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle-aged Japanese men” by Cheng Chen (1135-1135).
Sugar-sweetened beverage and diet soda consumption and the 7-year risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle-aged Japanese men by M. Sakurai; K. Nakamura; K. Miura; T. Takamura; K. Yoshita; S. Y. Nagasawa; Y. Morikawa; M. Ishizaki; T. Kido; Y. Naruse; Y. Suwazono; S. Sasaki; H. Nakagawa (1137-1138).
Pubertal supplementation of lipotropes in female rats reduces mammary cancer risk by suppressing histone deacetylase 1 by Kyongshin Cho; Woo-Sik Choi; Courtney L. Crane; Chung S. Park (1139-1143).
The time from puberty to the first pregnancy is known to be important for a woman’s life-time breast cancer risk. Recent studies suggest that epigenetic mechanisms may involve pubertal maturation processes, which can affect the risk of breast cancer in later life. Epigenetic alterations are related to lipotropes (methionine, choline, folate, and vitamin B12), which are methyl donors and cofactors. However, the effects of pubertal supplementation of lipotropes in breast cancer remain largely unknown.Twenty female Sprague–Dawley rats, aged 6 weeks, were divided into two groups and fed a normal control diet or a lipotrope-fortified diet formulated to provide five times basal levels of lipotropes during puberty. All rats were injected intraperitoneally with N-nitroso-N-methylurea at 50 days of age to induce mammary tumors.Tumor multiplicity and tumor volume decreased significantly as a result of lipotrope supplementation. Interestingly, quantitative RT-PCR revealed significantly decreased expression of histone deacetylase 1 (Hdac1) and DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) genes in tumor tissues of the rats supplemented with lipotrope-fortified diet, suggesting that reduced risk of breast cancer can be attributed, at least in part, to decreased expression of these two genes.This study demonstrates that supplementation of lipotrope-fortified diet during puberty suppresses tumor growth, potentially through down-regulating Hdac1 and Dnmt1 gene expression. Our findings suggest that pubertal methyl diet plays an important role in the etiology of breast cancer, and further studies are warranted to develop preventative strategies against breast cancer.
Keywords: Lipotropes; Puberty; Breast cancer; Histone deacetylase 1; DNA methyltransferase 1
Erratum to: Effects of a healthy Nordic diet on plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in subjects with metabolic syndrome: a randomized, controlled trial (SYSDIET) by Lea Brader; Lars Rejnmark; Carsten Carlberg; Ursula Schwab; Marjukka Kolehmainen; Fredrik Rosqvist; Lieselotte Cloetens; Mona Landin-Olsson; Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir; Kaisa S. Poutanen; Karl-Heinz Herzig; Ulf Risérus; Markku J. Savolainen; Inga Thorsdottir; Matti Uusitupa; Kjeld Hermansen (1145-1145).