European Journal of Nutrition (v.53, #2)

Influencing factors on iodine content of cow milk by Gerhard Flachowsky; Katrin Franke; Ulrich Meyer; Matthias Leiterer; Friedrich Schöne (351-365).
Iodine is an essential trace element for humans and animals, and it is incorporated into the thyroid hormones such as thyroxine and triiodothyronine, which have multiple functions in energy metabolism and growth, but also as transmitter of nervous stimuli and as an important factor for brain development. Because of the small range between iodine requirements and the upper level for humans (between 1:2.5 and 3), the requirements should be met, but excesses should be avoided. One of the most important iodine sources for humans is milk of ruminants. Therefore, various influencing factors on the iodine content of milk of ruminants should be analyzed in the paper. The iodine content of milk depends on many factors, such as iodine content and level of iodine supplementation of feed, iodine source, iodine antagonists such as glucosinolates in the feed, farm management, teat dipping with iodine-containing substances, and milk processing in the dairy. The effects of some factors on the iodine content of milk are demonstrated and discussed. Feed iodine supplementation has the main effect on milk iodine. However, the iodine content of milk may vary considerably depending on many other influencing factors.As a consequence of preventive consumer protection, the European Food Safety Authority proposed a reduction in the iodine upper level for lactating ruminants from 5 to 2 mg/kg complete feed.
Keywords: Iodine; Milk; Iodine sources; Iodine levels; Antagonists; Teat dipping

Vitamin D supplementation, body weight and human serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D response: a systematic review by Armin Zittermann; Jana B. Ernst; Jan F. Gummert; Jochen Börgermann (367-374).
There is considerable variation in incremental circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels on vitamin D supplements, even when similar age groups and identical vitamin D doses are compared. We therefore aimed to investigate the importance of body weight for the dose–response relation in circulating 25OHD.We performed a systematic review of randomized placebo-controlled vitamin D supplementation trials in all age groups ≥10 years to clarify the influence of body weight and other parameters on incremental circulating 25OHD levels (difference between baseline and in-study values) in vitamin D-deficient and non-deficient individuals.We included 144 cohorts from 94 independent studies, published from 1990 to November 2012, in our systematic review. There was a logarithmic association between vitamin D dose per kg body weight per day and increment in circulating 25OHD. In multivariable regression analysis, vitamin D dose per kg body weight per day could explain 34.5 % of variation in circulating 25OHD. Additional significant predictors were type of supplement (vitamin D2 or vitamin D3), age, concomitant intake of calcium supplements and baseline 25OHD, explaining 9.8, 3.7, 2.4 and 1.9 %, respectively, of the variation in circulating 25OHD.This systematic review demonstrates that body weight is an important predictor of variation in circulating 25OHD in cohorts on vitamin D supplements. Our model provides an estimate of the daily vitamin D dose that is necessary for achieving adequate circulating 25OHD levels in vitamin D-insufficient or vitamin D-deficient individuals/cohorts with different body weights and ages.
Keywords: Vitamin D; Body weight; 25-Hydroxyvitamin D; Supplementation; Age; Calcium supplements

This study determined whether calcium co-ingestion potentiates postprandial GIP1–42 and GLP-1 concentrations in humans and the concomitant impact on insulin, appetite sensations and substrate metabolism.Ten healthy males consumed two energy- and macronutrient-matched meals in a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. The calcium content of the control meal was 3 mg/kg body mass, which was increased to 15 mg/kg body mass with calcium co-ingestion. Circulating concentrations of GIP1–42, GLP-1 and insulin were determined over a 180-min postprandial period, followed by 60 min of exercise. Visual analogue scales were used to determine subjective appetite sensations. Rates of energy expenditure and substrate (lipid and carbohydrate) oxidation were estimated using indirect calorimetry.Calcium co-ingestion resulted in a 47 % increase in GIP1–42, a 22 % increase in GLP-1 and a 19 % increase in insulin areas under the curve for the 120 min following consumption (all P < 0.05). Furthermore, appetite sensations were suppressed by calcium co-ingestion by 12 % (P = 0.034). No differences, however, were observed in substrate metabolism (P > 0.05).Ingestion of a high-calcium meal potentiates postprandial GIP1–42, GLP-1 and insulin concentrations in humans. Subjective appetite is also temporarily suppressed, although substrate metabolism is unaffected.
Keywords: Dairy; GIP; GLP-1; Incretin; Appetite; Lipid oxidation; Exercise

Changes in mineral status are associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity in obese patients following l-arginine supplementation by Joanna Suliburska; Paweł Bogdanski; Monika Szulinska; Danuta Pupek-Musialik; Anna Jablecka (387-393).
The aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term influence of l-arginine intake on mineral concentration in patients with obesity and to assess the changes in lipid serum levels, fat content, and insulin resistance that result.A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was conducted. 88 obese patients were randomly assigned to receive either 9 g of l-arginine or placebo daily, for 6 months. At baseline and after 6 months, selected anthropometrical measurements and blood biochemical analyses were performed and mineral levels were assessed. To assess insulin sensitivity, the gold-standard euglycemic clamp methodology was used.We found that 6 months of l-arginine supplementation resulted in significant increases in insulin sensitivity (Δ1.1 mg/kg/min, P < 0.01) and zinc levels (Δ1.5 μmol/L, P < 0.001). Moreover, a positive correlation between the change in zinc concentration in serum and the change in insulin sensitivity was observed (R = 0.80, P < 0.01). In the group of patients treated with l-arginine, a negative correlation between the change in zinc concentration in serum and the change in body fat content was noted (R = −0.38, P < 0.05). l-Arginine supplementation affects zinc status in obese patients. One beneficial influence is related to the improvements in insulin sensitivity.
Keywords: Minerals; Insulin sensitivity; Obesity; l-Arginine

Is heme iron intake associated with risk of coronary heart disease? A meta-analysis of prospective studies by Wei Yang; Bin Li; Xiao Dong; Xiao-Qiang Zhang; Yuan Zeng; Jian-Liang Zhou; Yan-Hua Tang; Jian-Jun Xu (395-400).
Heme iron may contribute to the development of atherosclerosis by catalyzing production of hydroxyl-free radicals and promoting low-density lipoprotein oxidation. However, epidemiologic findings regarding the association between heme iron intake and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association by carrying out a meta-analysis of prospective studies.Relevant studies were identified by using PubMed and EMBASE databases between January 1966 and April 2013 and also by manually reviewing the reference lists of retrieved publications. Summary relative risks (RRs) with corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using a random-effects model.Six prospective studies, which contained a total of 131,553 participants and 2,459 CHD cases, met the inclusion criteria. Combined results indicated that participants with higher heme iron intake had a 31 % increased risk of CHD, compared with those with lower intake (RR = 1.31, 95 % CI 1.04–1.67), with significant heterogeneity (P heterogeneity = 0.05, I 2 = 55.0 %). Excluding the only study from Japan (limiting to Western studies) yielded a RR of 1.46 (95 % CI 1.21–1.76), with no study heterogeneity (P heterogeneity = 0.44, I 2 = 0.0 %). The dose–response RR of CHD for an increase in heme iron intake of 1 mg/day was 1.27 (95 % CI 1.10–1.47), with low heterogeneity (P heterogeneity = 0.25, I 2 = 25.8 %). We observed no significant publication bias.This meta-analysis suggests that heme iron intake was associated with an increased risk of CHD.
Keywords: Heme iron; Prospective studies; Coronary heart disease; Meta-analysis

Liver metabolic/oxidative stress induces hepatic and extrahepatic changes in the expression of the vitamin C transporters SVCT1 and SVCT2 by Carlos Hierro; Maria J. Monte; Elisa Lozano; Ester Gonzalez-Sanchez; Jose J. G. Marin; Rocio I. R. Macias (401-412).
Owing to its ability to inactivate harmful radicals, vitamin C plays a key role in antioxidant defense. The bioavailability of this vitamin depends upon the nutritional intake and its uptake by cells, mainly through the sodium-dependent transporters SVCT1/Svct1 and SVCT2/Svct2 (human/rat). Here, we investigated the effect of liver metabolic/oxidative stress on the expression of these transporters in extrahepatic tissues.In Zucker rats, used here as a model of liver steatosis, Svct1-2 mRNA levels were similar in obese and lean animals, except for lung tissue, where Svct2 was up-regulated. Diabetes mellitus, developed by streptozotocin administration, was accompanied by a down-regulation of Svct1 in liver and kidney, together with a down-regulation of Svct2 in kidney and brain. Complete obstructive cholestasis due to bile duct ligation for 1 week induced a significant down-regulation of both Svct1 and Svct2 in ileum, whereas Svct2 was up-regulated in liver, and no significant changes in the expression of either transporter were found in kidney, brain or lung. In rat hepatoma Can-10 cells, bile acids, but not the FXR agonist GW4064, induced an up-regulation of Svct1 and Svct2. In human hepatoma Alexander cells transfected with FXR/RXRα/OATP1B1, neither GW4064 nor unconjugated or glycine-/taurine-conjugated major bile acids were able to up-regulate either SVCT1 or SVCT2.Pathological circumstances characterized by the presence of metabolic/oxidative stress in the liver induce different responses in the expression of ascorbic acid transporters in intrahepatic and extrahepatic tissues, which may affect the overall bioavailability and cellular uptake of this vitamin.
Keywords: Ascorbic acid; Cholestasis; Diabetes; Obesity

Adipose tissue remodeling in rats exhibiting fructose-induced obesity by Raffaella Crescenzo; Francesca Bianco; Paola Coppola; Arianna Mazzoli; Salvatore Valiante; Giovanna Liverini; Susanna Iossa (413-419).
To explore the effect of a fructose-rich diet on morphological and functional changes in white adipose tissue (WAT) that could contribute to the development of insulin resistance.Adult sedentary rats were fed a fructose-rich diet for 8 weeks. Glucose tolerance test was carried out together with measurement of plasma triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids and lipid peroxidation. In subcutaneous abdominal and intra-abdominal WAT, number and size of adipocytes together with cellular insulin sensitivity and lipolytic activity were assessed.Rats fed a fructose-rich diet exhibited a significant increase in plasma insulin, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids and lipid peroxidation, together with significantly increased body lipids and epididymal and mesenteric WAT, compared to controls. Mean adipocyte volume in subcutaneous abdominal WAT was significantly lower, while mean adipocyte volume in intra-abdominal WAT was significantly higher, in rats fed a fructose-rich diet compared to controls. A significant increase in larger adipocytes and a significant decrease in smaller adipocytes were found in intra-abdominal WAT in rats fed a fructose-rich diet compared to controls. Insulin’s ability to inhibit lipolysis was blunted in subcutaneous abdominal and intra-abdominal adipocytes from fructose-fed rats. Accordingly, lower p-Akt/Akt ratio was found in WAT in rats fed a fructose-rich diet compared to controls.Long-term consumption of high levels of fructose elicits remarkable morphological and functional modifications, particularly in intra-abdominal WAT, that are highly predictive of obesity and insulin resistance and that contribute to the worsening of metabolic alterations peculiar in a fructose-rich, hypolipidic diet.
Keywords: Fructose; White adipose tissue; Insulin resistance; Lipolysis; p-Akt

Grape seed extract suppresses MDA-MB231 breast cancer cell migration and invasion by Simona Dinicola; Alessia Pasqualato; Alessandra Cucina; Pierpaolo Coluccia; Francesca Ferranti; Rita Canipari; Angela Catizone; Sara Proietti; Fabrizio D’Anselmi; Giulia Ricci; Alessandro Palombo; Mariano Bizzarri (421-431).
Breast cancer remains a leading cause of mortality among women. In metastasis, cascade migration of cancer cells and invasion of extracellular matrix (ECM) represent critical steps. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), as well as metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9, strongly contribute to ECM remodelling, thus becoming associated with tumour migration and invasion. In addition, the high expression of cytoskeletal (CSK) proteins, as fascin, has been correlated with clinically aggressive metastatic tumours, and CSK proteins are thought to affect the migration of cancer cells. Consumption of fruits and vegetables, characterized by high procyanidin content, has been associated to a reduced mortality for breast cancer. Therefore, we investigated the biological effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on the highly metastatic MDA-MB231 breast cancer cell line, focusing on studying GSE ability in inhibiting two main metastatic processes, i.e., cell migration and invasion.After MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells stimulated with GSE migration and invasion were evaluated by means of trans-well assays and uPA as well as MMPs activity was detected by gelatin zymography. Fascin, β-catenin and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression were determined using western blot technique. β-Catenin localization was observed by confocal microscopy.We observed that high concentrations of GSE inhibited cell proliferation and apoptosis. Conversely, low GSE concentration decreased cell migration and invasion, likely by hampering β-catenin expression and localization, fascin and NF-κB expression, as well as by decreasing the activity of uPA, MMP-2 and MMP-9.These results make GSE a powerful candidate for developing preventive agents against cancer metastasis.
Keywords: Breast cancer; GSE; Invasion; Metalloproteinases

Retinol-binding protein 4 and insulin resistance are related to body fat in primary and secondary schoolchildren: the Ouro Preto study by Ana Paula Pereira Castro; Ana Paula Carlos Cândido; Roney Luiz de Carvalho Nicolato; Ivo Santana Caldas; George Luiz Lins Machado-Coelho (433-440).
Evidence suggests that plasma retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and insulin resistance are related to body fat (BF). We aimed to assess the relationship between RBP4 and insulin resistance with obesity in a mixed (skin color) cohort of the Brazilian population.A nested case–control study was conducted in 227 schoolchildren aged 7–14 years. Schoolchildren with a high BF percentage (% BF, ≥ 30 for girls and ≥ 25 for boys) were identified as the obese group (n = 137), and those with lower values were identified as the non-obese group (n = 90). Percentage of body fat (% BF) was determined by tetrapolar bioimpedance (Quantum II, RJL System), RBP4 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Immunology Consultants Laboratory), plasma fasting insulin by chemiluminescent immunoassay (Access® Immunoassay System) and insulin resistance by the homeostasis model insulin resistance (IRHOMA) index. Serum lipid profile and arterial blood pressure were evaluated.The significant independent risk factors associated with obesity were as follows: male sex, increased serum LDL-C, RBP4 and IRHOMA. Among children with higher RBP4, the association with obesity increased significantly (from 3.1 to 8.5) in the presence of insulin resistance, when compared to higher RBP4 and non-insulin resistance.IRHOMA and RBP4 showed significant associations with obesity and traditional CVD risk factors. They might therefore be used as a marker for CVD risk and have clinical implications in the development of comorbidities associated with obesity.
Keywords: Body fat; Insulin resistance; Retinol-binding protein 4; Schoolchildren

Low iron status as a factor of increased bone resorption and effects of an iron and vitamin D-fortified skimmed milk on bone remodelling in young Spanish women by Laura Toxqui; Ana M. Pérez-Granados; Ruth Blanco-Rojo; Ione Wright; Concepción de la Piedra; M. Pilar Vaquero (441-448).
This study aimed to determine whether there is a relationship between iron status and bone metabolism, and to compare the effects of the consumption, as part of the usual diet, of an iron or iron and vitamin D-fortified skimmed milk on bone remodelling in iron-deficient women.Young healthy iron-deficient or iron-sufficient women (serum ferritin ≤30 ng/mL or >30 ng/mL, respectively) were recruited. Iron-deficient women were assigned to a nutritional intervention consisting of a randomised, controlled, double-blind, parallel design trial of 16 weeks during winter. They consumed, as part of their usual diet, an iron (Fe group, n = 54) or iron and vitamin D-fortified (Fe+D group, n = 55) flavoured skimmed milk (iron, 15 mg/day; vitamin D3, 5 μg/day, 200 IU). The iron-sufficient women followed their usual diet without supplementation (R group, n = 56). Dietary intake, body weight, iron biomarkers, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), parathyroid hormone (PTH), procollagen-type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), and aminoterminal telopeptide of collagen I (NTx) were determined.Negative correlations were found between baseline log-ferritin and log-NTx (p < 0.001), and between transferrin and P1NP (p = 0.002). Serum 25OHD increased (from 62 ± 21 to 71 ± 21 nmol/L, mean ± SD, p < 0.001) while P1NP and NTx decreased in Fe+D during the assay (p = 0.004 and p < 0.001, respectively). NTx was lower in Fe+D compared to Fe at week 8 (p < 0.05) and was higher in Fe and Fe+D compared to R throughout the assay (p < 0.01). PTH did not show changes.Iron deficiency is related with higher bone resorption in young women. Consumption of a dairy product that supplies 5 μg/day of vitamin D3 reduces bone turnover and increases circulating 25OHD to nearly reach an optimal vitamin D status, defined as 25OHD over 75 nmol/L.
Keywords: Bone turnover markers; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; Vitamin D deficiency; Iron deficiency; Fortified food; Menstruating women

This study determined the effects of long-term d-galactose (DG) injection on the lung pro-inflammatory and fibrotic status and whether fructo-oligosaccharide (FO) could attenuate such effects.Forty Balb/cJ mice (12 weeks of age) were divided into four groups: control (s.c. saline) (basal diet), DG (s.c. 1.2 g DG/kg body weight) (basal diet), DG + FO (FO diet, 2.5 % w/w FO), and DG + E (vitamin E diet, α-tocopherol 0.2 % w/w) serving as an antioxidant control group. These animals were killed after 49 day of treatments. Another group of naturally aging (NA) mice without any injection was killed at 64 weeks of age to be an aging control group. d-galactose treatment, generally similar to NA, increased the lung pro-inflammatory status, as shown in the IL-6 and IL-1β levels and the expression of phospho-Jun and phospho-JNK, and the fibrotic status as shown in the hydroxyproline level compared to the vehicle. FO diminished the DG-induced increases in the lung IL-1β level and expressions of total Jun, phospho-JNK, and attenuated DG effects on lung IL-6 and hydroxyproline, while α-tocopherol exerted anti-inflammatory effects on all parameters determined. FO, as well as α-tocopherol, modulated the large bowel ecology by increasing the fecal bifidobacteria and cecal butyrate levels compared with DG. d-galactose treatment mimicked the lung pro-inflammatory status as shown in the NA mice. FO attenuated the DG-induced lung pro-inflammatory status and down-regulated JNK/Jun pathway in the lung, which could be mediated by the prebiotic effects and metabolic products of FO in the large intestine.
Keywords: d-Galactose; Fructo-oligosaccharide; Pro-inflammatory cytokines; JNK/Jun pathway; Lung

The aim was to investigate both individual and synergistic effects of quercetin-3-O-β-glucoside (Q3G) and fructooligosaccharide (FOS) on indices of metabolic syndrome and plasma total cholesterol level with potential mechanisms of action.Five groups of rats were fed a dextrin-based diet as the normal reference group, or sucrose-based (S) diets with 0.3 % Q3G, 5 % FOS, or 0.3 % Q3G + 5 % FOS (Q3G + FOS) for 48 days. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were conducted on days 0, 14, 28, and 45, and adipose tissue and aortic blood were collected on day 48. Effects of Q3G and FOS on portal GLP-1 secretion were separately examined using rats after ileal administration.Abdominal fat weight reduced in FOS-fed groups. Blood glucose levels of the Q3G + FOS group at 60 min in OGTT and HOMA-IR (0.25 ± 0.03 vs 0.83 ± 0.12 on day 45) were clearly lower in the Q3G + FOS group than in S group throughout the experimental period. Muscle Akt phosphorylation was enhanced only in the Q3G group. The plasma quercetin was largely increased by FOS feeding on day 48 (18.37 ± 1.20 with FOS, 2.02 ± 0.30 without FOS). Plasma total cholesterol levels in the Q3G + FOS group (3.10 ± 0.12, P < 0.05 on day 45) were clearly suppressed compared to the S group (4.03 ± 0.18). GLP-1 secretion was enhanced in Q3G + FOS group than in Q3G or FOS group.Q3G + FOS diet improved glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and total cholesterol level with increasing GLP-1 secretion and a higher level of blood quercetin. Q3G + FOS may reduce the risk of T2DM.
Keywords: Fructooligosaccharide; Quercetin-3-O-β-glucoside; Insulin sensitivity; Plasma total cholesterol

Nicotinic acid is one of the older drugs used to treat hyperlipidemia, the greatest risk factor of coronary heart disease. Nicotinic acid is also a precursor of the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). In mammals, α-amino-β-carboxymuconate-ε-semialdehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD) plays a key role in NAD biosynthesis from tryptophan. However, the relationship between ACMSD and cholesterol metabolism has not been clarified enough yet. The present study was performed to make clear the relationship between ACMSD and cholesterol metabolism using hypercholesterolemic rats and rat primary hepatocytes.Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet containing cholesterol for 10 days to induce hypercholesterolemia. The NAD levels in the plasma and liver and hepatic ACMSD activity were determined. In vitro study, the expression of ACMSD and the transcriptional factors that regulate cholesterol metabolism were determined using rat primary hepatocytes treated with cholesterol and 25-hydroxycholesterol or simvastatin, a statin medication, by quantitative real-time PCR analysis and Western blotting analysis.The hepatic NAD level of the hypercholesterolemic group was significantly higher than the control, and the hepatic ACMSD activity of this group was significantly suppressed. There was a significant negative correlation between the hepatic ACMSD activity and liver cholesterol levels. Additionally, in primary rat hepatocytes treated with cholesterol and 25-hydroxycholesterol or simvastatin, ACMSD gene and protein expression was subjected to sterol-dependent regulation. This gene expression changed in parallel to sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-2 expression.These results provide the first evidence that ACMSD is associated with cholesterol metabolism, and ACMSD gene expression may be upregulated by SREBP-2.
Keywords: NAD; Tryptophan; Amino carboxymuconate semialdehyde decarboxylase; Hypercholesterolemia; Cholesterol; Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α (HNF-4α); Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2)

Effect of green tea on postprandial antioxidant capacity, serum lipids, C-reactive protein and glucose levels in patients with coronary artery disease by Antonios E. Koutelidakis; Loukianos Rallidis; Katerina Koniari; Demosthenes Panagiotakos; Michael Komaitis; Antonis Zampelas; Maria Anastasiou-Nana; Maria Kapsokefalou (479-486).
Cardiovascular risk factors have been identified in the postprandial state, particularly in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Tea consumption has been linked to cardiovascular risk reduction, but the beneficial effect of tea has not been investigated under postprandial conditions. The objective was to examine the effect of green tea on postprandial levels of plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC), serum lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP) and glucose in patients with CAD.In a randomized controlled, parallel design with 2 arms, 43 patients with CAD were assigned to consume breakfast consisting of bread, butter and 330 ml water or tea (4.5 g green tea/330 ml, providing approximately 400 mg catechins). Blood samples were drawn immediately before and 1.5, 3 and 5 h after breakfast. TAC was measured in plasma with the ferric reducing antioxidant power of plasma and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assays. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides, glucose, CRP, uric acid and pancreatic lipase levels were measured in serum.Tested biomarkers did not differ between tea and water group at baseline, 1.5, 3 and 5 h (P > 0.05) postprandially. However, TAC increased 1.5 and 3 h after consumption of breakfast with tea (P < 0.005), but no change was observed after consumption of breakfast with water. Serum triglycerides levels significantly increased 3 h after breakfast with water (P = 0.031), but not after breakfast with tea. Serum uric acid decreased 1.5 h after breakfast with tea (P = 0.038). Pancreatic lipase, CRP, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C and glucose levels remained unchanged after breakfast with tea at any time point (P > 0.05).Tea consumption did not affect selected biomarkers at any postprandial time point in patients with CAD.
Keywords: Coronary artery disease; Postprandial; Green tea; Total antioxidant capacity; Serum lipids; Glucose; CRP

Iodine fortification programs have been applied in many iodine deficient regions. Iodine excess is also unfavourable, and it is recommended to monitor iodine status by measuring urinary iodine concentration (UIC). The number of samples needed in such monitoring depends on the variation in UIC. However, it is not known if variation in UIC differs according to iodine levels.We aimed to describe the effect of an iodisation program on the individual and group-based variation in UIC in spot urine samples. Group 1 (G1, n = 16) was studied before, and group 2 (G2, n = 21) was studied after an iodine fortification program was implemented. Individual urine samples were collected monthly for one year, 13 samplings.G1s (207 samples) median (interquartile range) UIC was 50 (37–67) μg/L, and G2 (265 samples) was 98 (69–139) μg/L. Median individual coefficient of variation (CV) was 38 % in G1 and 40 % in G2 (p = 0.55), whereas the group-based CV was 50 % in G1 and 53 % in G2. No trend was seen between mean UIC and variation in UIC, neither at the individual (p = 0.36) nor at the group level (p = 0.43). Based on data from both groups, approximately 100 samples were needed to reliably estimate the UIC in a population.In two groups studied before and after an iodine fortification program was implemented and with different UIC levels, variation in UIC was comparable both at the individual level and according to UIC level. When mild iodine deficiency is corrected, the number of samples needed to reliably estimate the UIC in a population is unaffected.
Keywords: Iodine; Iodine intake; Urinary iodine excretion; Urinary iodine concentration; Iodine fortification; Fortification; Variation; Population; Thyroid hormones

The objective was to compare isocaloric high-protein (HP) test meals with normal-protein (NP) test ones on satiety and ghrelin in human being.Systematic searches were conducted by using PubMed, Cochrane library, EMBASE, and HighWire Press to identify randomized, crossover trials that investigated the acute effects of isocalorically prescribed HP versus NP test meals on satiety and ghrelin.Pooled analyses showed that subjects with HP test meals had a significantly higher acute satiety area under the curve (AUC) than those with NP test meals (P < 0.001). Conversely, the former had a markedly lower level of acute ghrelin at 180 min as well as acute glucose AUC, although they had a notably higher glucose at 180 min (P = 0.008).The meta-analysis showed that the acute consumption of HP did produce more satiety. In addition, relative to NP test meals, HP test ones may be useful in regulating postprandial glucose, whereas a significantly higher preprandial glucose combined with a lower concentration of ghrelin may contribute to the decrease in ad libitum caloric intake.
Keywords: High protein; Ghrelin; Satiety

In vitro investigation of the bioaccessibility of carotenoids from raw, frozen and boiled red chili peppers (Capsicum annuum) by Alessandro Pugliese; Yvonne O’Callaghan; Rosa Tundis; Karen Galvin; Francesco Menichini; Nora O’Brien; Monica Rosa Loizzo (501-510).
Carotenoid-rich foods are associated with antioxidant activity and the ability to alleviate chronic diseases.The present study investigated the effect of processing on the content and bioaccessibility of carotenoids from 13 cultivars of red chili pepper (Capsicum annuum).Carotenoids in chili peppers were analyzed before an in vitro digestion process. The portion of carotenoid transferred to the micelle fraction (bioaccessibility) was also quantified.β-Carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, capsanthin and antheraxanthin were the most abundant carotenoids. Zeaxanthin, violaxanthin, neoxanthin and lutein were detected at lower concentrations. In general, freezing and boiling reduced carotenoid contents. Capsanthin and zeaxanthin had the highest bioaccessibility at an average value from 36 to 40 %, followed by antheraxanthin (26 %). Bioaccessibility of β-cryptoxanthin, violaxanthin and β-carotene was lower, averaging 6.1, 4.8 and 4.0 %, respectively. Neoxanthin and lutein were not detected in micelles. Freezing increased the bioaccessibility of capsanthin, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin and violaxanthin; β-cryptoxanthin bioaccessibility increased and capsanthin and zeaxanthin bioaccessibility decreased following boiling.Differences in the contents and bioaccessibility of carotenoids in 13 C. annuum cultivars and between the processed methods were herein evidenced.
Keywords: Digestion; Phytochemicals; Vegetables; HPLC; Domestic processing

Caffeine intake and risk of basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin in an 11-year prospective study by Kyoko Miura; Maria Celia B. Hughes; Adèle C. Green; Jolieke C. van der Pols (511-520).
Caffeine may repair skin damage induced by excessive exposure to ultraviolet light. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between caffeine intake and incidence of basal cell (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We also assessed the associations between coffee consumption and incidence of these skin cancers.Caffeine intake and consumption of coffee were estimated from food frequency questionnaires assessed in 1992, 1994, and 1996 among 1,325 randomly selected adult residents of a subtropical Australian community. All histologically confirmed tumours of BCC and SCC occurring between 1997 and 2007 were recorded. Associations with BCC and SCC were assessed using Poisson and negative binomial regression models and were adjusted for confounders including skin type and indicators of past sun exposure.There was no association between total caffeine intake and incidence of BCC or SCC. Participants with prior skin cancers, however, had a 25 % lower risk of BCC if they were in the highest tertile of total caffeine intake (equivalent to daily consumption of four cups of regular coffee) compared with the lowest tertile (multivariable RR 0.75; 95 % CI 0.57–0.97, P trend = 0.025). There was no dose–response relationship with SCC. Consumption of neither caffeinated nor decaffeinated coffee was associated with BCC or SCC.Among people with prior skin cancers, a relatively high caffeine intake may help prevent subsequent BCC development. However, caffeine intake appears not to influence the risk of SCC.
Keywords: Basal cell carcinoma; Squamous cell carcinoma; Non-melanoma skin cancer; Caffeine; Coffee; Prospective study

Chemical composition of polyphenols extracted from strawberry pomace and their effect on physiological properties of diets supplemented with different types of dietary fibre in rats by Monika Kosmala; Zenon Zduńczyk; Krzysztof Kołodziejczyk; Elżbieta Klimczak; Jerzy Juśkiewicz; Przemysław Zduńczyk (521-532).
The objective of this study was to establish the composition of polyphenolic preparations obtained from industrial strawberry pomace with two methods of extraction: the water and the water-alcoholic one and then to analyse their effects in the gastrointestinal tract depending on the composition of dietary fibre—cellulose or fructooligosaccharides (FOS).Freeze-dried water extract (PTW), containing 5.1 % of ellagic acid, 0.2 % of proanthocyanidins, and soluble carbohydrates as a major part, and water–alcohol extract (PTE), containing 17.1 % of ellagic acid and 10.9 % of proanthocyanidins, were administered, in the equivalent quantity of 0.06 % of ellagic acid, to 4- to 8-week-old rats (8 animals per group), as a component of modified AIN-93 diets containing 5 % of cellulose or FOS.The addition of strawberry pomace extracts had no effect on either the diet intake or the body weight of experimental rats. Both extracts, similarly to FOS, beneficially reduced the activity of β-glucuronidase in caecal digesta, with the PTW effect being significantly higher than that of PTE (7.59 vs. 9.20 μmol/h/g, P = 0.001). In comparison with PTE, the PTW extract significantly increased the caecal digesta mass (1.45 vs. 1.27 k/kg BW) and the total production of SCFA (86.1 vs. 71.4 μmol/100 g BW). The extract enhanced the physiological effect of FOS by inhibiting the activity of β-glucuronidase, increasing the caecal digesta mass and SCFA production. Such an effect was not recorded in the case of the PTE preparation.The addition of strawberry pomace extracts affected the activity of certain enzymes of intestinal microflora and its most important products.
Keywords: Ellagitannins; Ellagic acid; Proanthocyanidins; Strawberry pomace

Agar contains a high amount of soluble fibre and has been shown to delay gastric emptying (GE) without impacting on glycaemic response (GR). The current study aimed to further the limited data on the effect of agar on metabolism by assessing the effects on GE and GR as well as appetite- and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT).In this randomized control trial, eleven healthy volunteers were tested on two occasions following an overnight fast. Following baseline and resting measurements, volunteers were either fed a fruit-flavoured drink (liquid) or consumed a fruit-flavoured jelly (jelly). The two were exactly the same in composition except the jelly contained 4 g of agar crystals. Both contained 50 g of available carbohydrate. DIT was measured using indirect calorimetry, GE using the 13C sodium acetate breath test, appetite using visual analogue scale and GR using finger prick blood samples.The jelly significantly delayed GE across all time points—latency phase (p = 0.07), lag phase (p = 0.04), half-time (p < 0.0001), ascension time (p = 0.025). The jelly also increased all appetite parameters—hunger (p = 0.006), fullness (p = 0.035), desire to eat (p = 0.03) and prospective consumption (p = 0.011). However, there were no significant differences in either GR or postprandial DIT between the liquid and jelly.Agar delays GE and increases appetite but does not change GR or DIT most probably due to the increase in viscosity caused by the agar jelly.
Keywords: Jelly; Appetite; Gastric emptying; Glycaemic response

Eicosapentaenoic acid attenuated oxidative stress-induced cardiomyoblast apoptosis by activating adaptive autophagy by Hsiu-Ching Hsu; Ching-Yi Chen; Chun-Hsien Chiang; Ming-Fong Chen (541-547).
Recently, several large, randomized clinical trials have proven the benefits of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in cardiovascular prevention. However, the precise protective mechanisms of EPA for heart disease are still controversial. In this study, we evaluate the possible protective effects of EPA, especially the role of autophagy, against cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by oxidative stress.H9C2 myocardioblasts were incubated with 80 μM EPA for 24 h and then exposed to 400 μM of hydrogen peroxide for 3 h. Autophagic response, lysosome function, and apoptosis were analyzed at the end of the experiment.Preincubation of EPA significantly inhibited apoptosis and increased cell viability for H9C2 cells under oxidative stress. The effects of EPA on apoptosis and cell viability were suppressed by 3-MA treatment (autophagic inhibitor). Oxidative stress decreased Beclin 1 protein expression, increased the ratio of LC3II/LC3I, and reduced the formation of acid organelles, whereas the preincubation of EPA abrogated the negative effect of oxidative stress on H9C2 by mediating the autophagic response. Inhibiting autophagy by 3-methyladenine reversed the EPA effect significantly by increasing the ratio of LC3II–LC3I. Treatment with 3-MA did not alter the increment of acid organelles by EPA preincubation. In addition, EPA restored the phosphorylation of Akt activated by H2O2 treatment and induced the phosphorylation of AMPK in H9C2 cells under oxidative stress.EPA attenuated oxidative stress-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by activating an adaptive autophagic response.
Keywords: Eicosapentaenoic acid; H9C2 myocardioblasts; Autophagy; Apoptosis

Validity of food frequency questionnaire-based estimates of long-term long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake by Alice Wallin; Daniela Di Giuseppe; Ann Burgaz; Niclas Håkansson; Tommy Cederholm; Karl Michaëlsson; Alicja Wolk (549-555).
To evaluate how long-term dietary intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFAs), estimated by repeated food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) over 15 years, is correlated with LCn-3 PUFAs in adipose tissue (AT).Subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained in 2003–2004 (AT-03) from 239 randomly selected women, aged 55–75 years, after completion of a 96-item FFQ (FFQ-03). All participants had previously returned an identical FFQ in 1997 (FFQ-97) and a 67-item version in 1987–1990 (FFQ-87). Pearson product-moment correlations were used to evaluate associations between intake of total and individual LCn-3 PUFAs as estimated by the three FFQ assessments and AT-03 content (% of total fatty acids).FFQ-estimated mean relative intake of LCn-3 PUFAs (% of total fat intake) increased between all three assessments (FFQ-87, 0.55 ± 0.34; FFQ-97, 0.74 ± 0.64; FFQ-03, 0.88 ± 0.56). Validity, in terms of Pearson correlations between FFQ-03 estimates and AT-03 content, was 0.41 (95 % CI 0.30–0.51) for total LCn-3 PUFA and ranged from 0.29 to 0.48 for individual fatty acids; lower correlation was observed among participants with higher percentage body fat. With regard to long-term intake estimates, past dietary intake was also correlated with AT-03 content, with correlation coefficients in the range of 0.21–0.33 and 0.21–0.34 for FFQ-97 and FFQ-87, respectively. The correlations were improved by using average estimates from two or more FFQ assessments. Exclusion of fish oil supplement users (14 %) did not alter the correlations.These data indicate reasonable validity of FFQ-based estimates of long-term (up to 15 years) LCn-3 PUFA intake, justifying their use in studies of diet-disease associations.
Keywords: Adipose tissue; Dietary assessment; Food frequency questionnaire; Long-chain n-3 fatty acids; Validation

Traditional dietary pattern of South America is linked to breast cancer: an ongoing case–control study in Argentina by Natalia Tumas; Camila Niclis; Laura R. Aballay; Alberto R. Osella; María del Pilar Díaz (557-566).
Several studies have shown the effect of dietary patterns on breast cancer risk, but none has been conducted in Argentina. The aim of this study was to extract dietary patterns from Food Frequency Questioner, to estimate their effect on breast cancer occurrence while taking into account aggregation factors (family history of breast cancer) and to explore the sensitivity of the estimates to changes in the assumptions.A principal component exploratory factor analysis was applied to identify dietary patterns, which were then included as covariates in a multilevel logistic regression. Family history of BC was considered as a clustering variable. A multiple probabilistic sensitivity analysis was also performed.The study included 100 cases and 294 controls. Four dietary patterns were identified. Traditional (fat meats, bakery products, and vegetable oil and mayonnaise) (OR III tertile vs I 3.13, 95 % CI 2.58–3.78), Rural (processed meat) (OR III tertile vs I 2.02, 95 % CI 1.21–3.37) and Starchy (refined grains) (OR III tertile vs I 1.82, 95 % CI 1.18–2.79) dietary patterns were positively associated with BC risk, whereas the Prudent pattern (fruit and non-starchy vegetables) (OR III tertile vs I 0.56, 95 % CI 0.41–0.77) showed a protective effect. For Traditional pattern, the median bias-adjusted ORs (3.52) were higher than the conventional (2.76).While the Prudent pattern was associated with a reduced risk of BC, Traditional, Rural and Starchy patterns showed a promoting effect. Despite the threats to validity, the nature of associations was not strongly affected.
Keywords: Dietary patterns; Breast cancer; Argentina; Multilevel; Sensitivity analysis

Comparative study of the oral absorption of microencapsulated ferric saccharate and ferrous sulfate in humans by Carlos Contreras; María Dolores Barnuevo; Isabel Guillén; Antonio Luque; Elisabet Lázaro; Jordi Espadaler; Javier López-Román; José A. Villegas (567-574).
Our objective was to compare the absorption of microencapsulated ferric saccharate (MFS) and ferrous sulfate (FS) in a fortified milk product, using a crossover design.Seventeen non-iron-deficient healthy adults from both sexes participated in the study. On each intervention day (days 1 and 8), after an overnight fast, the volunteers consumed one type of product (test or control) and blood sampling was carried out at different times. The interventions days were separated by 7-day washout periods. This study was double blinded, crossover and randomized for nature of the test meals. The primary outcomes of the study were total serum iron and transferrin saturation.No significant differences could be observed in serum iron concentration during the 6-h postprandial study due to the type of milk product consumed, and there was neither an effect of time nor an interaction between the type of milk product and time. Transferrin saturation significantly increased after the intake of both products (P < 0.005), reaching a peak value between hours 2 and 4. No significant differences were detected between MFS and FS, indicating that iron absorption from MFS is equivalent to absorption from FS.MFS is a new ingredient that allows the fortification of a wide range of food products, including heat-processed and non-acidic products with similar absorption to FS, designed to produce neither organoleptic changes nor off-color development during storage of fortified food.
Keywords: Iron; Deficiency; Microencapsulated ferric saccharate; Ferrous sulfate; Fortified milk

The combination of resveratrol and conjugated linoleic acid attenuates the individual effects of these molecules on triacylglycerol metabolism in adipose tissue by N. Arias; J. Miranda; M. T. Macarulla; L. Aguirre; A. Fernández-Quintela; C. Andres-Lacueva; M. Urpi-Sarda; M. P. Portillo (575-582).
The combination of resveratrol + conjugated linoleic acid (RSV + CLA) did not show the body fat-lowering effect exhibited by these molecules when administered separately. This study aimed to find metabolic explanations for this situation in an experimental model of diet-induced obesity. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: rats treated with saline (control), resveratrol (RSV), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and a combination of these molecules (RSV + CLA).Rats treated with RSV + CLA did not show the reduction in heparin-releasable lipoprotein lipase (HR-LPL) and fatty acid synthase activities observed in RSV group or the increased HSL expression found in RSV and CLA groups. These animals showed reduced sirtuin 1 expression and CLA isomer amounts in adipose tissue. Finally, intracellular Ca2+ concentration was increased.The attenuation of the effects induced in adipose tissue triacylglycerol metabolism by RSV and CLA separately, such as the decrease in lipogenesis and fatty acid uptake and the increase in lipolysis, contributes to explain the lack of body fat-lowering effect of the combination RSV + CLA.
Keywords: Resveratrol; Conjugated linoleic acid; Combination; Adipose tissue; Lipogenesis; Lipases

Higher body fatness in intrauterine growth retarded juvenile pigs is associated with lower fat and higher carbohydrate oxidation during ad libitum and restricted feeding by Ricarda Krueger; Michael Derno; Solvig Goers; Barbara U. Metzler-Zebeli; Gerd Nuernberg; Karen Martens; Ralf Pfuhl; Constanze Nebendahl; Annette Zeyner; Harald M. Hammon; Cornelia C. Metges (583-597).
A thrifty energy metabolism has been suggested in intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) offspring. We characterized energy metabolism and substrate oxidation patterns in IUGR pigs in response to food restriction (FR) and refeeding (RFD).Female pigs with low (L; 1.1 kg; n = 20) or normal birth weight (N; 1.5 kg; n = 24) were fed ad libitum after weaning. Half of L and N pigs were food restricted (R; LR, NR) from days 80 to 100 (57 % of ad libitum) and refeed from days 101 to 131, while the remaining pigs were fed ad libitum (control, C). Using indirect calorimetry, carbohydrate and fat oxidation (COX, FOX), energy expenditure (EE) and balance (EB), resting metabolic rate (RMR) [all related to kg body weight0.62 (BW)] and RQ were determined at 4 days before (day 76) and after (day 83) beginning of FR, 4 days before (day 97) and after (day 104) end of FR and 25 days after beginning of RFD (day 125). Body fat and muscle weights were determined at day 131.In spite of higher relative food intake (FI), BW was lower in L pigs. In L pigs, physical activity was lower at age 76 and 83 days compared to N pigs. IUGR did not affect EE or RMR, but resulted in higher COX and lower FOX, causing greater and earlier onset of fat deposition. During FR, EE and RMR of R pigs dropped below that of C pigs, and BW gain was delayed by 30 % irrespective of birth weight. In response to FR, COX decreased and FOX increased. During FR, in LR pigs FOX was ~50 % of that in NR pigs. After 4 days, but not 25 days of RFD, EB and fat synthesis were higher in pigs previously subjected to FR, indicating early catch-up fat. In R pigs, BW and the abdominal fat proportion were lower at 131 days.Differences in food intake and substrate oxidation pattern, but not in EE and RMR, between L and N pigs were reflected in higher body fat proportions but lower body and muscle weights in L pigs. Refeeding following FR was initially associated with increased FI, a more positive EB and a more intense stimulation of fat synthesis which did not persist after 25 days of refeeding.
Keywords: Energy expenditure; Low birth weight piglets; Fat oxidation; Food restriction; Fuel selection; Plasma NEFA

Probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) has an anti-obesity effect although it is unknown whether the effect influences inflammatory responses in adipose tissue and lipid metabolism in the liver, which are considered substantially relevant to adiposity.C57BL/6 mice were fed a 10 %-fat diet containing LG2055 cells for 24 weeks. We then studied body weight, fat tissue mass, liver fat content and inflammatory genes in the adipose tissue, and lipogenic and lipolytic genes in the liver.Consumption of LG2055 resulted in a significant reduction in body weight and fat tissue mass (epididymal and perirenal/retroperitoneal), with a lowered level of triglyceride content in the liver. DNA microarray analysis showed that LG2055 generally inhibited the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory genes, including CCL2 and CCR2, in the epididymal adipose tissue. In the liver, LG2055 tended to inhibit lipogenic gene up-regulation, including ACC1, FAS and SREBP1, but LG2055 did not markedly alter lipolytic genes. Real-time PCR analysis confirmed the DNA microarray results in part, showing a significant reduction in the mRNA expression of CCL2 in the epididymal adipose tissue, and a downward tendency in FAS mRNA expression in the liver, in the LG2055-fed group.LG2055 significantly prevented body weight gain, fat accumulation and pro-inflammatory gene expression in the adipose tissue. Relatively lower triglyceride levels and reduced expression of lipogenic genes were also observed in the liver. It is suggested that improvement in the inflammatory state of the adipose tissue might be a possible mechanism underlying the anti-obesity effect of LG2055.
Keywords: Probiotics; Anti-obesity; Inflammation; Gene expression; Mice; Metabolism

Alterations in the antioxidant defense system in prepubertal children with a history of extrauterine growth restriction by M. Ortiz-Espejo; M. Gil-Campos; M. D. Mesa; C. E. García-Rodríguez; M. C. Muñoz-Villanueva; J. L. Pérez-Navero (607-615).
The role of oxidative stress is well known in the pathogenesis of acquired malnutrition. Intrauterine growth restriction has been associated with an imbalance in oxidative stress/antioxidant system. Therefore, early postnatal environment and, consequently, extrauterine growth restriction might be associated with alterations in the antioxidant defense system, even in the prepubertal stage. This is a descriptive, analytical, and observational case–control study. The study included two groups; 38 Caucasian prepubertal children born prematurely and with a history of extrauterine growth restriction as the case group, and 123 gender- and age-matched controls. Plasma exogenous antioxidant (retinol, β-carotene, and α-tocopherol) concentrations were measured by HPLC; antioxidant enzyme activities of catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase were determined in lysed erythrocytes by spectrophotometric techniques.Catalase and glutathione peroxidase concentrations were significantly lower in extrauterine growth restriction children than in controls (P < 0.001). Lower plasma retinol concentrations were found in the case group (P = 0.029), while concentrations of β-carotene and α-tocopherol were higher (P < 0.001) in extrauterine growth restriction prepubertal children as compared with controls. After correction by gestational age, birth weight, and length, statistically significant differences were also found, except for retinol.Prepubertal children with a history of extrauterine growth restriction present alterations in their antioxidant defense system. Knowing these alterations may be important in establishing pharmacological and nutritional treatments as this situation might be associated with higher metabolic disorders in adulthood.
Keywords: Extrauterine growth restriction; Antioxidant defense system; Oxidative stress; Prepubertal

Dietary fat differentially influences the lipids storage on the adipose tissue in metabolic syndrome patients by Antonio Camargo; Maria E. Meneses; Pablo Perez-Martinez; Javier Delgado-Lista; Yolanda Jimenez-Gomez; Cristina Cruz-Teno; Francisco J. Tinahones; Juan A. Paniagua; Francisco Perez-Jimenez; Helen M. Roche; Maria M. Malagon; Jose Lopez-Miranda (617-626).
Adipose tissue is now recognized as a highly active metabolic and endocrine organ. Our aim was to investigate the effect of the dietary fat on the two main adipose tissue functions, endocrine and lipid store, by analyzing the adipose tissue gene expression from metabolic syndrome patients.A randomized, controlled trial conducted within the LIPGENE study assigned 39 metabolic syndrome patients to 1 of 4 isoenergetic diets: (1) high-saturated fatty acid (HSFA), (2) high-monounsaturated fatty acid (HMUFA), (3) low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diet supplemented with long-chain n-3 fatty acids (LFHCC n-3), and (4) low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diet supplemented with placebo (LFHCC), for 12 weeks each. A fat challenge reflecting the fatty acid composition as the original diets was conducted post-intervention.The long-term consumption of HSFA, LFHCC, and LFHCC n-3 diets, but not HMUFA diet, decreased the perilipin fasting mRNA levels. LFHCC diet consumption increased fasting FABP4 expression, while it was reduced by the consumption of LFHCC n-3 diet. LFHCC meal reduced, while LFHCC n-3 meal intake increased postprandial CAV1 expression.The quantity and quality of dietary fat induce differential lipid storage and processing related gene expression, which may interact with the expression of adipokines through common regulatory mechanisms.
Keywords: Adipokines; Lipid metabolism; Adipose tissue; Diet; Metabolic syndrome

Several anthropometric indicators [such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR)] have been used to investigate the association between adiposity and high blood pressure (BP) in both adults and children. The present study compared the BP levels among children and adolescents with different BMI and WC in a large population in Shandong, China.A total of 38,822 students (19,456 boys and 19,366 girls) aged 7–17 years participated in this study. Height, weight, WC, and BP of all subjects were measured, and BMI was calculated. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was obtained according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cutoffs; central obesity was defined as WC ≥ 90th percentile (P 90); relatively high BP status was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 95th percentile for age and gender.Within each BMI categories (normal weight, overweight, and obesity), children and adolescents with WC ≥ P 90 had higher BP levels than those with WC < P 90 (p < 0.01). When BMI and WC were combined, the highest and lowest prevalences of relatively high BP were noted in obese with WC ≥ P 90 group (54.52 % for boys and 48.71 % for girls) and normal weight with WC < P 90 group (17.00 % for boys and 14.13 % for girls).Children and adolescents with high BMI and high WC might have an increased risk of elevated BP. Our results suggest that the additional measurement of WC is better than BMI alone to help identify high BP risks.
Keywords: Body mass index; Waist circumference; Blood pressure; Obesity; Adolescent

Estimated dietary intakes and sources of flavanols in the German population (German National Nutrition Survey II) by Anna Vogiatzoglou; Thorsten Heuer; Angela A. Mulligan; Marleen A. H. Lentjes; Robert N. Luben; Gunter G. C. Kuhnle (635-643).
Data from intervention studies suggest a beneficial effect of flavanols on vascular health. However, insufficient data on their intake have delayed the assessment of their health benefits. The aim of this study was to estimate intake of flavanols and their main sources among people living in Germany.Data from diet history interviews of the German National Nutrition Survey II for 15,371 people across Germany aged 14–80 years were analyzed. The FLAVIOLA Flavanol Food Composition Database was compiled using the latest US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer Databases and expanded to include recipes and retention factors.Mean intake of total flavanols, flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins (PA), and theaflavins in Germany was 386, 120, 196, and 70 mg/day, respectively. Women had higher intakes of total flavanols (399 mg/day) than men (372 mg/day) in all age groups, with the exception of the elderly. Similar results were observed for monomers (108 mg/day for men, 131 mg/day for women) and PA (190 mg/day; 203 mg/day), although intake of theaflavins was higher in men (74 mg/day; 66 mg/day). There was an age gradient with an increase in total flavanols, monomers, and theaflavins across the age groups. The major contributor of total flavanols in all subjects was pome fruits (27 %) followed by black tea (25 %).This study demonstrated age- and sex-related variations in the intake and sources of dietary flavanols in Germany. The current analysis will provide a valuable tool in clarifying and confirming the potential health benefits of flavanols.
Keywords: Flavanols; Flavan-3-ol monomers; Proanthocyanidins; Theaflavins; Dietary intake; German National Nutrition Survey II

Dietary walnut oil modulates liver steatosis in the obese Zucker rat by Anja Fink; Corinna E. Rüfer; Julie Le Grandois; Alexander Roth; Dalal Aoude-Werner; Eric Marchioni; Achim Bub; Stephan W. Barth (645-660).
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. We aimed to clarify the impact of dietary walnut oil versus animal fat on hepatic steatosis, representing the initial step of multistage pathogenesis of NAFLD, in Zucker obese rats.Zucker lean ad libitum (a.l.), Zucker obese a.l. or Zucker obese pair fed (p.f.) to the lean received isocaloric diets containing 8 % walnut oil (W8), W14 or 14 % lard (L14) (n = 10/group). Body weight, clinical serology, liver weight, lipid content and fatty acid composition and hepatic lipid metabolism-related transcripts were evaluated.Compared to lean, Zucker obese a.l. and p.f. showed hepatic triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation. In Zucker obese p.f., W14 compared to W8 and L14 reduced liver lipids, TAG as well as hepatic omega-6 (n-6)/n-3 ratio and SCD activity index [(C18:0 + C18:1)/C18:0 ratio] paralleled by decreased lipoprotein lipase mRNA in obese p.f. and elevated microsomal triglyceride transfer protein mRNA in lean and obese. Further, W14 elevated the fasting blood TAG and reduced cholesterol levels in obese.In our model, consumption of W14 inhibited hepatic lipid accumulation along with modulated hepatic gene expression implicated in hepatic fatty acid influx or lipoprotein assembly. These results provide first indication that dietary lipids from walnut oil are modulators of hepatic steatosis as the initial step of progressive NAFLD pathogenesis.
Keywords: NAFLD; Lard; SFA; MUFA; PUFA

Effect of dietary advanced glycation end products on postprandial appetite, inflammation, and endothelial activation in healthy overweight individuals by Malene W. Poulsen; Monika J. Bak; Jeanette M. Andersen; Rastislav Monošík; Anne C. Giraudi-Futin; Jens J. Holst; John Nielsen; Lotte Lauritzen; Lesli H. Larsen; Susanne Bügel; Lars O. Dragsted (661-672).
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formed in food during high-heat cooking may induce overeating and inflammation. We investigated whether AGE contents in a single meal affect postprandial appetite and markers of inflammation, endothelial activation, and oxidative stress.In total, 19 healthy overweight individuals completed a crossover meal test with two meals of identical ingredients prepared by roasting (H-AGE) or steaming (L-AGE), respectively. Postprandial blood samples were analysed for Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), appetite-regulating gut hormones, glucose, insulin, triacylglycerol, and markers of inflammation and endothelial activation. Subjective appetite ratings and subsequent food intake were also assessed, and urine was analysed for CML, methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone (MG-H1), and F2-isoprostanes.CML content of the H- and L-AGE meals was 5.0 and 2.8 mg, respectively. Plasma CML and urinary CML and MG-H1 tended to be higher after the H-AGE meal. There was no change in subsequent food intake, appetite sensations, or appetite hormone responses between meals, except for the overall ghrelin response, which was higher after the H-AGE meal compared with the L-AGE meal (p = 0.016). There was an increased glycaemic response to the H-AGE meal (p = 0.027) compared with the L-AGE meal. Inflammatory and endothelial activation markers did not differ between meals, but there was an overall effect on endothelial activation (p = 0.021) and on the oxidative marker, F2-isoprostanes, in urine (p = 0.013).The present study did not show any pronounced effects of AGEs on appetite and markers of inflammation, but did indicate that AGEs may affect postprandial ghrelin, oxidative stress, and glucose responses.
Keywords: Advanced glycation end products; Diet; Meal; Appetite; Inflammation

Associations between energy intake, daily food intake and energy density of foods and BMI z-score in 2–9-year-old European children by A. Hebestreit; C. Börnhorst; G. Barba; A. Siani; I. Huybrechts; G. Tognon; G. Eiben; L. A. Moreno; J. M. Fernández Alvira; H. M. Loit; E. Kovacs; M. Tornaritis; V. Krogh (673-681).
The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between proxy-reported energy intake, daily food intake and energy density of foods and body mass index (BMI) z-score in 2–9-year-old European children. From 16,225 children who participated in the identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) baseline examination, 9,782 children with 24-h proxy dietary information and complete covariate information were included in the analysis. Participating children were classified according to adapted Goldberg cutoffs: underreports, plausible energy reports and overreports. Energy intake, daily food intake and energy density of foods excluding noncaloric beverages were calculated for all eating occasions. Effect of energy intake, daily food intake and energy density of foods on BMI z-score was investigated using multilevel regression models in the full sample and subsample of plausible energy reports. Exposure variables were included separately; daily food intake and energy intake were addressed in a combined model to check for interactions.In the group of plausible energy reports (N = 8,544), energy intake and daily food intake were significantly positively associated with BMI z-score. Energy density of foods was not associated with BMI z-score. In the model including energy intake, food intake and an interaction term, only energy intake showed a significantly positive effect on BMI z-score. In the full sample (N = 9,782), only energy intake was significantly but negatively associated with BMI z-score.Proxy-reporters are subject to misreporting, especially for children in the higher BMI levels. Energy intake is a more important predictor of unhealthy weight development in children than daily food intake.
Keywords: Energy intake; Daily food intake; Energy density of foods; BMI z-score; Children

Iodine status in Korean preschool children as determined by urinary iodine excretion by Jeehhun Lee; Jeong Hyun Kim; Soo-Youn Lee; Jun Hwa Lee (683-688).
Iodine is a trace element of thyroid hormones. Excessive or insufficient iodine intake is associated with various thyroid diseases. Urinary iodine (UI) is a sensitive indicator and a recommended barometer of population iodine intake. In Korea, there has been no available data regarding iodine intake in preschool children. We investigated the iodine intake status of Korean preschool children through examination of their UI.This cross-sectional study was performed in 611 healthy preschool children (302 from Seoul and 309 from Masan), aged from 2 to 7 in 2010. UI concentration was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.The median UI concentration was 438.8 μg/L. Insufficient iodine intakes (<100 μg/L) were seen in 24 children (3.9 %), and excessive iodine ingestion (>300 μg/L) was found in 406 children (66.4 %). There were no significant differences in UI between different sexes and ages. Additionally, the median UI concentration was higher in children from Seoul (512.2 μg/L) than that in children from Masan (362.4 μg/L, P < 0.001).About two-thirds of Korean preschool children were in the state of excessive iodine intake, and 3.9 % of children showed insufficient iodine intake. Preventive measures and follow-up for iodine intake in preschool children are needed.
Keywords: Urine; Iodine; Preschool; Korea; Mass spectrometry

Erratum to: Iodine status in Korean preschool children as determined by urinary iodine excretion by Jeehun Lee; Jeong Hyun Kim; Soo-Youn Lee; Jun Hwa Lee (689-689).