European Journal of Nutrition (v.52, #3)

Implications of maternal vitamin D deficiency for the fetus, the neonate and the young infant by Nicola Principi; Sonia Bianchini; Elena Baggi; Susanna Esposito (859-867).
It has recently been demonstrated that vitamin D (VD) deficiency during pregnancy and lactation can give rise to problems in mothers and their children.To discuss the implications of VD deficiency during pregnancy and the best VD supplementation to use in order to avoid risks for the mother and child.PubMed was used to select all of the clinical studies published in the last 15 years concerning VD deficiency in pregnant women and its impact on the fetuses, neonates and infants, as well as the use of VD supplementation during pregnancy.Several studies have suggested that VD deficiency is associated with possible major outcomes in the preconception period, during pregnancy, perinatally and in childhood. A 25(OH)D concentration of >32 and <50–60 ng/mL seems to be associated with the lowest risk of disease, and the administration of 2,000 IU/day to pregnant and breastfeeding women seems to maintain adequate 25(OH)D levels. However, not all the experts agree with these conclusions because some of them do not think that VD deficiency can really cause extraskeletal manifestations and consider that the traditionally suggested 400–600 IU/day can be enough to permit an adequate bone development.Despite an increasing amount of data seems to suggest that pregnant women need a greater amount of VD than recommended in the past, further studies are needed to determine how much VD has to be given to assure a regular evolution of the pregnancy and an adequate development of the fetus and the young child.
Keywords: Bone development; Pregnancy; Respiratory infection; Vitamin D; Vitamin D deficiency; Vitamin D supplementation

The present study investigated the underlying mechanism associated with the hypocholesterolemic activity of blueberry anthocyanins by examining its effect on fecal sterol excretion and gene expression of major receptors, enzymes, and transporters involved in cholesterol metabolism.Hamsters were divided into three groups and fed a 0.1 % cholesterol diet containing 0 % (CTL), 0.5 % (BL), and 1.0 % (BH) blueberry anthocyanins, respectively, for six weeks. Plasma total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TAG), and non-high-density lipoproteins cholesterol (non-HDL-C) were measured using the enzymatic kits, and the gene expression of transporters, enzymes, and receptors involved in cholesterol absorption and metabolism was quantified using the quantitative PCR. GC analysis was used to quantify hepatic cholesterol and fecal acidic and neutral sterols.Dietary supplementation of 0.5 and 1.0 % blueberry anthocyanins for 6 weeks decreased plasma TC concentration by 6–12 % in a dose-dependent manner. This was accompanied by increasing the excretion of fecal neutral and acidic sterols by 22–29 % and 41–74 %, respectively. Real-time PCR analyses demonstrated that incorporation of blueberry anthocyanins into diet down-regulated the genes of NPC1L1, ACAT-2, MTP, and ABCG 8. In addition, blueberry anthocyanins were also able to down-regulate the gene expression of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase.The cholesterol-lowering activity of blueberry anthocyanins was most likely mediated by enhancing the excretion of sterols accompanied with down-regulation on gene expression of intestinal NPC1L1, ACAT-2, MTP, and ABCG 8.
Keywords: Anthocyanins; Cholesterol; Blueberry; NPC1L1; Sterol excretion

Outcome of oral provocation test in egg-sensitive children receiving semi-fat hard cheese Grana Padano PDO (protected designation of origin) containing, or not, lysozyme by A. Marseglia; A. M. Castellazzi; C. Valsecchi; A. Licari; G. Piva; F. Rossi; L. Fiorentini; G. L. Marseglia (877-883).
Lysozyme, obtained from egg white, is a potential food allergen used in the dairy industry to prevent late blowing of the loaf caused by the outgrowth of clostridial spores (Cl. butyricum and Cl. tyrobutyricum) during cheese aging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible correlation between egg protein allergy in pediatric age and sensitization to egg lysozyme, used for the preparation of Grana Padano cheese.The tolerability of Grana Padano cheese has been evaluated in pediatric patients allergic to egg proteins through an oral provocation test with increasing amounts of cheese containing, or not, lysozyme at 12 and 24 months of aging.When lysozyme-sensitized children received 12-months aged and lysozyme-containing cheese, several immediate and late adverse reactions such as itching, abdominal pain, vomiting, nausea, dermatitis, rhinitis, bronchial asthma, urticaria, and angioedema were seen in 5 out of 21 subjects; only 1 out of 21 children showed an adverse reaction after challenge with 24-months-ripened lysozyme-containing cheese.There is a possible relationship between the severity of allergic reactions and the lysozyme-specific IgE level in blood. In particular vomiting, hypotension, and abdominal pain were present when IgE level was higher than 7 kU/L. A ripening time of 24 months may reduce allergy problems when lysozyme-containing cheese is given to sensitized subjects, probably due to the hydrolysis of antigenic epitopes during aging.
Keywords: Allergy; Lysozyme; Cheese; Oral provocation test; Cheese ripening

Polydextrose is a low-calorie highly branched-chain glucose polymer that is poorly digested in the upper gastrointestinal tract and therefore demonstrates fibre-like properties. Fibre has been shown to increase satiety and possibly reduce food intake. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to examine the effects of polydextrose on short-term satiety and energy intake.In a repeated-measures randomized blind cross-over design, 26 healthy males consumed a 400-g fruit smoothie containing 12 g (3 %) of polydextrose, and a buffet lunch 60 min after the smoothie. Motivational ratings for satiety and palatability and lunch energy intake were measured. The effects of the polydextrose-containing smoothie were compared against a polydextrose-free control smoothie.Polydextrose did not significantly alter the taste and palatability of the fruit smoothie. Consuming the polydextrose-containing smoothie resulted in a significantly lower energy intake at lunch (102 kcal less) compared to the control.Polydextrose may be a good fortificant for reducing short-term food intake.
Keywords: Satiety; Food intake; Appetite; Hunger; Polydextrose; Short-term; Fibre

A short-term n-3 DPA supplementation study in humans by Eliza Miller; Gunveen Kaur; Amy Larsen; Su Peng Loh; Kaisa Linderborg; Harrison S. Weisinger; Giovanni M. Turchini; David Cameron-Smith; Andrew J. Sinclair (895-904).
Despite the detailed knowledge of the absorption and incorporation of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) into plasma lipids and red blood cells (RBC) in humans, very little is known about docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5 n-3). The aim of this study was to investigate the uptake and incorporation of pure DPA and EPA into human plasma and RBC lipids.Ten female participants received 8 g of pure DPA or pure EPA in randomized crossover double-blinded manner over a 7-day period. The placebo treatment was olive oil. Blood samples were collected at days zero, four and seven, following which the plasma and RBC were separated and used for the analysis of fatty acids.Supplementation with DPA significantly increased the proportions of DPA in the plasma phospholipids (PL) (by twofold) and triacylglycerol (TAG) fractions (by 2.3-fold, day 4). DPA supplementation also significantly increased the proportions of EPA in TAG (by 3.1-fold, day 4) and cholesterol ester (CE) fractions (by 2.0-fold, day 7) and of DHA in TAG fraction (by 3.1-fold, day 4). DPA proportions in RBC PL did not change following supplementation. Supplementation with EPA significantly increased the proportion of EPA in the plasma CE and PL fractions, (both by 2.7-fold, day 4 and day 7) and in the RBC PL (by 1.9-fold, day 4 and day 7). EPA supplementation did not alter the proportions of DPA or DHA in any lipid fraction. These results showed that within day 4 of supplementation, DPA and EPA demonstrated different and specific incorporation patterns.The results of this short-term study suggest that DPA may act as a reservoir of the major long-chain n-3 fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) in humans.
Keywords: n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); Docosapentaenoic acid (DPA); Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); Fatty acid metabolism

Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk among women in northern Tanzania: a case–control study by Irmgard Jordan; Antje Hebestreit; Britta Swai; Michael B. Krawinkel (905-915).
Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among women in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. It was tested within a case–control study in this region whether a specific dietary pattern impacts on the breast cancer risk.A validated semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to assess the dietary intake of 115 female breast cancer patients and 230 healthy age-matched women living in the same districts. A logistic regression was performed to estimate breast cancer risk. Dietary patterns were obtained using principal component analysis with Varimax rotation.The adjusted logistic regression estimated an increased risk for a “Fatty Diet”, characterized by a higher consumption of milk, vegetable oils and fats, butter, lard and red meat (OR = 1.42, 95 % CI 1.08–1.87; P = 0.01), and for a “Fruity Diet”, characterized by a higher consumption of fish, mango, papaya, avocado and watery fruits (OR = 1.61, 95 % CI 1.14–2.28; P = 0.01). Both diets showed an inverse association with the ratio between polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids (P/S ratio).A diet characterized by a low P/S ratio seems to be more important for the development of breast cancer than total fat intake.
Keywords: Breast cancer; Dietary pattern; PUFA; Tanzania

Associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with fasting glucose, fasting insulin, dementia and depression in European elderly: the SENECA study by Elske M. Brouwer-Brolsma; Edith J. M. Feskens; Wilma T. Steegenga; Lisette C. P. G. M. de Groot (917-925).
The classical consequence of vitamin D deficiency is osteomalacia, but recent insights into the function of vitamin D suggest that it may play a role in other body systems as well. The objective of this study was to examine the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and markers of glucose metabolism (n = 593), global cognitive functioning (n = 116) and depression (n = 118) in European elderly participating in the SENECA study. Moreover, we wanted to explore whether the observed associations of 25(OH)D with depression and global cognitive performance were mediated by fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels.Cross-sectional associations between 25(OH)D and FPG, fasting plasma insulin (FPI) and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), a marker of insulin resistance, were estimated from multiple regression analyses. Associations of 25(OH)D with global cognitive functioning (Mini Mental State Examination) and depression (Geriatric Depression Scale) were examined using Poisson regression.An inverse association was observed between 25(OH)D and FPG (β-0.001), indicating a 1 % decrease in FPG per 10 nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D, but after full adjustment for demographic factors, lifestyle factors and calcium intake, this association was not statistically significant (P = 0.07). Although participants with intermediate and high serum 25(OH)D levels showed a tendency towards a lower depression score after adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, RR and 95 % CI: 0.73 (0.51–1.04) and 0.76 (0.52–1.11), respectively, these findings were not statistically significant.An inverse association of 25(OH)D with depression and FPG was observed, but this association was not statistically significant. There was no association between 25(OH)D with FPI and HOMA-IR or with global cognitive functioning. More studies are needed to further explore the possible role of vitamin D in the various body systems.
Keywords: Vitamin D; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Insulin sensitivity; Dementia; Depression; Cross-sectional

Almond consumption is associated with ameliorations in obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia. The hypothesis of this 12-week randomized, crossover, controlled feeding trial was that almond consumption would ameliorate inflammation and oxidative stress in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (9 M, 11 F; 58 years; BMI: 26 kg/m2) with mild hyperlipidemia.After a 2-week run-in period, the patients were assigned to either a control NCEP step II diet (control diet) or almond diet for 4 weeks with a 2-week washout period between alternative diets. Almonds approximately at 56 g/day were added to the control diet to replace 20 % of total daily calorie intake.As compared to the control diet, the almond diet decreased IL-6 by a median 10.3 % (95 % confidence intervals 5.2, 12.6 %), CRP by a median 10.3 % (−24.1, 40.5), and TNF-α by a median 15.7 % (−0.3, 29.9). The almond diet also decreased plasma protein carbonyl by a median 28.2 % (4.7, 38.2) as compared to the C diet but did not alter plasma malondialdehyde. The A diet enhanced the resistance of LDL against Cu2+-induced oxidation by a median 16.3 % (7.4, 44.3) as compared to the C diet. Serum intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular adhesion molecule-1 were not changed by both diets.Our results suggested that incorporation of almonds into a healthy diet could ameliorate inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with T2DM.
Keywords: Almonds; Antioxidants; Inflammation; Oxidative stress; Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Adaptive metabolic response to 4 weeks of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in healthy, lightly active individuals and chronic high glucose availability in primary human myotubes by Francesco Sartor; Matthew J. Jackson; Cesare Squillace; Anthony Shepherd; Jonathan P. Moore; Donald E. Ayer; Hans-Peter Kubis (937-948).
Chronic sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Hyperglycaemia contributes to metabolic alterations observed in T2DM, such as reduced oxidative capacity and elevated glycolytic and lipogenic enzyme expressions in skeletal muscle tissue. We aimed to investigate the metabolic alterations induced by SSB supplementation in healthy individuals and to compare these with the effects of chronic hyperglycaemia on primary muscle cell cultures.Lightly active, healthy, lean subjects (n = 11) with sporadic soft drink consumption underwent a 4-week SSB supplementation (140 ± 15 g/day, ~2 g glucose/kg body weight/day, glucose syrup). Before and after the intervention, body composition, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), insulin sensitivity, muscle metabolic gene and protein expression were assessed. Adaptive responses to hyperglycaemia (7 days, 15 mM) were tested in primary human myotubes.SSB supplementation increased fat mass (+1.0 kg, P < 0.05), fasting RER (+0.12, P < 0.05), fasting glucose (+0.3 mmol/L, P < 0.05) and muscle GAPDH mRNA expressions (+0.94 AU, P < 0.05). PGC1α mRNA was reduced (−0.20 AU, P < 0.05). Trends were found for insulin resistance (+0.16 mU/L, P = 0.09), and MondoA protein levels (+1.58 AU, P = 0.08). Primary myotubes showed elevations in GAPDH, ACC, MondoA and TXNIP protein expressions (P < 0.05).Four weeks of SSB supplementation in healthy individuals shifted substrate metabolism towards carbohydrates, increasing glycolytic and lipogenic gene expression and reducing mitochondrial markers. Glucose-sensing protein MondoA might contribute to this shift, although further in vivo evidence is needed to corroborate this.
Keywords: Soft drinks; Insulin resistance; PGC1α; MondoA; TXNIP

Effect of a wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) drink intervention on markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial function in humans with cardiovascular risk factors by Patrizia Riso; Dorothy Klimis-Zacas; Cristian Del Bo’; Daniela Martini; Jonica Campolo; Stefano Vendrame; Peter Møller; Steffen Loft; Renata De Maria; Marisa Porrini (949-961).
Wild blueberries (WB) (Vaccinium angustifolium) are rich sources of polyphenols, such as flavonols, phenolic acids and anthocyanins (ACNs), reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular and degenerative diseases. This study investigated the effect of regular consumption of a WB or a placebo (PL) drink on markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial function in subjects with risk factors for cardiovascular disease.Eighteen male volunteers (ages 47.8 ± 9.7 years; body mass index 24.8 ± 2.6 kg/m2) received according to a cross-over design, a WB (25 g freeze-dried powder, providing 375 mg of ACNs) or a PL drink for 6 weeks, spaced by a 6-week wash-out. Endogenous and oxidatively induced DNA damage in blood mononuclear cells, serum interleukin levels, reactive hyperemia index, nitric oxide, soluble vascular adhesion molecule concentration and other variables were analyzed.Wild blueberry drink intake significantly reduced the levels of endogenously oxidized DNA bases (from 12.5 ± 5.6 % to 9.6 ± 3.5 %, p ≤ 0.01) and the levels of H2O2-induced DNA damage (from 45.8 ± 7.9 % to 37.2 ± 9.1 %, p ≤ 0.01), while no effect was found after the PL drink. No significant differences were detected for markers of endothelial function and the other variables under study.In conclusion, the consumption of the WB drink for 6 weeks significantly reduced the levels of oxidized DNA bases and increased the resistance to oxidatively induced DNA damage. Future studies should address in greater detail the role of WB in endothelial function. This study was registered at as ISRCTN47732406.
Keywords: Wild blueberry; Endothelial function; DNA damage; Blood lipids; Cardiovascular risk

Breast milk fat concentration and fatty acid pattern during the first six months in exclusively breastfeeding Greek women by Angeliki Antonakou; Katerina P. Skenderi; Antonia Chiou; Constantinos A. Anastasiou; Chryssa Bakoula; Antonia-Leda Matalas (963-973).
To determine fat and fatty acid (FA) profile of Greek mother’s milk during the first 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding and to examine their correlation with dietary and other maternal characteristics.Milk samples and dietary records were obtained by mothers at 1st (n = 64), 3rd (n = 39), and 6th (n = 24) month postpartum. Fatty acid methylesters were separated and quantified by gas chromatography (GC/FID) and fat concentration by the creamatocrit method.At the 3 time points, milk fat concentration ranged between 26.3 and 30.2 g/l (p > 0.05). Milk’s FA composition was expressed as weight percentage (% wt/wt of all FAs detected with a C6 to C22 chain length). Maternal macronutrient and FA dietary intake, as well as the FAs’ profile in maternal milk, remained constant over the 6 months. Saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) represented approx. 46, 35, and 18 % of all FAs, while ω6 and ω3 PUFA were 17.4 and 0.8 %, respectively. Body weight gain during pregnancy was positively related to breast milk’s concentration in SFA (p < 0.01) and negatively to milk’s concentration in MUFA (p < 0.01). Age and parity were also independent factors affecting the FA profile in maternal milk. A strong positive effect was found during the first month postpartum, between mother’s PUFA intake and the concentration of PUFA, ω3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic and linoleic acid (LA) in the milk, while MUFA intake was strongly correlated with the concentration of PUFA, ω6 fatty acids, and LA.This study is among few in literature to determine FA profile of breast milk in European populations and verified certain dietary factors that influence this profile. Maternal PUFA and MUFA intake were found to be important factors affecting breast milk’s FA profile.
Keywords: Fatty acid content; Breast milk; DHA; AA; Fat; Maternal diet

Effects of l-arginine supplementation on blood flow, oxidative stress status and exercise responses in young adults with uncomplicated type I diabetes by Ana Paula Trussardi Fayh; Mauricio Krause; Josianne Rodrigues-Krause; Jerri Luiz Ribeiro; Jorge Pinto Ribeiro; Rogério Friedman; José Cláudio Fonseca Moreira; Alvaro Reischak-Oliveira (975-983).
Vascular disease is the principal cause of death and disability in patients with diabetes, and endothelial dysfunction seems to be the major cause in its pathogenesis. Since l-arginine levels are diminished in conditions such as type 1 and type 2 diabetes, in this work we aimed to verify the effects of l-arginine supplementation (7 g/day) over the endothelial function and oxidative stress markers in young male adults with uncomplicated type 1 diabetes. We also investigated the influences of l-arginine administration on vascular/oxidative stress responses to an acute bout of exercise.Ten young adult male subjects with uncomplicated type 1 diabetes and twenty matched controls volunteered for this study. We analysed the influence of l-arginine supplementation (7 g/day during 1 week) over lower limb blood flow (using a venous occlusion plethysmography technique), oxidative stress marker (TBARS, Carbonyls), anti-oxidant parameters (uric acid and TRAP) and total tNOx in rest conditions and after a single bout of submaximal exercise (VO2 at 10 % below the second ventilatory threshold). Data described as mean ± standard error (SE). Alpha level was P < 0.05.Glycaemic control parameters were altered in type 1 diabetic subjects, such as HbA1c (5.5 ± 0.03 vs. 8.3 ± 0.4 %) and fasted glycaemia (94.8 ± 1.4 vs. 183 ± 19 mg/dL). Oxidative stress/damage markers (carbonyls and TBARS) were increased in the diabetic group, while uric acid was decreased. Rest lower limb blood flow was lower in type 1 diabetic subjects than in healthy controls (3.53 ± 0.35 vs. 2.66 ± 0.3 ml 100 ml¹ min¹). l-Arginine supplementation completely recovered basal blood flow to normal levels in type 1 diabetics’ subjects (2.66 ± 0.3 to 4.74 ± 0.86 ml 100 ml¹ min¹) but did not interfere in any parameter of redox state or exercise.Our findings highlight the importance of l-arginine for the improvement of vascular function in subjects with diabetes, indicating that l-arginine supplementation could be an essential tool for the treatment for the disease complications, at least in non-complicated diabetes. However, based on our data, it is not possible to draw conclusions regarding the mechanisms by which l-arginine therapy is inducing improvements on cardiovascular function, but this important issue requires further investigations.
Keywords: l-Arginine; Type 1 diabetes; Blood flow; Oxidative stress

Self-reported rate of eating is associated with higher circulating ALT activity in middle-aged apparently healthy Japanese men by Kazuki Mochizuki; Rie Miyauchi; Natsuyo Hariya; Yasumi Misaki; Nobuhiko Kasezawa; Kazushige Tohyama; Toshinao Goda (985-990).
Elevated circulating activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a marker for liver injury, and the lifestyle of a higher rate of eating in healthy and preclinical subjects are associated with increased risk of obesity and diabetes. In this study, we examined the associations between self-reported rate of eating and circulating ALT activity in middle-aged apparently healthy Japanese men.We conducted a cross-sectional study of 3,929 apparently healthy men aged 40–59 years (mean ± SD age, 49.2 ± 5.8 years; BMI, 23.5 ± 2.8 kg/m2) who participated in health checkups in Japan. We analyzed their clinical serum parameters and lifestyle factors, including self-reported rate of eating. Associations between self-reported rate of eating and liver injury markers [ALT, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GTP), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)], other clinical parameters or lifestyle factors were determined using analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s test. Multivariate logistic regression analyses (MLRA) were performed with ALT activity as the dependent variable and independent variables that included self-reported rate of eating.MLRA showed that ALT activity showed trends for higher self-reported rate of eating after adjustment for age, energy intake, and smoking status. The association between ALT activity and self-reported rate of eating disappeared after adjustment for BMI.The results of this study show that ALT activity is positively associated with self-reported rate of eating in middle-aged apparently healthy Japanese men.
Keywords: Self-reported rate of eating; ALT activity; Japanese men; Apparently healthy subjects

Mono- and polyphosphates have similar effects on calcium and phosphorus metabolism in healthy young women by Heini J. Karp; Virpi E. Kemi; Christel J. E. Lamberg-Allardt; Merja U. M. Kärkkäinen (991-996).
Phosphate (Pi) salts, often mono- (MP) or polyphosphates (PP), are commonly used as additives in the food industry. Previous studies have shown that the effects of MP and PP on calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) metabolism may differ. The aim of this study was to determine whether the effects of MP and PP salts differ on markers of Ca and P metabolism in young women.Fourteen healthy women 19–31 years of age were randomized into three controlled 24-h study sessions, each subject serving as her own control. During each session, the subjects received three doses of MP, PP or a placebo with meals in randomized order. Both Pi salts provided 1,500 mg P/d, and the diet during each session was identical. Markers of Ca and P metabolism were followed six times over 24 h.During both MP and PP sessions, we found an increase in serum phosphate (S-Pi, p = 0.0001), urinary phosphate (U-Pi, p = 0.0001) and serum parathyroid hormone (S-PTH, p = 0.048 MP, p = 0.012 PP) relative to the control session. PP decreased U-Ca more than did MP (p = 0.014).The results suggest that PP binds Ca in the intestine more than does MP. Based on the S-Pi, U-Pi and S-PTH results, both Pi salts are absorbed with equal efficiency. In the long run, increased S-PTH, caused by either an MP or PP salt, could have negative effects on bone metabolism.
Keywords: Monophosphate; Polyphosphate; Phosphorus; Calcium

Fate of dietary phytosteryl/-stanyl esters: analysis of individual intact esters in human feces by Tim Lubinus; Andreas Barnsteiner; Thomas Skurk; Hans Hauner; Karl-Heinz Engel (997-1013).
The objective was to investigate the metabolic fate of phytosteryl/-stanyl fatty acid and ferulic acid esters upon consumption by healthy humans.A capillary gas chromatographic methodology was employed to follow a randomized, single-blind three group crossover clinical trial and to quantify simultaneously individual intact esters, liberated phytosterols/-stanols and their metabolites in feces. Skimmed milk drinking yogurts enriched with complex mixtures of phytosteryl/-stanyl fatty acid esters and ferulates, respectively, were employed as food carriers.On average, 73 % of total plant stanyl fatty acid esters and 80 % of total plant steryl fatty acid esters were hydrolyzed. Among the individuals, the hydrolysis rates ranged from 40 to 96 %. In addition, there were subject-dependent discrepancies between the amounts of phytosterols/-stanols actually determined in the feces and the calculated hydrolysis rates. On average, 69 % of the amounts of sterols/stanols expected from the amounts of remaining intact esters were found.The study revealed large interindividual variability regarding the recoveries of dietary phytosteryl/-stanyl esters upon gastrointestinal passage in healthy humans. Nevertheless, there was a significant impact of the acid moiety (oleate = linoleate = linolenate > eicosanoate > palmitate > ferulate) on the hydrolysis rates; the influence of the phytosterol/-stanol moiety was less pronounced.
Keywords: Phytosteryl/-stanyl fatty acid esters; γ-Oryzanol; Phytosterols; Hydrolysis; Metabolization; Functional food; Randomized clinical trial

Combined effect of sesamin and α-lipoic acid on hepatic fatty acid metabolism in rats by Takashi Ide; Ayana Azechi; Sayaka Kitade; Yoko Kunimatsu; Natsuko Suzuki; Chihiro Nakajima (1015-1027).
Dietary sesamin (1:1 mixture of sesamin and episesamin) decreases fatty acid synthesis but increases fatty acid oxidation in rat liver. Dietary α-lipoic acid lowers hepatic fatty acid synthesis. These changes can account for the serum lipid-lowering effect of sesamin and α-lipoic acid. It is expected that the combination of these compounds in the diet potentially ameliorates lipid metabolism more than the individual compounds. We therefore studied the combined effect of sesamin and α-lipoic acid on lipid metabolism in rats.Male Sprague–Dawley rats were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 2 g/kg sesamin and containing 0 or 2.5 g/kg α-lipoic acid for 22 days.Sesamin and α-lipoic acid decreased serum lipid concentrations and the combination of these compounds further decreased the parameters in an additive fashion. These compounds reduced the hepatic concentration of triacylglycerol, the lignan being less effective in decreasing this value. The combination failed to cause a stronger decrease in hepatic triacylglycerol concentration. The combination of sesamin and α-lipoic acid decreased the activity and mRNA levels of hepatic lipogenic enzymes in an additive fashion. Sesamin strongly increased the parameters of hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes. α-Lipoic acid antagonized the stimulating effect of sesamin of fatty acid oxidation through reductions in the activity of some fatty acid oxidation enzymes and carnitine concentration in the liver. This may account for the failure to observe strong reductions in hepatic triacylglycerol concentration in rats given a diet containing both sesamin and α-lipoic acid.
Keywords: Sesamin; α-Lipoic acid; Hepatic lipogenesis; Hepatic fatty acid oxidation

Distribution of procyanidins and their metabolites in rat plasma and tissues in relation to ingestion of procyanidin-enriched or procyanidin-rich cocoa creams by Aida Serra; Alba Macià; Laura Rubió; Neus Anglès; Nàdia Ortega; José Ramón Morelló; Maria-Paz Romero; Maria-José Motilva (1029-1038).
Procyanidins are extensively metabolized via phase-II and microbial enzymes. However, their distribution in the body is not well characterized.This study investigates the distribution of procyanidins (monomers and dimers) and their phase-II metabolites in plasma and tissues (thymus, heart, liver, testicle, lung, kidney, spleen and brain).Wistar rats were fed with 1 g of cocoa cream (CC), 50 mg of procyanidin hazelnut skin extract (PE) and 50 mg PE in 1 g CC (PECC). The rats were killed at 0, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4 and 18 h after gavage, and the plasma and tissues were analyzed by UPLC–MS/MS.Epicatechin–glucuronide was the main metabolite in the plasma after the CC intake, with C max at 423 nM and t max at 2 h, and methyl catechin–glucuronide (301 nM, 2 h) was the main metabolite in the plasma after the PE intake. As a result of the PECC enrichment, epicatechin–glucuronide (452 nM, 1.5 h) and catechin–glucuronide (297 nM, 2 h) were the main metabolites in the plasma. Methyl catechin–glucuronide was found in the liver after PE (8 nmol/g tissue, 4 h) and PECC (8 nmol/g, 1.5 h). The kidney was found to contain a high concentration of phase-II metabolites of procyanidins and is therefore thought to be the main site of metabolism of the compounds. Methyl catechin–sulfate (6.4 nmol/g, 4 h) was only quantified in the brain and after PE intake. Catechin metabolites were not found in the spleen or heart. Phenolic acids were detected in all tissues.The formulation of a product enriched or fortified with procyanidins is a way to increase their bioavailability, with clear effects on the plasmatic pharmacokinetics, and a greater accumulation of phenolic metabolites in such tissues as the liver, kidney, lung and brain.
Keywords: Food matrix effect; Procyanidins; Plasma; Tissue distribution

Tea (Camellia sinensis) is a widely consumed beverage, and laboratory and some intervention studies have indicated the potential health benefits of hot tea. The present study examines the association between tea consumption (evaluating hot and iced tea independently) and markers for metabolic syndrome adults in a sample of 6,472 who participated in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination surveys.Tea consumption was evaluated using food frequency questionnaires and 24-h dietary recalls. Seventy percent of the sample reported any consumption of iced tea and 16 % were daily consumers, whereas approximately 56 % of this sample reported hot tea consumption and 9 % were daily consumers.Hot tea consumption was inversely associated with obesity: tea consumers had lower mean waist circumference and lower BMI (25 vs. 28 kg/m2 in men; 26 vs. 29 kg/m2 in women; both P < 0.01) than non-consumers after controlling for age, physical activity, total energy intake, and other confounders. For iced tea consumption, the association was reversed: increased iced tea consumption was associated with higher BMI, greater waist circumference, and greater subcutaneous skinfold thickness after controlling for age, physical activity, energy intake, sugar intake, and other confounders. Hot tea consumption was associated with beneficial biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk and inflammation (increased high-density lipoprotein-associated cholesterol and decreased C-reactive protein in both sexes, and reduced triglycerides in women), whereas the association with iced tea consumption was again reversed.These cross-sectional results support growing laboratory data, which demonstrate the negative association of hot tea intake with markers of MetS.
Keywords: NHANES; Tea; Obesity; Waist circumference; BMI; Metabolic syndrome

The mechanism action of the polyphenol-rich extracts from berries of Aronia melanocarpa (black chokeberry) and from grape seeds in the defence against homocysteine (Hcy) and its derivatives action in blood platelets is still unknown. In this study, the influence of the aronia extract and grape seeds extract (GSE) on the platelet adhesion to collagen and fibrinogen and the platelet aggregation during a model of hyperhomocysteinemia was investigated. The aim of our study in vitro was also to investigate superoxide anion radicals (O 2 −• ) production after incubation of platelets with Hcy, HTL and the aronia extract and GSE during a model of hyperhomocysteinemia (induced by reduced form of homocysteine at final dose of 100 μM) and the most reactive form of Hcy—its cyclic thioester, homocysteine thiolactone (HTL, 1 μM). Moreover, the additional aim of our study was also to establish and compare the influence of the aronia extract, GSE and resveratrol (3,4′,5-trihydroxystilben), a phenolic compound, which has been supposed to be beneficial for the prevention of cardiovascular events, on selected steps of platelet activation.The effects of tested extracts on adhesion of blood platelets to collagen and fibrinogen were determined according to Tuszynski and Murphy. The platelet aggregation was determined by turbidimetry method using a Chrono-log Lumi-aggregometer.We have observed that HTL, like its precursor—Hcy stimulated the generation of O 2 −• (measured by the superoxide dismutase—inhibitable reduction of cytochrome c) in platelets and caused an augmentation of the platelet adhesion and aggregation induced by the strong physiological agonist—thrombin. Our present results in vitro also demonstrated that the aronia extract and grape seeds extract reduced the toxicity action of Hcy and HTL on blood platelet adhesion to collagen and fibrinogen, the platelet aggregation and superoxide anion radicals production in platelets, suggesting its potential protective effects on hemostasis during hyperhomocysteinemia.In the comparative studies, the aronia extract was found to be more effective antiplatelet factors, than GSE or resveratrol during a model of hyperhomocysteinemia. It gives hopes for development of diet supplements, which may be important during hyperhomocysteinemia.
Keywords: Blood platelet; Homocysteine thiolactone; Homocysteine; Aronia; Grape seeds

Depression is a very common disorder in elderly, especially in those institutionalized. Nutrition could play an important role in the onset and/or progression of depression, since the intake of carbohydrates with a high glycaemic index (GI) or diets with a high glycaemic load (GL) may increase the insulin-induced brain serotonin secretion.The aim of our study was to analyse the association between dietary GI and GL and the odds of suffering depression in institutionalized elderly people without antidepressant treatment.This cross-sectional study included 140 institutionalized elderly people from the Madrid region (Spain) (65–90 years of age) whose diets were recorded using a precise weighing method over seven consecutive days. Energy and nutrient intakes were recorded and the GI and GL calculated. The participants’ affective capacity was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Subjects were grouped into non-depressed (GDS ≤ 5) and depressed (GDS > 5). Since GDS scores and gender were statistically associated (p < 0.01), the data were grouped considering this association.Dietary GI (51.09 ± 3.80) and GL (97.54 ± 13.46) were considered as medium. The dietary GL was significantly higher in the non-depressed (100.00 ± 12.13) compared with the depressed group (93.97 ± 14.04, p < 0.01). However, a similar GI was observed between non-depressed (51.50 ± 3.29) and depressed groups (50.52 ± 4.46). Additionally, participants with a dietary GL placed in the second and third tertiles had a 67.4 % and 65.3 %, respectively, less odds of suffering depression than those in the first tertile. GDS scores and dietary GL were inversely related; therefore, an increase in one unit in the dietary GL scale decreased the GDS score by 0.058 units.Glyaemic load is associated with a lower odd of depression.
Keywords: Glycaemic load; Glycaemic index; Depression; GDS; Elderly

Octreotide alleviates obesity by reducing intestinal glucose absorption and inhibiting low-grade inflammation by R. Liu; N. Wei; W. Guo; O. Qiang; X. Li; Y. Ou; W. Huang; C. W. Tang (1067-1075).
To investigate the role of octreotide, a somatostatin (SST) analog with anti-inflammatory effects, on the digestive and absorptive functions of jejunum in rats fed a high-fat diet, as well as its therapeutic prospects for diet-induced obesity.Rats were divided into three groups with different diet and treatment for the 176-day experiment: (1) control, 18 rats fed with standard chow, (2) high-fat control, 19 rats fed with high-fat chow, and (3) high-fat octreotide, 21 rats fed with high-fat chow and treated with octreotide for the last 8 days of the experiment. Plasma tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was measured by ELISA and SST by radioimmunoassay. Disaccharidase activity in the jejunal homogenate was determined. SST and Na+-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT-1) in the jejunal mucosa were visualized by immunohistochemistry. SGLT-1 was quantified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot assays.After 176 days, the fat/body weight ratio, villus height, maltase, SGLT-1, and plasma TNF-α in the high-fat control rats were much higher than those in the control rats (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05) and were significantly lower in the high-fat + octreotide rats (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05). SST levels were dramatically different in the intestinal mucosa of the two high-fat groups (231.12 ± 98.18 pg/mg in the high-fat controls and 480.01 ± 286.65 pg/mg in the octreotide group).The low-grade inflammation induced by high-fat diet apparently reduced the secretion of intestinal SST, which increased intestinal absorption of energy and nutrients and formation of adipose tissues. Octreotide effectively reversed this process, a finding that has far-reaching significance for the regulation of energy balance.
Keywords: Obesity; Jejunal absorption; Octreotide; Na+-dependent glucose transporter protein (SGLT-1); Maltase; Rat

Trans-epithelial transport of the betalain pigments indicaxanthin and betanin across Caco-2 cell monolayers and influence of food matrix by L. Tesoriere; C. Gentile; F. Angileri; A. Attanzio; M. Tutone; M. Allegra; M. A. Livrea (1077-1087).
This study investigated the absorption mechanism of the phytochemicals indicaxanthin and betanin and the influence of their food matrix (cactus pear and red beet) on the intestinal transport.Trans-epithelial transport of dietary-consistent amounts of indicaxanthin and betanin in Caco-2 cell monolayers seeded on TranswellR inserts was measured in apical to basolateral (AP-BL) and basolateral to apical (BL-AP) direction, under an inwardly directed pH gradient (pH 6.0/7.4, AP/BL) mimicking luminal and serosal sides of human intestinal epithelium. The effect of inhibitors of membrane transporters on the absorption was also evaluated. Contribution of the paracellular route was investigated after EDTA treatment of the cell monolayer. In vitro digestion of betalainic food was performed to provide a post-intestinal fraction containing bioaccessible pigments.Apparent permeability coefficients (P app) in the absorptive direction were (4.4 ± 0.4) × 10−6 and (3.2 ± 0.3) × 10−6 cm s−1 for indicaxanthin and betanin, respectively. Transport of indicaxanthin was non-polarized, linear as a function of time and concentration, and unaffected by inhibitors of membrane transporters. Betanin exhibited significantly different bidirectional P app values and non-linear efflux kinetics. The concentration-dependent betanin efflux was described by a kinetic model including one non-saturable (K d  = 0.042 μL cm−2 min−1) and one saturable component identified as the apical multidrug resistance–associated protein 2 (MRP2; K m  = 275 μM; J max = 42 pmol min−1 cm−2). Permeation of both betalains increased remarkably after EDTA treatment of the cell monolayer. Neither indicaxanthin nor betanin underwent metabolic transformation. Food matrix did not affect trans-epithelial transfer of indicaxanthin, but reduced the absorption rate of betanin, red beet more than cactus pear.Dietary indicaxanthin and betanin can substantially be absorbed through paracellular junctions of intestinal epithelial cells. Additional trans-membrane permeation can be considered for betanin, whose absorption is limited by a MRP2-mediated efflux and negatively affected by its food matrix. Present findings are consistent with the quite higher bioavailability of indicaxanthin over betanin established in humans.
Keywords: Betalains; Intestinal absorption; Caco-2 cells; Betalainic food; Indicaxanthin; Betanin

Glutamine (Gln) is a nutrient with immunomodulatory effects in metabolic stressed conditions. This study investigated the effects of Gln on colonic-inflammatory-mediator expression and mucosal repair in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis.C57BL/6 mice received distilled water containing 3 % DSS for 5 d to induce colitis. One of the DSS-treated groups was intraperitoneally injected with an alanyl (Ala)-Gln solution 3 days before (G-DSS) while the other group was administered Ala-Gln 3 days after colitis (DSS-G) was induced. The Ala-Gln solution provided 0.5 g Gln/kg/d. The saline-DSS group (S-DSS) received an identical amount of saline before and after colitis was induced to serve as a positive control.The S-DSS group had a shorter colon length, higher plasma haptoglobin level, and more-severe colon inflammation. Also, the toll-like receptor (TLR)4 level, nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation, and inflammatory cytokine gene expression in the colon were higher than those of the normal control group. Gln administration either before or after colitis suppressed TLR4 protein levels, decreased plasma haptoglobin, and reduced colon inflammation. Histological inflammatory scores were also lowered. Compared to the post-colitis Gln group, preventive use of Gln had higher colon length, expressions of mucin 2, trefoil factor 3, and heat shock protein 72 genes were also upregulated in the colon.These results suggest that Gln administered either before or after the colitis mitigated inflammation of colitis that was not observed in group without Gln injection. Prophylactic treatment with Gln had more-beneficial effects on reducing inflammatory markers and enhancing the recovery of mucosa in DSS-induced colitis.
Keywords: Colitis; Glutamine; TLR4; NF-κB; Inflammation; Mucosal repair

Long-term dietary intake of selenium, calcium, and dairy products is associated with improved capillary recruitment in healthy young men by Caroline Buss; Carolina Marinho; Priscila Alves Maranhão; Eliete Bouskela; Luiz Guilherme Kraemer-Aguiar (1099-1105).
To identify associations between long-term (1 year) food intake and skin nutritive microvascular function in healthy subjects.This was a cross-sectional study. A validated 88-item food-frequency questionnaire was administered to 39 healthy men aged 23.4 ± 0.5 years and body mass index 23.3 ± 2.3 kg/m2, who reported food intake during the last year and underwent videocapillaroscopy exams. The main outcome was the increase in functional capillary recruitment, that is, peak capillary density after post-occlusive reactive hyperemia subtracted from basal capillary density (caps/mm2). Associations between reported food intake and functional capillary recruitment were investigated.Daily average estimates of intake were: total energy (3,745 ± 1,365 kcal), carbohydrates (60.1 ± 5.9 %), lipids (22.1 ± 4.4 %), proteins (17.8 ± 4.1 %), fibers (33.9 ± 18.5 g), and cholesterol (492.8 ± 209.6 mg). Positive significant correlations with capillary recruitment were found for selenium (as μg/day/1,000 kcal; rho = 0.3412, p = 0.038,) calcium (as mg/day/1,000 kcal; rho = 0.3390, p = 0.043), and percentage of total energy from dairy products (rho = 0.3660, p = 0.023).Long-term intakes of selenium, calcium, and dairy products were positively associated with capillary recruitment in skin nutritive microcirculation in healthy young men. The role of such dietary components is discussed and possible mechanisms for their effects should be further investigated. This evidence adds one more possible functional property of these nutrients and food items.
Keywords: Food intake; Capillary recruitment; Functional foods; Functional capillary density

Antioxidant and inflammatory response following high-fat meal consumption in overweight subjects by Cristiana Miglio; Ilaria Peluso; Anna Raguzzini; Deborah V. Villaño; Eleonora Cesqui; Giovina Catasta; Elisabetta Toti; Mauro Serafini (1107-1114).
Postprandial metabolic stress as a consequence of ingestion of high-energy meals is recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the inflammatory and antioxidant response of the body to the acute ingestion of a high-fat meal (HFM).Fifteen healthy overweight subjects were recruited for the study. After HFM consumption, plasma glucose, insulin, uric acid (UA), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), thiols (SH), inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) and dietary antioxidants were measured at 0, 0, 5, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h points from ingestion.The ingestion of HFM induced significant increases in both TG and TC, with peaks at 4 h (p < 0.001) and 8 h (p < 0.01), respectively. IL-6 and TNF-α significantly increased postprandially, reaching maximum concentrations 8 h after meal consumption (p < 0.001). Whereas plasma concentrations of vitamins and carotenoids were not changed by HFM, SH and UA increased, peaking 2–4 h postingestion (p < 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Increments of SH and UA were positively correlated with AUC for TG (Pearson coefficient 0.888, p < 0.001 and 0.923, p < 0.001, respectively).Present results indicate that as a consequence of an excess of dietary fat, the body responds through an inflammatory reaction, which is accompanied by an increment of endogenous antioxidant defenses, mediated by UA and SH, but not by vitamins C and E and carotenoids. Although further studies are needed, results of the current investigation represent novel findings on endogenous strategies of redox defense from fat overloads.
Keywords: High-fat meal; Postprandial stress; Inflammation; Endogenous antioxidants

Vitamin D status indicators in indigenous populations in East Africa by Martine F. Luxwolda; Remko S. Kuipers; Ido P. Kema; E. van der Veer; D. A. Janneke Dijck-Brouwer; Frits A. J. Muskiet (1115-1125).
Sufficient vitamin D status may be defined as the evolutionary established circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] matching our Paleolithic genome.We studied serum 25(OH)D [defined as 25(OH)D2 + 25(OH)D3] and its determinants in 5 East African ethnical groups across the life cycle: Maasai (MA) and Hadzabe (HA) with traditional life styles and low fish intakes, and people from Same (SA; intermediate fish), Sengerema (SE; high fish), and Ukerewe (UK; high fish). Samples derived from non-pregnant adults (MA, HA, SE), pregnant women (MA, SA, SE), mother–infant couples at delivery (UK), infants at delivery and their lactating mothers at 3 days (MA, SA, SE), and lactating mothers at 3 months postpartum (SA, SE). Erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid (RBC-DHA) was determined as a proxy for fish intake.The mean ± SD 25(OH)D of non-pregnant adults and cord serum were 106.8 ± 28.4 and 79.9 ± 26.4 nmol/L, respectively. Pregnancy, delivery, ethnicity (which we used as a proxy for sunlight exposure), RBC-DHA, and age were the determinants of 25(OH)D. 25(OH)D increased slightly with age. RBC-DHA was positively related to 25(OH)D, notably 25(OH)D2. Pregnant MA (147.7 vs. 118.3) and SE (141.9 vs. 89.0) had higher 25(OH)D than non-pregnant counterparts (MA, SE). Infant 25(OH)D at delivery in Ukerewe was about 65 % of maternal 25(OH)D.Our ancient 25(OH)D amounted to about 115 nmol/L and sunlight exposure, rather than fish intake, was the principal determinant. The fetoplacental unit was exposed to high 25(OH)D, possibly by maternal vitamin D mobilization from adipose tissue, reduced insulin sensitivity, trapping by vitamin D-binding protein, diminished deactivation, or some combination.
Keywords: 25-Hydroxyvitamin D; Evolution; East Africa; Sunlight exposure; Fish intake; Pregnancy

Dietary patterns and the risk of type 2 diabetes in overweight and obese individuals by Florianne Bauer; Joline W. J. Beulens; Daphne L. van der A; Cisca Wijmenga; Diederick E. Grobbee; Annemieke M. W. Spijkerman; Yvonne T. van der Schouw; N. Charlotte Onland-Moret (1127-1134).
Although overweight is an important determinant of diabetes risk, it remains unclear whether food choices can still influence the risk for type 2 diabetes in overweight persons. In this paper, we aim to clarify the role of dietary patterns in the development of type 2 diabetes in overweight and obese individuals.We studied 20,835 overweight and obese participants in the Dutch part of the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-NL) study. Dietary intake was measured using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and dietary patterns were generated using factor analysis. Incident type 2 diabetes was verified against medical records. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between the dietary patterns (factor scores categorized in quartiles) and incident type 2 diabetes.Scoring on Pattern 1, characterized by fish, wine, chicken, raw vegetables and fruit juices, was not associated with type 2 diabetes risk after confounder adjustment. A high score on Pattern 2, characterized by soft drinks, fries and snacks, was associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes (HR Q4 vs. Q1 (95 % CI): 1.70 (1.31; 2.20), p trend ≤ 0.0001), particularly among less active individuals [less active: HR Q4 vs. Q1 (95 % CI): 2.14 (1.48; 3.09), p trend = 0.00004, more active: HR Q4 vs. Q1 (95 % CI): 1.35 (0.93; 1.97), p trend = 0.01; p interaction = 0.02].A high score on a pattern high in soft drinks, fries and snacks and low in fruit and vegetables was associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes in overweight and obese subjects especially among physically less active individuals.
Keywords: Dietary pattern; Type 2 diabetes; Obesity; Epidemiology

Increased physical activity combined with more eating occasions is beneficial against dyslipidemias in children. The Healthy Growth Study by George Moschonis; Christina Mavrogianni; Kalliopi Karatzi; Vasiliki Iatridi; George P. Chrousos; Christos Lionis; Yannis Manios (1135-1144).
To identify lifestyle patterns associated with blood lipid levels in children.A representative sample of 2,043 schoolchildren (9–13 years) participated in a cross-sectional epidemiologic study conducted in 77 primary schools in four large regions in Greece. Dietary intakes, breakfast patterns and eating frequency, physical activity levels, sleep duration, anthropometric and physical examination data, biochemical indices and socioeconomic information (collected from parents) were assessed in all children. Principal component analysis was used to identify the lifestyle patterns.A lifestyle pattern of more screen time, shorter sleep duration and higher sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was inversely associated with HDL cholesterol (β = −0.077; P < 0.001) and positively associated with total/HDL cholesterol ratio (β = 0.049; P = 0.025). Furthermore, a lifestyle pattern of more eating occasions and higher moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels was inversely associated with total cholesterol (β = −0.064; P = 0.006), LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol (β = −0.065; P = 0.004) and total/HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol ratio (β = −0.043; P = 0.049) in multivariate models. Finally, children with MVPA levels and eating frequency higher than that corresponding to the second quartile of this lifestyle pattern (i.e., > 44.8 min of MVPA per day and > 4.7 meals per day) were 29.7, 32.6 and 43.1 % less likely of having abnormal levels of total cholesterol, LDL and total/HDL cholesterol ratio, respectively, according to the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) cutoff points.A lifestyle pattern of more than approximately 45 min of MVPA and 5 eating occasions per day was significantly associated with reduced likelihood of dyslipidemias in schoolchildren (9–13 years).
Keywords: Children; Serum lipids; Lifestyle patterns; Diet

Chronic cranberry juice consumption restores cholesterol profiles and improves endothelial function in ovariectomized rats by Lai-Ming Yung; Xiao Yu Tian; Wing Tak Wong; Fung Ping Leung; Lai Hang Yung; Zhen Yu Chen; Chi Wai Lau; Paul M. Vanhoutte; Xiaoqiang Yao; Yu Huang (1145-1155).
Postmenopausal women experience higher risks for cardiovascular diseases than age-matched men and pre-menopausal women. There is a need for better treatment strategy for estrogen-deficient-related cardiovascular complications. We and others have recently reported that activated renin–angiotensin system and the associated oxidative stress impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation in ovariectomized rat, while angiotensin receptor blocker rescues endothelial dysfunction. Dietary supplements and lifestyle modifications provide an alternative way to improve cardiovascular health. The present study tests the hypothesis that chronic cranberry juice consumption improves cholesterol profiles and vascular functions in estrogen-deficient animal model. The effect of cranberry consumption on expression and activity of renin–angiotensin system in the vasculature will be determined.Ovariectomized rats were treated daily with commercial cranberry juice at 7 mg/kg for 8 weeks, a dosage comparable to recent clinical studies. Serum was collected for measuring cholesterol levels while aorta was isolated for isometric force assay and expression studies.Cranberry juice consumption reduced circulating levels of total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, HDL, nHDL, and nHDL/HDL ratio. Meanwhile, cranberry juice consumption improved endothelium-dependent relaxation in aorta of ovariectomized rats by restoring p-eNOS level (endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylated at ser-1177), reversing the up-regulated levels of renin–angiotensin system markers (angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensin II, and angiotensin II type 1 receptor), and normalizing the elevated NAD(P)H oxidase expression and oxidative stress.Our data demonstrate the novel cardiovascular benefits of cranberry juice consumption in improving both vascular functions and cholesterol profiles, providing insight into developing cranberry products into useful dietary supplements for postmenopausal women.
Keywords: Cranberry; Estrogen deficiency; Nitric oxide; Oxidative stress; Renin–angiotensin system; Endothelial functions

Dietary folic acid intake differentially affects methionine metabolism markers and hippoccampus morphology in aged rats by Teresa Partearroyo; Julia Pérez-Miguelsanz; Natalia Úbeda; María Valencia-Benítez; Elena Alonso-Aperte; Gregorio Varela-Moreiras (1157-1167).
Folic acid (FA) is an emerging nutritional factor in the pathogenesis of diverse neurodegenerative disorders by still unknown mechanisms. The hippocampus is altered during the loss of cognitive abilities in humans and selectively affected when homocysteine increases. The aim was to evaluate the potential protective role of folic acid in the maintenance of biochemical markers related to the methionine cycle, as well as the integrity of the hippocampus as part of the brain in aged rats.Male Sprague–Dawley rats (18 months old) were assigned to four different folic acid groups (0 mg FA/kg diet, deficient; 2 mg FA/kg diet, control; 8 mg FA/kg diet, moderate supplementation; 40 mg FA/kg diet, extra supplementation) for 30 days. We evaluated several parameters related to the methionine cycle. In addition, hippocampus areas were immunostained for specific neuronal markers and astrocytes.Serum folate levels increased according to FA dietary level (p < 0.01). There was a significant increase in the serum homocysteine concentrations in the folic acid-deficient diet group (p < 0.01). However, brain S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine did not differ significantly between the folic acid groups. Consequently, the methylation ratio was also unchanged. The morphometric analysis did not show any differences in the number of neurons and astrocytes between groups, except when comparing the folic acid-deficient diet versus folic acid-supplemented diet in the striatum of the hippocampus.Clearly, the dietary FA deficiency negatively affects the methionine metabolism biomarkers, while excessive supplementation seems to be unnecessary for optimal maintenance of the methylation cycle and hippocampus integrity.
Keywords: Folic acid; Supplementation; Homocysteine; S-adenosylmethionine; S-adenosylhomocysteine; DNA methylation; Brain; Hippocampus; Aging

Milk phospholipid and plant sterol-dependent modulation of plasma lipids in healthy volunteers by Sylvia Keller; Angelika Malarski; Carolin Reuther; Romy Kertscher; Michael Kiehntopf; Gerhard Jahreis (1169-1179).
Hypolipidemic and/or hypocholesterolemic effects are presumed for dietary milk phospholipid (PL) as well as plant sterol (PSt) supplementation. The aim was to induce changes in plasma lipid profile by giving different doses of milk PL and a combination of milk PL with PSt to healthy volunteers.In an open-label intervention study, 14 women received dairy products enriched with moderate (3 g PL/day) or high (6 g PL/day) dose of milk PL or a high dose of milk PL combined with PSt (6 g PL/day + 2 g PSt/day) during 3 periods each lasting 10 days.Total cholesterol concentration and HDL cholesterol concentration were reduced following supplementation with 3 g PL/day. No significant change in LDL cholesterol concentration was found compared with baseline. High PL dose resulted in an increase of LDL cholesterol and unchanged HDL cholesterol compared with moderate PL dose. The LDL/HDL ratio and triglyceride concentration remained constant within the study. Except for increased phosphatidyl ethanolamine concentrations, plasma PL concentrations were not altered during exclusive PL supplementations. A combined high-dose PL and PSt supplementation led to decreased plasma LDL cholesterol concentration, decreased PL excretion, increased plasma sphingomyelin/phosphatidyl choline ratio, and significant changes in plasma fatty acid distribution compared with exclusive high-dose PL supplementation.Milk PL supplementations influence plasma cholesterol concentrations, but without changes of LDL/HDL ratio. A combined high-dose milk PL and PSt supplementation decreases plasma LDL cholesterol concentration, but it probably enforces absorption of fatty acids or fatty acid-containing hydrolysis products that originated during lipid digestion.
Keywords: Sphingomyelin; Phosphatidyl choline; Cholesterol; Bile acids; Fatty acids; Dairy products

Differential effects of high-fat-diet rich in lard oil or soybean oil on osteopontin expression and inflammation of adipose tissue in diet-induced obese rats by Xiaoke Wang; Mengjie Cheng; Min Zhao; Aiguo Ge; Fangfang Guo; Min Zhang; Yanhong Yang; Liegang Liu; Nianhong Yang (1181-1189).
To examine the effect of different dietary fat types on osteopontin (OPN) expressions and inflammation of adipose tissues in diet-induced obese rats.Male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one control group fed standard diet (LF, n = 10) and two high-fat diet groups fed isoenergy diet rich in lard or soybean oil (HL or HS, n = 45 each). Diet-induced obese rats in HL and HS group were then subdivided into two groups either continuously fed high-fat diet or switched to low-fat diet for 8 more weeks. Fasting serum glucose, insulin, and OPN concentrations were assayed and QUICKI was calculated; the expression of OPN, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, NF-κB, and F4/80 in adipose tissue was determined.Both high-fat diets lead to comparable development of obesity characterized by insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation. Obese rats continuously fed high-fat diet rich in lard oil exhibited the highest fasting serum insulin level and adipose tissue OPN, F4/80, TNF-α, and NF-κB expression level. In both high-fat diet groups, switching to low-fat diet resulted in less intra-abdominal fat mass, decreased expression of F4/80, TNF-α, and NF-κB, while decreased OPN expression was only observed in lard oil fed rats after switching to low-fat diet.Reducing diet fat or replacing lard oil with soybean oil in high-fat diet alleviates obesity-related inflammation and insulin resistance by attenuating the upregulation of OPN and macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue induced by high-fat diet.
Keywords: Diet-induced obese; Inflammation; Insulin resistance; Osteopontin; High-fat diet; Soybean oil; Lard oil

Dietary supplementation with geranylgeraniol suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation via inhibition of nuclear factor-κB activation in rats by Puspo E. Giriwono; Hitoshi Shirakawa; Yusuke Ohsaki; Shuichi Hata; Hiroki Kuriyama; Shoko Sato; Tomoko Goto; Michio Komai (1191-1199).
The isoprenoid geranylgeraniol (GGOH) inhibits nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation in the liver, yet the mechanism remains unclear. We investigated the modulation and inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NF-κB signaling in the liver of rats fed a GGOH-supplemented diet.Rats were fed a diet supplemented with or without GGOH for 10 days. Rats were then intraperitoneally injected with 0.5 mg/kg LPS or vehicle (sterilized saline) and fasted for 18 h. Plasma levels of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6, and the liver damage indicators alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST) were assessed. Liver mRNA and proteins were assayed for changes in NF-κB target genes and signal transduction genes.Rats fed a high-dose, GGOH-supplemented diet showed significantly lower levels of plasma inflammatory cytokines and ALT and AST activities. In the liver, GGOH significantly suppressed NF-κB activation and mRNA expression of its pro-inflammatory target genes. Furthermore, GGOH supplementation substantially suppressed mRNA expression of signal transducer genes upstream of the IκB kinase complex. Western blotting of liver extracts further demonstrated the substantial decrease in total IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) and TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), leading to lower signal transduction and inhibition of NF-κB after LPS.A 10-day, high-dose, GGOH-supplemented diet was sufficient to inhibit LPS-induced inflammation and activation of NF-κB in rat livers. GGOH significantly modulated NF-κB signaling molecules, inhibiting its signal transduction and activation in the liver, thus protecting against liver damage.
Keywords: Liver inflammation; Geranylgeraniol; Irak1 ; Traf6 ; NF-κB inhibition

To investigate the effects of a high-protein/low-carbohydrate diet fed to mice of different genotypes during pregnancy and/or lactation on offspring skeletal muscle growth and metabolism.Pregnant mice from strains selected for high body mass (DU6) or endurance running performance (DUhLB) and from an unselected control strain (DUK) were fed iso-energetic diets containing 20 % (C) or 40 % protein and low carbohydrate (HP) from mating to weaning at day 21 of age. At birth, offspring were cross-fostered resulting in different exposure to maternal prenatal-preweaning diets (C–C, HP–C, C–HP, HP–HP). Rectus femoris muscle of male mice (n = 291) was examined at day 23, 44, 181 and 396 of age for cellular growth and metabolism.At day 23 of age, body and muscle growth was retarded by 30–40 % (P < 0.0001) in response to the C–HP and HP–HP, but not to the HP–C diet, due to reduced fibre size (P < 0.0001) but not fibre number. DNA was highly reduced in DU6, less in DUhLB, but not in DUK muscle (strain × diet; P < 0.0001). Despite some compensation, muscle growth was still impaired (P < 0.001) in adulthood (day 44; day 181), but at senescence only in DU6 mice (strain × diet; P < 0.05). Only at weaning, isocitrate and lactate dehydrogenase activities were increased or decreased (P < 0.0001), respectively, without influence on fibre type composition.A high-protein/low-carbohydrate diet fed to dams during lactation, but not during pregnancy, retards skeletal muscle growth in offspring with greater response of a heavy, obese compared with a physically fit and a control genotype and causes a transient shift towards oxidative versus glycolytic muscle metabolism.
Keywords: Genetic selection; Protein/carbohydrate intake; Pregnancy; Lactation; Genotype–nutrition interaction; Muscle metabolism

Comparable reduction in cholesterol absorption after two different ways of phytosterol administration in humans by Marie Josèphe Amiot; Diny Knol; Nicolas Cardinault; Marion Nowicki; Romain Bott; Claudine Antona; Patrick Borel; Jean-Paul Bernard; Guus Duchateau; Denis Lairon (1215-1222).
Consumption of phytosterols is a nutritional strategy to reduce cholesterol absorption, but the efficacy of various phytosterol intake modalities remains uncertain. The main objective was to investigate the effects of phytosterol esters (PE) provided either as a spread (dispersed in fat) during a mixed meal or as a minidrink (micro-dispersed in liquid form) after a meal.In a randomized, single-blinded crossover design, 12 healthy intubated volunteers tested three different liquid meal sequences with and without PE. The liquid meal (500 mL, Fortisip) contained an oral dose (80 mg) of deuterium-enriched cholesterol (D7C). The intubation was stopped at 240 min, and the fate of sterols was determined in the different phases of duodenal content samples as function of time. A second solid fat-containing meal without sterols was consumed at 270 min. D7C was quantified in chylomicrons and plasma for 8 h. The conditions tested were as follows: (1) no PE added (control), (2) PE in a spread added into a liquid meal (PE-spread meal) and (3) PE given 30 min after a liquid meal as 100-g yoghurt drink (PE-minidrink meal).Addition of PE decreased the incorporation of cholesterol into the duodenum aqueous phase including micelles. PE added as a spread or as a minidrink significantly and comparably lowered meal cholesterol occurrence in chylomicrons (−40 % for PE-spread and −54 % for PE-minidrink, p < 0.0001) compared with the control meal.PE either dispersed in fat during a meal or micro-dispersed in a liquid form after a meal resulted in a markedly reduced occurrence of meal-derived cholesterol in the circulation at a comparable extent.
Keywords: Phytosterols; Cholesterol absorption; Clinical trial; Duodenum; Micelle; Stable isotope

Beneficial effects of polyphenol-rich olive oil in patients with early atherosclerosis by R. J. Widmer; M. A. Freund; A. J. Flammer; J. Sexton; R. Lennon; A. Romani; N. Mulinacci; F. F. Vinceri; L. O. Lerman; A. Lerman (1223-1231).
Diets rich in plant-derived polyphenols such as olive oil (OO) and/or catechins such as epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG) have been shown to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, potentially by improving endothelial function, an important surrogate for atherosclerosis. The possible augmentation of endothelial function with the combined efforts of OO and EGCG is intriguing, yet unknown.Eighty-two patients with early atherosclerosis (presence of endothelial dysfunction) were enrolled in this double-blind, randomized trial with 52 completing the study. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of a daily intake of 30 ml simple OO, with 30 ml of EGCG-supplemented OO, on endothelial function as well as on inflammation and oxidative stress after a period of 4 months. Endothelial function was assessed noninvasively via peripheral arterial tonometry (Endo-PAT®).After 4 months, when OO and EGCG-supplemented OO groups were combined, OO significantly improved endothelial function (RHI, 1.59 ± 0.25–1.75 ± 0.45; p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in results between the two olive oil groups. Interestingly, with OO supplementation there was a significant reduction in inflammatory parameters: sICAM (196 to 183 ng/mL, p = < 0.001); white blood cells (WBCs) (6.0 × 109/L–5.8 × 109/L, p < 0.05); monocytes (0.48 × 109/L to 0.44 × 109/L, p = 0.05); lymphocytes (1.85 × 109/L to 1.6 × 109/L, p = 0.01); and platelets (242–229 × 109/L, p = 0.047).Improvement in endothelial dysfunction in patients with early atherosclerosis in association with significant reduction in leukocytes may suggest an important role of early cellular inflammatory mediators on endothelial function. The current study supports one potential mechanism for the role of olive oil, independent of EGCG, modestly supplemented to a healthy cardiovascular diet.
Keywords: Endothelial function; Olive oil; Inflammation; Oxidative stress; Atherosclerosis

Reduced cholesterol levels in renal membranes of undernourished rats may account for urinary Na+ loss by Fabiana S. T. Oliveira; Leucio D. Vieira-Filho; Edjair V. Cabral; Luzia S. Sampaio; Paulo A. Silva; Vera C. O. Carvalho; Adalberto Vieyra; Marcelo Einicker-Lamas; Vera L. M. Lima; Ana D. O. Paixão (1233-1242).
It has been demonstrated that reabsorption of Na+ in the thick ascending limb is reduced and the ability to concentrate urine can be compromised in undernourished individuals. Alterations in phospholipid and cholesterol content in renal membranes, leading to Na+ loss and the inability to concentrate urine, were investigated in undernourished rats.Sixty-day-old male Wistar rats were utilized to evaluate (1) phospholipid and cholesterol content in the membrane fraction of whole kidneys, (2) cholesterol content and the levels of active Na+ transporters, (Na+ + K+)ATPase and Na+-ATPase, in basolateral membranes of kidney proximal tubules, and (3) functional indicators of medullary urine concentration.Body weight in the undernourished group was 73 % lower than in control. Undernourishment did not affect the levels of cholesterol in serum or in renal homogenates. However, membranes of whole kidneys revealed 56 and 66 % reduction in the levels of total phospholipids and cholesterol, respectively. Furthermore, cholesterol and (Na+ + K+)ATPase activity in proximal tubule membranes were reduced by 55 and 68 %, respectively. Oxidative stress remained unaltered in the kidneys of undernourished rats. In contrast, Na+-ATPase activity, an enzyme with all regulatory components in membrane, was increased in the proximal tubules of undernourished rats. Free water clearance and fractional Na+ excretion were increased by 86 and 24 %, respectively, and urinary osmolal concentration was 21 % lower in undernourished rats than controls.Life-long undernutrition reduces the levels of total phospholipids and cholesterol in membranes of renal tubular cells. This alteration in membrane integrity could diminish (Na+ + K+)ATPase activity resulting in reduced Na+ reabsorption and urinary concentrating ability.
Keywords: Undernutrition; Phospholipids; Kidney; (Na+ + K+)ATPase; Na+-ATPase; Free water clearance

Hyperhomocysteinemia is well recognized as an independent risk factor for the development of premature atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis, however, may be prevented by polyphenols, potent antioxidant compounds with anti-atherogenic properties. Previously, we used cystathionine beta synthase-deficient mice [Cbs (±)] fed a high-methionine diet—a murine model of hyperhomocysteinemia—to show that daily intake of a red wine polyphenolic extract, mainly comprised of catechin and epicatechin, has a beneficial effect on aortic expression of endothelial dysfunction biomarkers and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to understand whether catechin and epicatechin, in purified forms, have anti-atherogenic effects in hyperhomocysteinemia.Cbs (±) mice received 50 μg of catechin and/or epicatechin daily in drinking water for 1 month. Plasma homocysteine (Hcy) level and aortic expression of several endothelial dysfunction biomarkers (Vcam-1, Icam-1, E-selectin, and Lox-1) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (Tnf-α, Il-6) were assessed.We found that both catechin and epicatechin had a beneficial effect on plasma homocysteine levels and endothelial dysfunction biomarker expression; however, only catechin had a beneficial effect on pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Further, when both polyphenols were given, a beneficial effect was observed only on pro-inflammatory cytokine expression.Catechin seems to be a more potent anti-atherogenic compound than epicatechin in hyperhomocysteinemia and should be considered as a novel therapeutic approach against endothelial dysfunction induced by this condition.
Keywords: Homocysteine; Mice; Aorta; Catechin; Epicatechin; Atherosclerosis

Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid intakes and endometrial cancer risk in a population-based case–control study by Hannah Arem; Marian L. Neuhouser; Melinda L. Irwin; Brenda Cartmel; Lingeng Lu; Harvey Risch; Susan T. Mayne; Herbert Yu (1251-1260).
Animal and laboratory studies suggest that long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids, a type of polyunsaturated fat found in fatty fish, may protect against carcinogenesis, but human studies on dietary intake of polyunsaturated fats and fish with endometrial cancer risk show mixed results.We evaluated the associations between endometrial cancer risk and intake of fatty acids and fish in a population-based sample of 556 incident cancer cases and 533 age-matched controls using multivariate unconditional logistic regression methods.Although total n-3 fatty acid intake was not associated with endometrial cancer risk, higher intakes of eicosapentaenoic (EPA 20:5) and docosahexaenoic (DHA 22:6) fatty acids were significantly associated with lower risks (OR = 0.57, 95 % CI: 0.39–0.84; OR = 0.64, 95 % CI: 0.44–0.94; respectively) comparing extreme quartiles. The ratio of n-3:n-6 fatty acids was inversely associated with risk only on a continuous scale (OR = 0.84, 95 % CI: 0.71–0.99), while total fish intake was not associated with risk. Fish oil supplement use was significantly associated with reduced risk of endometrial cancer: OR = 0.63 (95 % CI: 0.45–0.88).Our results suggest that dietary intake of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids EPA and DHA in foods and supplements may have protective associations against the development of endometrial cancer.
Keywords: Endometrial cancer; Fatty acids; Fish oil; Fish; Case–control study

Association of anorexia with sarcopenia in a community-dwelling elderly population: results from the ilSIRENTE study by Francesco Landi; Rosa Liperoti; Andrea Russo; Silvia Giovannini; Matteo Tosato; Christian Barillaro; Ettore Capoluongo; Roberto Bernabei; Graziano Onder (1261-1268).
There is increasing evidence that anorexia of aging can cause physical and mental impairment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between anorexia and sarcopenia in elderly persons aged 80 years or older.Data are from the baseline evaluation of 354 subjects enrolled in the ilSIRENTE study. The ilSIRENTE study is a prospective cohort study performed in the mountain community living in the Sirente geographic area (L’Aquila, Abruzzo) in Central Italy. We defined anorexia as the presence of loss of appetite and/or lower food intake. According to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) criteria, diagnosis of sarcopenia required the documentation of low muscle mass plus the documentation of either low muscle strength or low physical performance. The relationship between anorexia and sarcopenia was estimated by deriving odds ratios from the multiple logistic regression models considering sarcopenia as the dependent variable.Nearly 21 % of the study sample showed symptoms of anorexia. Using the EWGSOP-suggested algorithm, 103 subjects (29.1 %) with sarcopenia were identified. Thirty-four (46.6 %) participants were affected by sarcopenia among subjects with anorexia compared to 69 subjects [24.6 %] without anorexia (p < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders including age, gender, functional and cognitive impairment, physical activity, urinary incontinence, comorbidity, congestive heart failure, COPD, depression, anti-cholinergic drugs, and TNF-α plasmatic levels, participants with anorexia had a higher risk of sarcopenia compared with non-anorexic subjects (HR 1.88, 95 % CI 1.01–3.51).Anorexia is common among community-dwelling older subjects in Italy. Our results suggest that among old–old subjects, anorexia is independently associated with sarcopenia.
Keywords: Anorexia; Sarcopenia; Frailty; ilSIRENTE study

Choline supply of preterm infants: assessment of dietary intake and pathophysiological considerations by Wolfgang Bernhard; Anna Full; Jörg Arand; Christoph Maas; Christian F. Poets; Axel R. Franz (1269-1278).
Choline forms the head group of phosphatidylcholines, comprising 40–50 % of cellular membranes and 70–95 % of phospholipids in surfactant, bile, and lipoproteins. Moreover, choline serves as the precursor of acetylcholine and is important for brain differentiation and function. While accepted as essential for fetal and neonatal development, its role in preterm infant nutrition has not yet gained much attention.The adequate intake of choline of preterm infants was estimated from international recommendations for infants, children, and adults. Choline intake relative to other nutrients was determined retrospectively in all inborn infants below 1,000 g (extremely low birth weight) or below 28 weeks gestational age, admitted to our department in 2006 and 2007 (N = 93).Estimation of adequate intake showed that children with 290 g body weight need more choline than those with 1,200 g (31.4 and 25.2 mg/kg/day, respectively). Day-by-day variability was high for all nutrient intakes including choline. In contrast to the continuous intrauterine choline delivery, median supply reached a plateau at d11 (21.7 mg/kg/day; 25th/75th percentile: 19.6; 23.9). Individual choline supply at d0–d1 and d2–d3 was <10 mg/kg/day in 100 and 69 % of infants, respectively. Furthermore, intakes <10 mg/kg/day were frequently observed beyond day 11. Median adequate intakes (27.4 mg/kg/day at 735 g body weight) were achieved in <2 %.Nutritional intake of choline in this cohort of preterm infants was frequently less than the estimated adequate intake, with particular shortage until postnatal d10. Because choline is important for brain development, future studies are needed to investigate the effects of adequate nutritional choline intake on long-term neurodevelopment in VLBW infants.
Keywords: Choline deficiency; Enteral nutrition; Parenteral nutrition; Preterm infants

A glucosinolate-rich extract of Japanese Daikon perturbs carcinogen-metabolizing enzyme systems in rat, being a potent inducer of hepatic glutathione S-transferase by Ahmad Faizal Abdull Razis; Gina Rosalinda De Nicola; Eleonora Pagnotta; Renato Iori; Costas Ioannides (1279-1285).
Glucosinolates/isothiocyanates are an established class of naturally occurring chemopreventive agents, a principal mechanism of action being to limit the generation of genotoxic metabolites of chemical carcinogens, as a result of modulation of cytochrome P450 and phase II detoxification enzymes. The objective of this study was to assess whether a glucosinolate-rich extract from Daikon sprouts, containing glucroraphasatin and glucoraphenin, is a potential chemopreventive agent by modulating such enzymes in the liver and lung of rats.Rats were exposed to the glucosinolate-rich Daikon extract through the diet, at three dose levels, for 14 days, so that the low dose simulates dietary intake.At the low dose only, a modest increase was noted in the hepatic dealkylations of methoxy-, ethoxy-, pentoxyresorufin and benzyloxyquinoline that was accompanied by elevated expression of CYP1 and CYP3A2 apoprotein levels. In lung, only a modest increase in the dealkylation of pentoxyresorufin was observed. At higher doses, in both tissues, these increases were abolished. At the same low dietary dose, the Daikon extract elevated markedly glutathione S-transferase activity paralleled by rises in GSTα, GSTμ and GSTπ protein expression. An increase was also noted in quinone reductase activity and expression. Finally, glucuronosyl transferase and epoxide hydrolase activities and expression were also up-regulated, but necessitated higher doses.Considering the ability of Daikon glucosinolates to effectively enhance detoxification enzymes, in particular glutathione S-transferase, it may be inferred that consumption of this vegetable may possess significant chemopreventive activity and warrants further evaluation through epidemiology and studies in animal models of cancer.
Keywords: Daikon; Glucosinolates; Glucoraphasatin; Isothiocyanates; Chemoprevention; Glutathione S-transferase

Erratum to: A glucosinolate-rich extract of Japanese Daikon perturbs carcinogen-metabolizing enzyme systems in rat, being a potent inducer of hepatic glutathione S-transferase by Ahmad Faizal Abdull Razis; Gina Rosalinda De Nicola; Eleonora Pagnotta; Renato Iori; Costas Ioannides (1287-1287).