European Journal of Nutrition (v.50, #4)

Multiple cellular stress responses have been implicated in chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular, and inflammatory bowel diseases. Even though phenotypically different, chronic diseases share cellular stress signaling pathways, in particular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) unfolded protein response (UPR).The purpose of the ER UPR is to restore ER homeostasis after challenges of the ER function. Among the triggers of ER UPR are changes in the redox status, elevated protein synthesis, accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins, energy deficiency and glucose deprivation, cholesterol depletion, and microbial signals. Numerous mouse models have been used to characterize the contribution of ER UPR to several pathologies, and ER UPR-associated signaling has also been demonstrated to be relevant in humans. Additionally, recent evidence suggests that the ER UPR is interrelated with metabolic and inflammatory pathways, autophagy, apoptosis, and mitochondrial stress signaling. Furthermore, microbial as well as nutrient sensing is integrated into the ER-associated signaling network.The data discussed in the present review highlight the interaction of ER UPR with inflammatory pathways, metabolic processes and mitochondrial function, and their interrelation in the context of chronic diseases.
Keywords: Inflammation; Unfolded protein response; Inflammatory bowel diseases; Endoplasmic reticulum; Metabolic diseases

The maintenance of an obtained lower weight level is often found to be difficult. The aim of this study was to determine weight maintenance after an initial weight loss by consumption of a meal replacement with a vegetable-oil emulsion associated with prolonged satiety.After a 6-week weight loss period with very low calorie diet (VLCD), subjects with >5% body weight (BW) loss were randomized to a 12-week weight maintenance follow-up period, comparing a partial meal replacement diet containing a vegetable-oil emulsion (test) or dairy fat (control). Anthropometric data and safety variables were collected at baseline and after 4, 8 and 12 weeks.A significant weight loss was observed during the 12-week weight maintenance diet in the test and control group, respectively; 1.0 ± 2.1 kg (p < 0.05) versus 1.3 ± 2.1 kg (p < 0.05) with no significant difference between the groups. Body fat mass (BFM) decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the test group (−1.7%) compared to the control group (−0.8%).Addition of a vegetable-oil emulsion to a meal replacement weight maintenance program after an initial weight loss using VLCD was associated with decreased BFM by 0.9% without any change in BW between the two groups.
Keywords: Weight maintenance; VLCD; Body fat mass; BFM; Body weight; Fat emulsion

Effect of a neonatal low-protein diet on the morphology of myotubes in culture and the expression of key proteins that regulate myogenesis in young and adult rats by Juliana Félix de Melo; Nijez Aloulou; Jean-Luc Duval; Pascale Vigneron; Lee Bourgoin; Carol Góis Leandro; Celia M. M. B. de Castro; Marie-Danielle Nagel (243-250).
To investigate the effects of a neonatal low-protein diet on the morphology of myotubes in culture and the expression of key proteins that regulate myogenesis in young and adult rats.Male Wistar rats (n = 18) were suckled by mothers fed diets containing 17% protein (controls, C) or 8% protein (undernourished, UN). All rats were fed a normal protein diet after weaning. Muscles were removed from the legs of 42-, 60- and 90-day-old rats. Muscle cells were cultured to assess cell number, morphology and the expression of major proteins involved in myogenesis (Pax7, cadherins, β1 integrin, IL-4Rα and myogenin) by western blotting. IL-4 levels in culture supernatants were measured by ELISA.Offspring from mothers fed a low-protein diet showed a lower body weight gain. Cell number and myotube expansion were reduced in cultured muscle cells from UN, but the expression of myogenic marker proteins was unaltered.Dietary restriction during lactation had no impact on the synthesis of myogenic marker proteins, and myocyte differentiation occurred normally in the muscles of offspring aged 42, 60 or 90 days. Nevertheless, the number and morphology of the myotubes are altered.
Keywords: Critical period of development; Programming; Satellite cells; Neonatal undernutrition; Skeletal muscle; Rats

The contribution of α1B-adrenoceptor subtype in the renal vasculature of fructose-fed Sprague–Dawley rats by Mohammed H. Abdulla; Munavvar A. Sattar; Nor A. Abdullah; Md. Abdul Hye Khan; Kolla R. L. Anand Swarup; Edward J. Johns (251-260).
Fructose feeding induces a moderate increase in blood pressure, insulin resistance, and hyperinsulinemia. This study investigated the role of α1B-adrenoceptor subtype in the control of renal hemodynamic responses to exogenously administered angiotensin II (Ang II) and a set of adrenergic agonists in a model of high fructose-fed rats.Sprague–Dawley rats were fed for 8 weeks with 20% fructose in drinking water (FFR). The renal cortical vasoconstriction to noradrenaline (NA), phenylephrine (PE), methoxamine (ME) and Ang II in the presence and absence of chloroethylclonidine (CEC) (α1B-adrenoceptor antagonist) was determined. Data, mean ± SEM or SD were subjected to ANOVA with significance at p < .05.FFR showed significant increase in the systolic blood pressure, plasma glucose, and insulin levels when compared to control. FFR expressed reduced renal cortical vascular sensitivity to NA, PE, ME, and Ang II. Furthermore, renal cortical vasoconstriction response to NA, PE, ME, and Ang II was blunted in the presence of CEC in control. While in FFR, renal cortical vasoconstriction to NA, PE, and ME was enhanced by CEC. Renal cortical vasoconstriction to Ang II in FFR was reduced in the presence of CEC.In the presence of a hyperinsulinemic state resulting from chronic and high fructose feeding, an attenuated AT1 and α1-adrenoceptors response to Ang II and adrenergic stimuli respectively, is expected. In addition, α1B-adrenoceptor is the functional subtype that mediates renal cortical vasoconstriction in control rat, while high fructose feeding did influence the functionality of α1B-adrenoceptor in mediating the renal cortical hemodynamic changes.
Keywords: Fructose; Sprague–Dawley rats; Noradrenaline; Hemodynamics; Chloroethylclonidine

Protection against increased intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation induced by intestinal obstruction in mice treated with viable and heat-killed Saccharomyces boulardii by Simone V. Generoso; Mirelle L. Viana; Rosana G. Santos; Rosa M. E. Arantes; Flaviano S. Martins; Jacques R. Nicoli; José A. N. Machado; Maria Isabel T. D. Correia; Valbert N. Cardoso (261-269).
There are substantial evidences suggesting that probiotics can protect the gastrointestinal tract against inflammatory or infectious episodes. The effects of oral treatment with viable or heat-killed cells of Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb) on bacterial translocation, intestinal permeability, histological aspect of the ileum, and some immunological parameters were evaluated in a murine intestinal obstruction (IO) model.Bacterial translocation and intestinal permeability in the IO group were significantly higher when compared to a Sham group (p < 0.05). Pretreatment with both viable and heat-killed S. boulardii prevented these increases, and the data obtained for IO + Sb and IO + heat-killed Sb groups were similar to those observed in the Sham group (p > 0.05). Histological analysis showed preservation of the ileum mucosa in mice that received both forms of the yeast when compared to the lesions observed in the IO group. The levels of serum interleukin (IL)-10 and intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) were higher in the animals that received both yeast treatments when compared to those from IO and Sham groups.Oral treatment with viable or heat-killed cells of S. boulardii maintained intestinal integrity and modulated the immune system in a murine IO model, preventing bacterial translocation and intestinal lesions.
Keywords: Saccharomyces boulardii ; Probiotic; Bacterial translocation; Intestinal permeability IL-10; sIgA

Effects of a diet with inulin-enriched pasta on gut peptides and gastric emptying rates in healthy young volunteers by Francesco Russo; Caterina Clemente; Michele Linsalata; Marisa Chiloiro; Antonella Orlando; Emanuele Marconi; Guglielmina Chimienti; Giuseppe Riezzo (271-277).
Our group has previously shown that the administration of pasta enriched along with the prebiotic inulin induces a significant reduction in triglyceride and glucose levels with a significant delay in gastric emptying (GE) rates. This protective effect may occur by affecting the release of a number of gut peptides involved in the control of gastrointestinal motility. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of inulin-enriched pasta on the circulating levels of neurotensin (NT), somatostatin (SS), and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in relation to the GE time in young healthy subjects.Twenty healthy young male volunteers completed a randomized double-blind crossover study consisting of a 2-week run-in period and two 5-week study periods (11% inulin-enriched/control pasta), with an 8-week wash-out period in between. Gut peptide concentrations were evaluated by radioimmunoassay. GE time was evaluated by ultrasonography.The prebiotic treatment significantly increased the area under the curve (AUC) values of both NT and SS (p < 0.05 Dunn’s post-test). With regard to gastric motility, along with a significant delay in both the final time and T 1/2 gastric emptying time, a positive correlation was found between T 1/2 and SS AUC values (r = 0.57, p = 0.009) in the inulin-enriched pasta group.These results support the hypothesis that inulin plays an active role in mechanisms affecting the release of these gut peptides, which may modulate the gastric emptying of digesta.
Keywords: Corticotropin-releasing factor; Diet; Fibre; Gastric emptying; Gut peptides; Inulin; Metabolic syndrome; Neurotensin; Somatostatin

Coffee consumption but not green tea consumption is associated with adiponectin levels in Japanese males by T. Imatoh; S. Tanihara; M. Miyazaki; Y. Momose; Y. Uryu; H. Une (279-284).
Coffee is among the most widely consumed beverages in the world. Numerous epidemiological studies have reported a significant inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. Therefore, we conducted an epidemiological study to clarify the relationship between coffee consumption and adiponectin levels in Japanese males. We also evaluated whether green tea consumption affected adiponectin levels.We carried out a cross-sectional study. The subjects were 665 male employees in Japan. Coffee consumption was assessed, using a self-administered questionnaire, as the number of times per week and cups per day respondents drank, and subjects were grouped into four levels (non, 1–5 times/week, 1–2 cups/day and ≥3 cups/day).The means of adiponectin levels were positively associated with coffee consumption. A dose–response relationship was found between coffee consumption and circulating adiponectin levels. The relationship remained significant after adjustment for potential confounding factors (P for trend <0.05). However, green tea consumption was not significantly associated with adiponectin levels (P for trend = 0.90).We not only revealed that habitual coffee consumption is associated with higher adiponectin levels in Japanese males but also found a dose-dependent association between coffee consumption and adiponectin levels. Therefore, our study suggested that coffee components might play an important role in the elevation of adiponectin level.
Keywords: Adiponectin; Epidemiological study; Coffee; Green tea

Seasons but not ethnicity influence urinary iodine concentrations in Belgian adults by Rodrigo Moreno-Reyes; Yvon A. Carpentier; Pascale Macours; Beatrice Gulbis; Bernard Corvilain; Daniel Glinoer; Serge Goldman (285-290).
Mild iodine deficiency (MID) is endemic in Belgium. Previous surveys, which assessed iodine nutrition in Belgium, focused on children. The iodine status of adults and the influence of ethnicity or seasonality on urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) have not been investigated. Since the nutritional profile of children differs from that of adults, we may anticipate similar differences in iodine status. Seasonal fluctuations in UIC have also been reported from other MID regions.We aimed at assessing iodine status and its association with ethnicity and seasonality in adults.A stratified random sample of 401 healthy subjects aged between 40 and 60 years, of Belgian, Moroccan, Turkish and Congolese descent residing in Brussels was obtained. Iodine status and thyroid function were determined.Median UIC was 68 μg/L. The frequency of UIC below 100 μg/L was 73.3%, of which 41.9% fell between 50 and 99 μg/L, and 29.8% between 49 and 20 μg/L. There was no difference in UIC and thyroid function between subjects of different ethnic origins. The frequency of UIC below 50 μg/L was higher in the fall-winter compared to spring-summer periods (P = 0.004). Serum FT3 concentrations, but not FT4 and TSH, were significantly greater in winter than in summer.Seasonal fluctuations in UIC suggest that the risk of iodine deficiency among adults living in Brussels is higher in fall-winter than in spring-summer. The prevalence of MID in Brussels is high among adults but ethnicity does not appear to influence iodine status.
Keywords: Goiter; Iodine deficiency; Ethnicity; Thyroid