European Journal of Nutrition (v.49, #7)

Relationships of dietary patterns with body composition in older adults differ by gender and PPAR-γ Pro12Ala genotype by Amy L. Anderson; Tamara B. Harris; Denise K. Houston; Frances A. Tylavsky; Jung Sun Lee; Deborah E. Sellmeyer; Nadine R. Sahyoun (385-394).
Dietary patterns may better capture the multifaceted effects of diet on body composition than individual nutrients or foods. The objective of this study was to investigate the dietary patterns of a cohort of older adults, and examine relationships of dietary patterns with body composition. The influence of a polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) gene was considered.The Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study is a prospective cohort study of 3,075 older adults. Participants’ body composition and genetic variation were measured in detail. Food intake was assessed with a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (Block Dietary Data Systems, Berkeley, CA), and dietary patterns of 1,809 participants with complete data were derived by cluster analysis.Six clusters were identified, including a ‘Healthy foods’ cluster characterized by higher intake of low-fat dairy products, fruit, whole grains, poultry, fish and vegetables. An interaction was found between dietary patterns and PPAR-γ Pro12Ala genotype in relation to body composition. While Pro/Pro homozygous men and women in the ‘Healthy foods’ cluster did not differ significantly in body composition from those in other clusters, men with the Ala allele in the ‘Healthy foods’ cluster had significantly lower levels of adiposity than those in other clusters. Women with the Ala allele in the ‘Healthy foods’ cluster differed only in right thigh intermuscular fat from those in other clusters.Relationships between diet and body composition in older adults may differ by gender and by genetic factors such as PPAR-γ Pro12Ala genotype.
Keywords: Diet; Dietary patterns; Body composition; Older adults; PPAR-γ Pro12Ala genotype

Is daily 400 IU of vitamin D supplementation appropriate for every country: a cross-sectional study by Hasan Onal; Erdal Adal; Seçil Alpaslan; Atilla Ersen; Ahmet Aydin (395-400).
Vitamin D deficiency in childhood is a significant problem worldwide. Religious, social customs, and lack of food fortification were significant hurdles in the way of the rickets scourge. Recent data support a serum level of 25(OH)D level >40 ng/mL as the appropriate standard to achieve to prevent rickets. Herein, the current approaches of preventing rickets and optimal level of different vitamin D intakes were evaluated.A total of 148 fully breastfed, healthy children between age of 2–24 months were investigated by screening serum 25(OH)D from April 1 to May 31, 2006. Three groups were composed according to ages (2–6, 6–12, 12–24 months), and those groups were paired with three subgroups established according to vitamin D intake of ≤300, 400, and 600 IU/day. Vitamin D status was evaluated with regard to cut-off value of 15 ng/mL and 40 mg/dL. The clothing types and vitamin D supplementation of mothers were recorded.We found that 27.3% of cases in 2–6 months, 8.3% in 6–12 months and 30% in 12–24 months had 25(OH)D <15 ng/mL and 54.5, 33.3, and 50% of cases were <40 ng/dL with 400 IU/day vitamin D intake. With 600 IU/day supplementation, 14.3, 10.3, and 4.8% of cases had 25(OH)D <15 ng/mL, respectively.Vitamin D intake of 400 IU/day seems to be favorable at the first year in breastfed children but vitamin D deficiency was still evident after prophylaxis. Vitamin D supplementation should be at least 600 IU/day in Turkey, and nutrition policy should focus on the food fortification with vitamin D.
Keywords: Developing country; Vitamin D; Health Policy; Public Health; Infancy

Cross-sectional and longitudinal relation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and body mass index: the Tromsø study by Rolf Jorde; Monica Sneve; Nina Emaus; Yngve Figenschau; Guri Grimnes (401-407).
The serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels are lower in obese than lean subjects. The present study examines the cross-sectional and longitudinal relations between body mass index (BMI) and serum 25(OH)D, and the serum 25(OH)D response to vitamin D supplementation in relation to BMI.The Tromsø study is a longitudinal population-based multipurpose study. The fourth survey was conducted in 1994 and the sixth in 2008. The intervention study was a 1-year placebo-controlled randomized intervention trial, where the results from the 93 subjects given 40,000 IU per week are presented.A total of 10,229 subjects were included in the 2008 cross-sectional study. There was a significant negative association between serum 25(OH)D levels and BMI which was also present during the winter months. Serum 25(OH)D levels varied through seasons, but not BMI. In the longitudinal study from 1994 to 2008 which included 2,656 subjects, change in BMI was a significant negative predictor of change in 25(OH)D. In the intervention study, there was a significant and negative correlation between BMI and serum 25(OH)D both at baseline and at the end of the study. The increase in serum 25(OH)D after 1 year was significantly and inversely related to baseline BMI.We have confirmed the strong association between serum 25(OH)D and BMI. The very obese need higher vitamin D doses than lean subjects to achieve the same serum 25(OH)D levels.
Keywords: Body mass index; Vitamin D; Obesity; Longitudinal study; Intervention study

Effects of antioxidants on postprandial oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and Type 2 diabetes by S. Neri; S. Calvagno; B. Mauceri; M. Misseri; A. Tsami; C. Vecchio; G. Mastrosimone; A. Di Pino; D. Maiorca; A. Judica; G. Romano; A. Rizzotto; S. S. Signorelli (409-416).
To compare changes in the oxidation–reduction balance and endothelial function before and after meal in patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance and determine the effects of standard antioxidant supplementation.Forty diabetics and 40 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance were compared with a control group. We assessed before and after a test meal (homogenized milkshake containing 80 g of saturated fat, amounting to 1,480 kcal), some reactive oxygen species, inflammation markers and flow-mediated vascular dilatation. These parameters were then reassessed after standard antioxidant treatment.After the meal, diabetics, subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and controls had higher levels of oxidant compounds compared to fasting levels. In subjects with diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), Vascular Adhesion Molecule-1 and CRP were higher after the meal—diabetic subjects exhibited lower fasting flow-mediated dilatation, which deteriorated significantly after the meal. Antioxidant administration significantly improved the parameters investigated in all subjects.In diabetic subjects, altered glycaemia and lipaemia are closely correlated with markers of systemic oxidative stress. Our results show that the abnormal changes in oxidative-reductive balance parameters are paralleled by similar changes in markers of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation at 4 h after ingestion of a fatty meal. Supplementation with a pool of antioxidants can reduce oxidative stress and inflammation in healthy subjects and, more importantly, in IGT patients. This previous aspect suggests that the timing of antioxidant supplementation has an important role in endothelium protection in healthy and pre-diabetic subjects, and along with prompt antioxidant treatment before irreversible endothelial damage has occurred, may have an important protective role in subjects with IGT—patients who require administration of adequate dietary antioxidants.
Keywords: Reactive oxygen species; Oxidative stress; Endothelial damage; Impaired glucose tolerance; Diabetes; Antioxidants

Opposing effects of dietary sugar and saturated fat on cardiovascular risk factors and glucose metabolism in mitochondrially impaired mice by Doreen Kuhlow; Kim Zarse; Anja Voigt; Tim J. Schulz; Klaus J. Petzke; Lutz Schomburg; Andreas F. H. Pfeiffer; Michael Ristow (417-427).
Both dietary fat and dietary sucrose are major components of Western diets that may differentially affect the risk for body mass gain, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease.We have phenotypically analyzed mice with ubiquitously impaired expression of mitochondrial frataxin protein that were challenged with diets differing in macronutrient content, namely high-sucrose/low-fat and high-saturated fat/low-sugar diets.We find here that a high-sucrose/low-fat diet has especially detrimental effects in mice with impaired mitochondrial metabolism promoting several independent cardiovascular risk factors, including impaired glucose metabolism, fasting hyperinsulinemia, reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, increased serum triglycerides, and elevated cholesterol levels due to increased expression of HMG-CoA reductase. In contrast, a high-saturated fat/low-sugar diet protects mice with impaired mitochondrial metabolism from diet-induced obesity by increasing total energy expenditure and increasing expression of ACAA2, a rate-limiting enzyme of mitochondrial beta-oxidation, whereas no concomitant improvement of glucose metabolism was observed.Taken together, our results suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction may cause sucrose to become a multifunctional cardiovascular risk factor, whereas low-sugar diets high in saturated fat may prevent weight gain without improving glucose metabolism.
Keywords: Mitochondria; Macronutrient metabolism; Diabetes; Obesity; Cardiovascular disease

Association of dietary AGEs with circulating AGEs, glycated LDL, IL-1α and MCP-1 levels in type 2 diabetic patients by Pei-chun Chao; Chien-ning Huang; Cheng-chin Hsu; Mei-chin Yin; Yu-ru Guo (429-434).
The association of dietary advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) intake with the oxidative and inflammatory status in type 2 diabetic patients was examined.Seventy-four healthy controls, 50 low AGEs intake and 68 high AGEs intake type 2 diabetic patients were requested to complete a 7-day dietary record. Blood levels of several oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers were determined.Diabetic patients with high AGEs intake had significantly elevated plasma levels of AGEs, HbA1c, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), LDL-cholesterol and glycated LDL than low AGEs intake patients and controls (P < 0.05). These high AGEs intake patients also had significantly increased plasma levels of 8-isoprostane, interleukin (IL)-1α, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and lower superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity than low AGEs intake patients (P < 0.05). Correlation coefficients of dietary AGEs versus plasma AGEs, HbA1c, 8-isoprostane, IL-1α and MCP-1 were >0.6; but the correlation coefficient of dietary AGEs versus plasma SOD activity was <−0.6.Increasing dietary AGEs intake might enrich circulating AGE level and contribute to oxidative and inflammatory progression under diabetic condition. The circulating 8-isoprostane, IL-1α and MCP-1 levels and SOD activity might be appropriate biomarkers used to evaluate dietary AGEs-associated oxidative and inflammatory stress.
Keywords: Dietary AGEs; Glycated LDL; IL-1α; MCP-1

Effects of oxysterols on cell viability, inflammatory cytokines, VEGF, and reactive oxygen species production on human retinal cells: cytoprotective effects and prevention of VEGF secretion by resveratrol by B. Dugas; S. Charbonnier; M. Baarine; K. Ragot; D. Delmas; F. Ménétrier; J. Lherminier; L. Malvitte; T. Khalfaoui; A. Bron; C. Creuzot-Garcher; N. Latruffe; Gérard Lizard (435-446).
Oxysterols are assumed to play important roles in age-related macular degeneration, a major cause of blindness. So we characterized the cytotoxic, oxidative, inflammatory, and angiogenic activities of oxysterols (7β-hydroxycholesterol (7β-OH), 7-ketocholesterol (7KC), 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-OH)) in human retinal ARPE-19 cells, and evaluated the protective effects of resveratrol (Rsv: 1 μM), a polyphenol from red wine.ARPE-19 cells were treated with 7β-OH, 7KC, or 25-OH (5–40 μg/mL; 24–48 h) without or with Rsv. Cell viability was determined using trypan blue and the MTT assay. Cell death was characterized by electron microscopy and in situ detection of activated caspases with fluorochrome-labeled inhibitors of caspases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was measured with hydroethidine. ELISA methods and a cytometric bead assay were used to quantify cytokines involved in inflammation (IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, TNF-α, MCP-1) and VEGF.7β-OH and 7KC triggered a caspase-independent cell death process associated with the presence of multilamellar cytoplasmic structures evocating phospholipidosis, increased ROS production, and IL-8 secretion. 7β-OH enhanced VEGF secretion. No cytotoxic effects were identified with 25-OH, which highly stimulated ROS production, MCP-1, and VEGF secretion. With oxysterols, no IL-10, TNF-α, and IL-12p70 secretion were detected. 25-OH induced IL-8 secretion through the MEK/ERK½ signaling pathway, and Rsv showed cytoprotective activities and inhibited VEGF secretion.7β-OH, 7KC, and 25-OH have cytotoxic, oxidative, inflammatory, and/or angiogenic activities on ARPE-19 cells. As Rsv has some protective effects against oxysterol-induced cell death and VEGF secretion it could be valuable in ARMD treatment.
Keywords: ARPE-19 cells; Caspase-independent cell death; Inflammatory cytokines; Oxysterols; Phospholipidosis; Resveratrol; Reactive oxygen species; VEGF