European Journal of Nutrition (v.49, #5)

Dose and time-dependent hypercholesterolemic effects of iodine excess via TRβ1-mediated down regulation of hepatic LDLr gene expression by Li-Na Zhao; Jian Xu; Xiao-Lin Peng; Li-Yue Tian; Li-Ping Hao; Xue-Feng Yang; Chen-Jiang Ying; Xiu-Fa Sun (257-265).
With the global improvement of iodine nutrition, iodine excess is emerging as a new concern.The aim of this study is to illustrate the physiological effects and potential molecular mechanisms of excessive iodine intake on lipid metabolism.Balb/c mice were given drinking water containing different levels of iodine for 1 month and treated with 1.2 μg/mL iodine for different periods of time, respectively. Plasma lipid parameters and serum thyroid hormones were measured. Expressions of hepatic genes were detected by real-time polymerase chain reactions and Western blot.Dose-dependent hypercholesterolemic effects were detected in mice (TC, r = 0.615; p < 0.01). Drinking 1.2 μg/mL iodine water for 1 month had no significant effect on serum lipid metabolism, while prolonged exposure induced an increase of serum cholesterol. Serum thyroid hormones were not affected by iodine throughout the study. At the molecular level, we detected a dose-dependent attenuation of hepatic low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) and thyroid hormone receptor β1 (TRβ1) expression in parallel to the change of serum cholesterol. Treatment with 1.2 μg/mL iodine water for 1 month did not affect LDLr and TRβ1 expression, while 3 or 6 months exposure resulted in a decrease of their expression.Present findings demonstrated dose- and time-dependent hypercholesterolemic effects of iodine excess. Furthermore, our data suggests that TRβ1-mediated down regulation of hepatic LDLr gene may play a critical role in iodine excess-induced hypercholesterolemic effects.
Keywords: Iodine excess; Hypercholesterolemic; Thyroid hormone receptor β1 (TRβ1); Low density lipoproteins receptor (LDLr); Scavenger receptor class B type-I (SR-BI)

Chlorogenic acid attenuates adhesion molecules upregulation in IL-1β-treated endothelial cells by Weng-Cheng Chang; Chia-Hsin Chen; Ming-Fen Lee; Ted Chang; Ya-Mei Yu (267-275).
Expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAM) on the endothelium and the attachment of monocytes to endothelium may play a major role in the early atherogenic process. Chlorogenic acid is a phenolic compound present in coffee, apples, pears, berries, almonds, artichokes, and aubergines. Previous studies have indicated that CA possesses antioxidant activity in vitro.We investigated the effects of chlorogenic acid and probucol on monocyte-like adhesion, adhesion molecule expression, NF-κB translocation and ROS production in IL-1β-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs).According to the results of the MTT assay, we chose 25 and 50 μmol/L to perform the experiments. Chlorogenic acid dose-dependently suppressed IL-1β-induced mRNA expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and endothelial cell selectin. Chlorogenic acid also suppressed the IL-1β-induced production of ROS. We also observed that chlorogenic acid attenuated or blocked IL-1β-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB subunits p50 and p65, which in turn attenuated CAM expression at the transcription level. Furthermore, chlorogenic acid significantly reduced the adhesion of human monocyte cells (U937) to IL-1β-treated HUVECs in a dose–response manner. These results are similar to that of probucol.We conclude that chlorogenic acid exhibit anti-inflammatory effects in HUVECs by inhibition of U937 monocyte-like adhesion, adhesion molecule expression, NF-κB translocation, and ROS production. The anti-inflammatory activity of chlorogenic acid in HUVECs suggests that chlorogenic acid could be useful in the prevention of atherosclerosis.
Keywords: Atherosclerosis; Cell adhesion molecules; Chlorogenic acid; Nuclear factor-κB; Reactive oxygen species

Is a lower dose of vitamin D supplementation enough to increase 25(OH)D status in a sunny country? by Giselle A. P. Pignotti; Patrícia S. Genaro; Marcelo M. Pinheiro; Vera L. Szejnfeld; Lígia A. Martini (277-283).
Calcium and vitamin D are essential nutrients for bone metabolism Vitamin D can either be obtained from dietary sources or cutaneous synthesis. The study was conducted in subtropic weather; therefore, some might believe that the levels of solar radiation would be sufficient in this area.To evaluate calcium and vitamin D supplementation in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis living in a sunny country.A 3-month controlled clinical trial with 64 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, mean age 62 ± 8 years. They were randomly assigned to either the supplement group, who received 1,200 mg of calcium carbonate and 400 IU (10 μg) of vitamin D3, or the control group. Dietary intake assessment was performed, bone mineral density and body composition were measured, and biochemical markers of bone metabolism were analyzed.Considering all participants at baseline, serum vitamin D was under 75 nmol/l in 91.4% of the participants. The concentration of serum 25(OH)D increased significantly (p = 0.023) after 3 months of supplementation from 46.67 ± 13.97 to 59.47 ± 17.50 nmol/l. However, the dose given was limited in effect, and 86.2% of the supplement group did not reach optimal levels of 25(OH)D. Parathyroid hormone was elevated in 22.4% of the study group. After the intervention period, mean parathyroid hormone tended to decrease in the supplement group (p = 0.063).The dose given (400 IU/day) was not enough to achieve 25(OH)D concentration, considered optimal for bone health.
Keywords: Dietary intakes; Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D; Vitamin D supplement; Postmenopausal; Osteoporosis

Antioxidant status of elite athletes remains impaired 2 weeks after a simulated altitude training camp by Vincent Pialoux; Julien V. Brugniaux; Edmond Rock; Andrzej Mazur; Laurent Schmitt; Jean-Paul Richalet; Paul Robach; Eric Clottes; Jean Coudert; Nicole Fellmann; Rémi Mounier (285-292).
It has been shown that the antioxidant status was altered by the “live high-train low” (LHTL) method, however, no information is available regarding the antioxidant restoration during the recovery period.We tested the hypothesis that the antioxidant status is impaired by 18 days LHTL in elite athletes and remained altered after 14 days of recovery.Eleven elite cross-country skiers from the French Skiing Federation were submitted to 18-day endurance training. Six (hypoxic group; HG) trained at 1,200 m and lived in hypoxia (simulated altitude of 2,500 m–3,000 m–3,500 m) and 5 (control group; CG) trained and lived at 1,200 m. Plasma levels of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), malondialdehydes (MDA), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) lipid-soluble antioxidants (α-tocopherol, β-carotene and lycopene) were measured at rest, before (PRE), the first day after (POST1) and again 2 weeks (POST14) after the training. Intakes of vitamins A and E were evaluated from the dietary recording.In POST1, FRAP and TEAC decreased in both groups, however, the TEAC decrease persisted in POST14 for HG only. Lycopene and β-carotene decreased in POST1 for HG and remained lower in POST14. Finally, AOPP increased only for HG in POST1. The general decline of antioxidant status for both groups might result from insufficient intakes in vitamins A and E.This is the first study to show that the antioxidant status did not return to baseline 2 weeks after 18 days of LHTL training.
Keywords: Intermittent hypoxia; Endurance training; Oxidative stress; Antioxidant; α-Tocopherol

Association between food and nutrient intakes and cognitive capacity in a group of institutionalized elderly people by Aránzazu Aparicio Vizuete; Francisco Robles; Elena Rodríguez-Rodríguez; Ana María López-Sobaler; Rosa María Ortega (293-300).
Some authors have indicated that the cognitive decline may be due to an inadequate nutritional status.To determine the association between food and nutrient intakes and cognitive capacity score in a group of institutionalized elderly people.The study subjects were 178 elderly (≥65 years of age) institutionalized people from the Madrid region. The diets of these subjects were recorded using the precise weighing method over a 7-day period, and their cognitive capacity assessed using the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ). Subjects were grouped into those who did not incur errors (SPMSQ = 0) and who incurred one or more errors (SPMSQ > 0). Since an association was seen between the SPMSQ test score and age (r = 0.2030; p < 0.01), the subjects were also grouped according to whether they were above or below the percentile 50 (P50) for this variable (83 years).The subjects with no errors in the SPMSQ test (32%) consumed greater quantities of cereals, eggs, oils, and fats. After adjusting for energy intake and educational level an inverse association was seen between fish and vegetable consumption and cognitive capacity score. In addition, these subjects had greater intakes of carbohydrates, polyunsaturated fatty acids, riboflavin, and vitamins C, D, and E. After adjusting for energy intake, a negative relationship was found between cognitive capacity score and the intake of fibre, vitamin B6, and folic acid.In general, the subjects of our study showed an adequate mental capacity, but those who made no errors in the SPMSQ test had more satisfactory diets. This shows the importance of the diet in the maintenance of cognitive function.
Keywords: Cognitive capacity; SPMSQ; Food; Nutrients; Elderly persons

No effect of the farming system (organic/conventional) on the bioavailability of apple (Malus domestica Bork., cultivar Golden Delicious) polyphenols in healthy men: a comparative study by Berenike A. Stracke; Corinna E. Rüfer; Achim Bub; Stephanie Seifert; Franco P. Weibel; Clemens Kunz; Bernhard Watzl (301-310).
The organic food sales have been increasing during the recent years. It has been hypothesised that organically grown fruits are healthier based on their higher content of phytochemicals. However, data on the bioavailability of phytochemicals from organically or conventionally produced plant foods are scarce.Two human intervention studies were performed to compare the bioavailability of polyphenols in healthy men after ingestion of apples from different farming systems. The administered apples were grown organically and conventionally under defined conditions and characterised regarding their polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity. No significant differences in the polyphenol content and the antioxidant capacity from the organic and conventional farming system were observed.In the short-term intervention study, six men consumed either organically or conventionally produced apples in a randomized cross-over study. After intake of 1 kg apples, phloretin (C max 13 ± 5 nmol/l, t max 1.7 ± 1.2 h) and coumaric acid (C max 35 ± 12 nmol/l, t max 3.0 ± 0.8 h) plasma concentrations increased significantly (P < 0.0001) in both intervention groups, without differences between the two farming systems. In the long-term intervention study, 43 healthy volunteers consumed organically or conventionally produced apples (500 g/day; 4 weeks) or no apples in a double-blind, randomized intervention study. In this study, 24 h after the last dosing regime, the apple intake did not result in increasing polyphenol concentrations in plasma and urine compared to the control group suggesting no accumulation of apple polyphenols or degradation products in humans.Our study suggests that the two farming systems (organic/conventional) do not result in differences in the bioavailability of apple polyphenols.
Keywords: Apples; Bioavailability; Organic; Polyphenols; Antioxidant status; Human intervention study

A 3-year Mediterranean-style dietary intervention may modulate the association between adiponectin gene variants and body weight change by C. Razquin; J. A. Martínez; M. A. Martínez-González; J. Salas-Salvadó; R. Estruch; A. Marti (311-319).
Adiponectin gene variations have been associated with obesity. There are few interventional studies analyzing this association. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a nutritional intervention with Mediterranean-style diet and three (−4034A/C, +45T/G, and +276 G/T) adiponectin gene variants on 3-year body weight changes in high cardiovascular risk patients.A total of 737 participants, aged 55–80 at high cardiovascular risk were assigned to a low-fat diet or to a Mediterranean-style diet (MD) groups, one with high intake of virgin olive oil (VOO) and the other with high intake of nuts. Anthropometric parameters were taken at baseline and after 3-year follow-up, and the genotyping of the −4034A/C, +45T/G, and +276 G/T polymorphisms was done.GG genotype of the +45T/G polymorphism was associated with 3-year higher body weight gain (B = 1.399; B = 0.043). TT genotype of the +276G/T polymorphism was linked to the highest 3-year body weight gain in men. Both Mediterranean diets appeared to reverse this effect (p for interaction = 0.053).Adiponectin gene variation appeared to be associated with 3-year body weight changes in a high cardiovascular risk population. This association may be modulated by a nutritional intervention with a Mediterranean-style diet.
Keywords: Adiponectin SNPs; Body weight change; Mediterranean diet; Nutritional intervention; PREDIMED