European Journal of Nutrition (v.49, #1)

Comparison of free fructose and glucose to sucrose in the ability to cause fatty liver by Laura G. Sánchez-Lozada; Wei Mu; Carlos Roncal; Yuri Y. Sautin; Manal Abdelmalek; Sirirat Reungjui; MyPhuong Le; Takahiko Nakagawa; Hui Y. Lan; Xuequing Yu; Richard J. Johnson (1-9).
There is evidence that disaccharide sucrose produce a greater increase in serum fructose and triglycerides (TGs) than the effect produced by their equivalent monosaccharides, suggesting that long-term exposure to sucrose or fructose + glucose could potentially result in different effects.We studied the chronic effects of a combination of free fructose and glucose relative to sucrose on rat liver.Rats were fed either a combination of 30% fructose and 30% glucose (FG) or 60% sucrose (S). Control rats were fed normal rat chow (C). All rats were pair fed and were followed for 4 months. After killing, blood chemistries and liver tissue were examined.Both FG-fed- and S-fed rats developed early features of metabolic syndrome when compared with C. In addition, both diets induced hepatic alterations, including variable increases in hepatic TG accumulation and fatty liver, an increase in uric acid content in the liver, as well as an increase in hepatic levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) measured in liver homogenates.Diets containing 30% of fructose either as free fructose and glucose, or as sucrose, induce metabolic syndrome, intrahepatic accumulation of uric acid and TGs, increased MCP-1 and TNF-α as well as fatty liver in rats. It will be relevant to determine clinically whether pharmacological reduction in uric acid levels might have a therapeutic advantage in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
Keywords: Non-alcoholic steatosis; Metabolic syndrome; Sucrose; Fructose

Complementary food with low (8%) or high (12%) meat content as source of dietary iron: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial by Katharina Dube; Jana Schwartz; Manfred J. Mueller; Hermann Kalhoff; Mathilde Kersting (11-18).
To investigate whether a low meat content of complementary food as accepted by EU law increases the risk of well-nourished infants to develop iron deficiency during the complementary feeding period.Term born, healthy infants were randomized into a ‘High Meat’ Group (HM, n = 48) receiving commercial baby jars with a meat content of 12% by weight (according to pediatric guidelines), and a ‘Low Meat’ Group (LM, n = 49) receiving meals as marketed (meat 8% by weight, the lowest level of EU law). Intervention was from 4 to 10 months of age. Dietary intake was recorded continuously, repeated blood samples were collected.Estimated intake of bioavailable iron conformed to reference requirements. In the primary analysis of the total sample, iron status was adequate before (4 months), during (7 months), and after (10 months) the intervention. A secondary analysis in the subgroup of infants fully breast-fed for 4–6 months demonstrated an increased risk of low Hb values with 10 months of age in the LM group.Present day low meat content of complementary food does not significantly impair iron status in well-nourished infants but may increase the risk of developing marginal iron status in older infants after fully breast-feeding for 4–6 months, i.e., in the subgroup of infants with the lowest habitual iron intake.
Keywords: Infants; Iron status; Complementary food; Meat; Hemoglobin; Breast milk

Genistein and β-carotene enhance the growth-inhibitory effect of trichostatin A in A549 cells by Rong-Jen Shiau; Kai-Yong Chen; Yu-Der Wen; Cheng-Hung Chuang; Shu-Lan Yeh (19-25).
The combination of anti-cancer drugs with nutritional factors is a potential strategy for improving the efficacy and decreasing the toxicity of chemotherapy. However, whether nutritional factors enhance the effect of trichostatin A (TSA), a novel anti-cancer drug, is unclear.We investigated the individual enhancing effect and its possible mechanisms of genistein, daidzein, β-carotene, retinoic acid, and α-tocopherol on the cell-growth-inhibitory effect of TSA in a human lung carcinoma cell line, A549.A549 cells were incubated with TSA (50 ng/mL) alone or in combination with the various nutritional factors for various times, and cell growth was measured. IMR90 cells, human lung fibroblasts, were also incubated with TSA alone or in combination with genistein or β-carotene to determine the selectivity of these treatments. In addition, we studied effects on the cell cycle, caspase-3 activity, and DNA damage (by comet assay) in A549 cells.After treatment for 72 h, 10-μM genistein or β-carotene significantly enhanced the growth-inhibitory effect of TSA in A549 cells. Daidzein, retinoic acid, and α-tocopherol at the same concentration had no significant effect. However, genistein and β-carotene failed to enhance the cell-growth-arrest effect of TSA in IMR90 cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that both genistein and β-carotene significantly increased the TSA-induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Genistein significantly enhanced TSA-induced caspase-3 activity in A549 cells by 34% at 24 h, and the caspase-3 inhibitor partly inhibited the enhancing effect of genistein on TSA-induced apoptosis. β-Carotene did not significantly affect TSA-induced caspase-3 activity. However, β-carotene rather than genistein enhanced TSA-induced DNA damage.Genistein and β-carotene enhance the cell-growth-arrest effect of TSA on A549 cells. Genistein exerts its effect, at least partly, by increasing caspase-3 activity; whereas β-carotene may enhance TSA-induced cell death mainly through a caspase-3-independent pathway.
Keywords: Trichostatin A; Chemotherapy; Genistein; β-Carotene; Cell-growth-arrest

Purified black tea theaflavins and theaflavins/catechin supplements did not affect serum lipids in healthy individuals with mildly to moderately elevated cholesterol concentrations by Elke A. Trautwein; Yaping Du; Evelyne Meynen; Xiuyuan Yan; Yibo Wen; Hongqiang Wang; Henri O. F. Molhuizen (27-35).
Ingestion of tea flavonoids found in both green and black tea is linked to cardiovascular health benefits such as lowering serum lipids. Evidence for a cholesterol-lowering benefit of green or black tea consumption from human intervention studies is, however, conflicting and active components responsible for the effect have not yet been clearly identified.In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel design study the effects of ingesting a purified black tea theaflavins (TFs) powder alone or in combination with catechin (TFs/catechins) on lowering serum total (TC) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c) were assessed.In total, 102 mildly to moderately hypercholesterolemic (TC and LDL-c: 5.70 ± 0.74 and 3.97 ± 0.61 mmol/L, respectively) subjects (67 men and 35 women) were randomly assigned to consume once daily one capsule of one of the 3 treatments: TFs (providing 77.5 mg), TFs/catechins (providing 75.0 mg TFs plus 150.0 mg catechins and 195.0 mg of other polyphenols), or placebo (cellulose).Serum TC and LDL-c concentrations did not differ significantly among the 3 treatments as assessed at 4, 8, and 11 weeks using analysis of covariance (p = 0.1187 and p = 0.1063, respectively). Although changes over time from baseline to week 11 were significant for TC and LDL-c (p = 0.0311 and p = 0.0269, respectively), this decrease over time was seen in the TFs and placebo groups.In this human intervention study, no statistically significant LDL-c lowering effect was seen with either TFs alone or the TFs/catechins combination as compared to placebo. Based on these findings it cannot be concluded that tea flavonoids such as theaflavins and catechins are responsible for a putative cholesterol-lowering effect of black tea, at least not with the daily dose applied in the present study.
Keywords: Black tea; Theaflavins; Catechin; Cholesterol-lowering; Healthy individual

Contribution of energy density and food quantity to short-term fluctuations of energy intake in normal weight and obese subjects by Volker Schusdziarra; Margit Hausmann; Claudia Wittke; Johanna Mittermeier; Marietta Kellner; Stefan Wagenpfeil; Johannes Erdmann (37-43).
In normal weight subjects it is known that day-to-day energy intake (EI) can vary substantially while this question has not been examined in obese subjects. From acute feeding experiments one would assume that these perturbations are mainly due to differences in food energy density (ED). However, food quantity (FQ) during single meals, number of meals, cognitive and sensory mechanisms may also contribute to the modification of EI.To obtain more detailed information about day-to-day variations of food intake food diaries recorded during 10 consecutive days of 280 obese and 100 normal weight subjects were examined.The chronological analysis shows a fairly constant pattern for EI, FQ and ED in both groups. The group analysis, however, masks individual fluctuations since the coefficients of variation were between 20 and 24% for the three parameters, respectively. This corresponds to a range of 1,200 kcal. Sixty-five percent can be accounted for changes in FQ and 35% as the result of variations in ED. Snacks between main meals account for 20% of daily EI but only 10% of FQ. Furthermore, snack EI is not compensated during main meals.Small day-to-day changes of EI are due to increased meal quantities while greater fluctuations are also due to higher food ED. The present data suggest that modification of FQ by cognitive and sensory factors plays an important role in the variation of daily EI under real life conditions with no major difference between normal weight and obese subjects.
Keywords: Daily meal intake; Main meals; Snacks; Body mass index

Serum lutein concentrations in healthy term infants fed human milk or infant formula with lutein by Jodi Bettler; J. Paul Zimmer; Martha Neuringer; Patricia A. DeRusso (45-51).
Lutein is a carotenoid that may play a role in eye health. Human milk typically contains higher concentrations of lutein than infant formula. Preliminary data suggest there are differences in serum lutein concentrations between breastfed and formula-fed infants.To measure the serum lutein concentrations among infants fed human milk or formulas with and without added lutein.A prospective, double-masked trial was conducted in healthy term formula-fed infants (n = 26) randomized between 9 and 16 days of age to study formulas containing 20 (unfortified), 45, 120, and 225 mcg/l of lutein. A breastfed reference group was studied (n = 14) and milk samples were collected from their mothers. Primary outcome was serum lutein concentration at week 12.Geometric mean lutein concentration of human milk was 21.1 mcg/l (95% CI 14.9–30.0). At week 12, the human milk group had a sixfold higher geometric mean serum lutein (69.3 mcg/l; 95% CI 40.3–119) than the unfortified formula group (11.3 mcg/l; 95% CI 8.1–15.8). Mean serum lutein increased from baseline in each formula group except the unfortified group. Linear regression equation indicated breastfed infants had a greater increase in serum lutein (slope 3.7; P < 0.001) per unit increase in milk lutein than formula-fed infants (slope 0.9; P < 0.001).Breastfed infants have higher mean serum lutein concentrations than infants who consume formula unfortified with lutein. These data suggest approximately 4 times more lutein is needed in infant formula than in human milk to achieve similar serum lutein concentrations among breastfed and formula fed infants.
Keywords: Lutein; Human milk; Infant formula; Serum; Bioavailability

The role of different water soluble vitamins in Zn metabolism beyond intestinal Zn absorption is poorly explored.Using Caco-2 cells, effects of different vitamins on intestinal Zn transport and their implications under oxidative stress (OS) were investigated.Cells were apically treated with Zn (25 μM) and vitamins (Folic acid (FA), Nicotinic acid (NA), Ascorbic acid (AA), riboflavin, thiamine, pyridoxine) for 60 min. The effect of most promising vitamins on zinc transport, antioxidant enzymes (Catalase, Glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase), and intracellular OS status (ROS generation and mitochondrial transmembrane potential) were investigated. OS was generated by tert-butyl hydro peroxide and results for each vitamin were compared with respective Zn containing controls with and without OS.Without OS, Zn transport was slightly enhanced in presence of NA, while it was significantly reduced by thiamine, riboflavin, and pyridoxine. Under OS, NA significantly (P < 0.01) enhanced Zn transport in dose-dependent manner, while, pyridoxine and AA moderately improved it. Under both conditions, Zn transport exhibited decreasing trend with increase of FA. The antioxidant enzyme and OS markers levels varied significantly in Zn + vitamins. With Zn + FA + OS, enzyme activities decreased maximally, with twofold increase in 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCF-DA) (P < 0.01) and lowering of rhodamine fluorescence (P < 0.05). In Zn + AA + OS, DCF-DA fluorescence increased (P < 0.05) but with NA, cellular enzymes, and antioxidant profile were improved.Results for the first time demonstrate advantageous effects of NA and deleterious consequences of FA with no effect by AA on Zn transport, especially under OS. These observed changes in the transport of Zn seem to have an impact on OS markers.
Keywords: Zn transport; Caco-2; Water soluble vitamins; Oxidative stress