European Journal of Nutrition (v.48, #4)

A reappraisal of the impact of dairy foods and milk fat on cardiovascular disease risk by J. Bruce German; Robert A. Gibson; Ronald M. Krauss; Paul Nestel; Benoît Lamarche; Wija A. van Staveren; Jan M. Steijns; Lisette C. P. G. M. de Groot; Adam L. Lock; Frédéric Destaillats (191-203).
This review provides a reappraisal of the potential effects of dairy foods, including dairy fats, on cardiovascular disease (CVD)/coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Commodities and foods containing saturated fats are of particular focus as current public dietary recommendations are directed toward reducing the intake of saturated fats as a means to improve the overall health of the population. A conference of scientists from different perspectives of dietary fat and health was convened in order to consider the scientific basis for these recommendations.This review and summary of the conference focus on four key areas related to the biology of dairy foods and fats and their potential impact on human health: (a) the effect of dairy foods on CVD in prospective cohort studies; (b) the impact of dairy fat on plasma lipid risk factors for CVD; (c) the effects of dairy fat on non-lipid risk factors for CVD; and (d) the role of dairy products as essential contributors of micronutrients in reference food patterns for the elderly.Despite the contribution of dairy products to the saturated fatty acid composition of the diet, and given the diversity of dairy foods of widely differing composition, there is no clear evidence that dairy food consumption is consistently associated with a higher risk of CVD. Thus, recommendations to reduce dairy food consumption irrespective of the nature of the dairy product should be made with caution.
Keywords: Milk fat; Cardiovascular disease risk; Saturated fatty acid

Betaine supplementation attenuates atherosclerotic lesion in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice by Shiwei Lv; Ruixin Fan; Yanping Du; Mengjun Hou; Zhihong Tang; Wenhua Ling; Huilian Zhu (205-212).
Betaine serves as a methyl donor in a reaction converting homocysteine to methionine. It is commonly used for the treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia in humans, which indicates it may be associated with reduced risk of atherosclerosis. However, there have been few data regarding its vascular effect.To investigate the effect of betaine supplementation on atherosclerotic lesion in apolipoprotein (apo) E-deficient mice.Four groups of apoE-deficient mice were fed AIN-93G diets supplemented with 0, 1, 2, or 4 g betaine/100 g diet (no, 1, 2, and 4% betaine, respectively). Wild-type C57BL/6 J mice were fed AIN-93G diet (wild-type). Mice were sacrificed after 0, 7, or 14 weeks of the experimental diets. Atherosclerotic lesion area in the aortic sinus, levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 in aorta and serum, serum lipids, and methylation status of TNF-α promoter in aorta were determined.Linear regression analysis showed that the higher dose of betaine was related to smaller atherosclerotic lesion area (β = −11.834, P < 0.001). Compared with no-betaine mice after 14 weeks, mice receiving 1%, 2%, or 4% betaine had 10.8, 41, and 37% smaller lesion area, respectively. Betaine supplementation also reduced aortic expression of TNF-α in a dose-dependent way in four groups of apoE-deficient mice, and Pearson correlation revealed that atherosclerotic lesion area was positively associated with aortic TNF-α level (r = 0.777, P < 0.001). Although serum TNF-α levels were lower in betaine-supplemented mice than in no-betaine mice after fourteen weeks of treatment (P < 0.001), we did not observe a significant dosage effect (P = 0.11). However, methylation level of TNF-α promoter did not differ among groups at any time. In this study, apoE-deficient mice receiving betaine supplementation for 14 weeks had higher concentrations of serum total cholesterol (P < 0.01), LDL cholesterol (P < 0.05), and lower body weight (P < 0.05) than no-betaine mice.These data suggest that despite exacerbating hyperlipidemia in apoE-deficient mice, betaine may exert its anti-atherogenic effect by inhibiting aortic inflammatory response mediated by TNF-α.
Keywords: Betaine; Atherosclerosis; Inflammation; Lipids; DNA methylation

Oral treatment with genistein reduces the expression of molecular and biochemical markers of inflammation in a rat model of chronic TNBS-induced colitis by Jan Seibel; Almut F. Molzberger; Torsten Hertrampf; Ute Laudenbach-Leschowski; Patrick Diel (213-220).
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in humans has a high incidence in Europe and the USA, whereas in East Asia, incidence has been historically low.The risk of IBD appears to increase in Asian immigrants adopting western lifestyles, suggesting a strong link of environmental/dietary factors in the development of IBD. Exposure to high levels of isoflavones such as genistein (Gen) in traditional East Asian diets has been associated with a decreased risk of developing breast cancer and may also be beneficial for the prevention of IBD.In this study, the effect of orally administered genistein on the inflammatory response in the TNBS-induced chronic colitis rat model was investigated.Eighteen male Wistar rats, aged 12 weeks, were randomized to one of three groups (n = 6). Two groups received a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) enema, then were treated daily by oral gavage with either Gen (100 mg/kg b.w.) or vehicle, for 14 days. The last group served as a control group, not receiving the TNBS enema. At the end of the 14 days, animals were killed and tissues collected. Molecular and biochemical inflammatory markers in the colon, specifically cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and myeloperoxidase (MPO), were analyzed. In addition, to assess the efficacy of Gen treatment, relative wet weights of the accessory sexual organs, specifically prostate and the seminal vesicle, were compared between the groups treated or not with Gen.Wet weights of both prostates and seminal vesicles were significantly (P < 0.01) reduced upon Gen administration. In the colon, expression of COX-2 mRNA and protein was reduced (P < 0.05) in the Gen treatment group, as compared to the control group, whereas there was no significant inhibitory effect of Gen on the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. In Gen treated animals colon wet weight was not altered, however a decrease in MPO activity (P < 0.01) was seen.These results may provide evidence that oral administration of Gen exerts beneficial anti-inflammatory effects in a rodent model of TNBS-induced chronic colitis. While the sample size of this study was small, it nevertheless might encourage the realization of larger blinded randomized controlled studies for the proof of concept.
Keywords: Genistein; Colitis; IBD; TNBS; COX-2; Inflammation

Selenium at altered concentration causes abnormal spermatogenesis and male infertility. However, the exact mechanism behind this is still unexplored.It was aimed to investigate if Se induced oxidative stress alters the expressions of testis specific HSP70-2 protein, that is crucial in normal spermatogenesis. The study was extended to delineate the apoptotic process after this change if any.To create different Se status-deficient, adequate and excess, male Balb/c mice were fed yeast based Se deficient diet (group I) and this diet supplemented with Se as sodium selenite at 0.2 and 1 ppm Se (group II and III, respectively) for 8 weeks.After the feeding schedule, a dose dependent change in the Se levels and GSH-Px activity was observed in samples of different Se diet fed group animals as reported in earlier studies. Changes in the redox status in both groups I and III indicated oxidative stress conditions. The mRNA and protein expression of HSP70-2 was found to be reduced in group I and III, whereas, the expressions of p53 demonstrated a reverse trend. Increased apoptosis was observed in the group I and III animals as indicated by increased apoptotic index (AI) on the TUNEL stained sections and by DNA fragmentation indicating DNA damage in these groups.These findings suggest that Se variations induced oxidative stress leads to germ cell apoptosis and downregulation of HSP70-2. This study suggests that there can be a possible link between these two events and the fate of HSP70-2 in case of oxidative damage can provide an insight into the mechanism(s) by which the nutritional variation induced oxidative stress can affect reproductive potential and thus demonstrates the importance of nutrition at molecular level as well.
Keywords: Selenium; Oxidative stress; HSP70-2; p53; Apoptosis, apoptotic index

Addition of capsaicin to the diet has been shown to increase satiety and thermogenesis. The effects of capsaicin on ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), in relation to changes in hunger and satiety are unknown.To test the acute effects of a lunch containing capsaicin on gut derived hormones (GLP-1, ghrelin, and PYY), energy expenditure (EE), substrate oxidation and satiety at lunch in the postprandial state.Thirty subjects (age: 31 ± 14 years, BMI: 23.8 ± 2.8 kg/m2) were studied twice in a crossover design. After 30 min resting on a bed, resting metabolic rate was measured by a ventilated hood system. Subsequently lunch (35% of daily energy intake) was served. The two lunch conditions were: (1) lunch without capsaicin and (2) lunch with capsaicin (CAPS). The macronutrient composition (energy percentage) of the lunches was 60% carbohydrates, 10% protein and 30% fat. During 3 h after the lunch diet-induced thermogenesis was measured. Furthermore, anchored 100 mm visual analogue scales on the appetite profile were collected (t = 0, 30, 60, 120, 150, 180 and 240) and blood samples were taken for analysis of GLP-1, PYY, and ghrelin concentrations (t = 0, 45, 60, 120, and 180).Satiety and EE were not different after CAPS lunch as compared to the control lunch. Fifteen minutes after lunch CAPS lunch increased GLP-1 (p < 0.05) and tended to decrease ghrelin (p = 0.07) as compared to the control lunch. PYY responses were not different between the CAPS lunch and the control lunch.An acute lunch containing capsaicin had no effect on satiety, EE, and PYY, but increased GLP-1 and tended to decrease ghrelin.
Keywords: Obesity; Red pepper; Postprandial; Thermogenesis

Methanolic extract of onion (Allium cepa) attenuates ischemia/hypoxia-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes via antioxidant effect by Sok Park; Mi-Young Kim; Dong Ha Lee; Soo Hwan Lee; Eun Joo Baik; Chang-Hyun Moon; Se Won Park; Eun Young Ko; Sei-Ryang Oh; Yi-Sook Jung (235-242).
Although there is growing awareness of the beneficial potential of onion intake to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease, there is little information about the effect of onion on ischemic heart injury, one of the most common cardiovascular diseases.This study investigates the effect of the methanol-soluble extract of onion on ischemic injury in heart-derived H9c2 cells in vitro and in rat hearts in vivo. The underlying mechanism is also investigated.To evaluate the effect of onion on ischemia-induced cell death, LDH release and TUNEL-positivity were assessed in H9c2 cells, and the infarct size was measured in a myocardial infarct model. To investigate the mechanism of the cardioprotection by onion, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were measured using an imaging technique; the caspase-3 activity was assayed, and Western blotting was performed to examine cytochrome c release in H9c2 cells.The methanolic extract of onion had a preventive effect on ischemia/hypoxia-induced apoptotic death in H9c2 cells in vitro and in rat heart in vivo. The onion extract (0.05 g/ml) inhibited the elevation of the ROS, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation during hypoxia in H9c2 cells. In the in vivo rat myocardial infarction model, onion extract (10 g/kg) significantly reduced the infarct size, the apoptotic cell death of the heart and the plasma MDA level.In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that the methanolic extract of onion attenuates ischemia/hypoxia-induced apoptosis in heart-derived H9c2 cells in vitro and in rat hearts in vivo, through, at least in part, an antioxidant effect.
Keywords: Onion extract; Antioxidant; Cardioprotection; Ischemic injury; Apoptosis

Early infant feeding and type 1 diabetes by Erkki Savilahti; Kristiina M. Saarinen (243-249).
Infant feeding practices, particularly the type of milk feeding, have been associated with the development of type 1 diabetes.We studied the relationship between early infant feeding (during the first year of life) and diabetes in a large population-based cohort.In 1994–1995, 6,209 healthy full-term newborns participated in a study examining the effect of supplementary feeding, on development of allergy to cow’s milk, in maternity hospitals. All supplements in the maternity hospitals were known. Mothers recorded the feeding of infants prospectively at home. In August 2006, from a nationwide diabetes registry, 45 children from our cohort were listed as having type 1 diabetes.The distribution of cases was similar in the randomized feeding groups: 9/1,789 in the group that received adapted cow’s milk-based formula; 12/1,737 in those who received extensively hydrolyzed formula; 16/1,859 in those who received banked human milk; and 8 among those 824 exclusively breast-fed in the hospital. When children who had received cow’s milk-based formula in the maternity hospital were compared with those without such exposure, less number of children in the former group had diabetes by age 8 (P = 0.026), but by the end of the follow-up (11.5 years) the difference disappeared (P = 0.16). Length of breast-feeding and introduction of cereals and other solid foods were similar among those developing type 1 diabetes and those remaining healthy, while early regular daily feeding with cow’s milk-based formula tended to associate with lower risk for type 1 diabetes (OR 0.66; 95% confidence interval 0.38–1.13; P = 0.08).In an extended, secondary analysis of a population-based cohort, very early exposure to cow’s milk is not a risk factor for type 1 diabetes; it may in fact diminish its appearance before age 8.
Keywords: Type 1 diabetes; Infant feeding; Breast milk; Infant formula

Fibre in beverages can enhance perceived satiety by Marika Lyly; Kirsi-Helena Liukkonen; Marjatta Salmenkallio-Marttila; Leila Karhunen; Kaisa Poutanen; Liisa Lähteenmäki (251-258).
A high intake of dietary fibre has been suggested to support the regulation of energy intake and satiety, which could contribute favourably to the increasing obesity problem.To investigate the effects of three fibres differing in chemical and physical properties on perceived satiety and hunger-related attributes.A total of 19 healthy volunteers, age 18–30, mean BMI 23.2 kg/m2 participated in the study. Measurement of food and satiety-related perceptions with ten attributes was performed by using 10-unit graphic intensity scales during a 120 min period after the ingestion the sample. The attributes evaluated were satiety, hunger (unipolar and bipolar scale), appetite, fullness, desire to eat something/sweet/savoury/the sample food and thirst. The sample foods used were a beverage without fibre, a guar gum beverage, a wheat bran beverage, an oat β-glucan beverage and wheat bread was used as the control. The fibre content of the samples was 0 g (beverage without fibre), 2.4 g (wheat bread), 7.8 g (guar gum) or 10.5 g (wheat bran and oat β-glucan beverage) per 400 g/1,000 kJ portion.The area under curve (AUC) for perceived satiety was higher (169 vs. 83 cm min; t test P = 0.026) and the desire to eat was lower (AUC −179 vs. −83 cm min; t test P = 0.008) for the guar gum beverage as compared to the beverage without fibre. Also the beverage with oat β-glucan increased fullness and showed a trend of increasing perceived satiety and decreasing the desire to eat more than the beverage without fibre.Our results support the idea that dietary fibre in beverages can enhance their perceived satiety and decrease the desire to eat more than a beverage without fibre.
Keywords: Satiety response; Beverages; Dietary fibre; Guar gum; Oats; Wheat; β-Glucan

Health-promoting substances and heavy metal content in tomatoes grown with different farming techniques by Filippo Rossi; Francesco Godani; Terenzio Bertuzzi; Marco Trevisan; Federico Ferrari; Sergio Gatti (259-259).