European Journal of Nutrition (v.48, #3)

Serum nutrients and habitual dietary intake in colectomized FAP patients in Norway by Kari Almendingen; Olau Fausa; Arne Tore Høstmark; Jorunn Bratlie; Lars Mørkerid; Lars Aabakken; Morten Harald Vatn (129-136).
Patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) are colectomized in young age in order to avoid development of colorectal cancer. Because colectomy radically changes gastrointestinal physiology, and food avoidance may be present, colectomized patients may be at risk for nutritional evaluate: (1) serum biochemical levels as compared to reference; (2) dietary intake as compared to the recommendations.Blood samples, interviews and food frequency questionnaire were collected from 38 colectomized FAP patients with duodenal adenomas (mean age 40 years, range: 24–70). They were recruited from the Norwegian database on FAP.Serum albumin was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.0001), and Mg (P = 0.02), ferritin (P ≤ 0.001), and cholesterol (P = 0.03) significantly lower, than reference levels. Compared to recommendations, a low intake was seen for folate and fiber (<50%), iron, thiamin, riboflavin (<25%), and omega-3 fatty acids (8%). Sugar intake exceeded the recommendation, mainly due to a high intake of soft drinks. Food avoidance was reported by 53%.We would suggest that the nutrient intake among FAP patients should at least meet the recommendations for healthy subjects. Their risk of metachronous cancers should also cause special attention to dietary factors that may prevent nutritional deficiency and carcinogenesis.
Keywords: familial adenomatous polyposis; ileostomy; colectomy; diet; nutritional status

Biotin deficiency in mice is associated with decreased serum availability of insulin-like growth factor-I by Armida Báez-Saldaña PhD; Gabriel Gutiérrez-Ospina MD, PhD; Jesús Chimal-Monroy PhD; Cristina Fernandez-Mejia PhD; Rafael Saavedra PhD (137-144).
Biotin deficiency leads to decreased weight and nose-rump length in mice.The mechanisms underlying this impairment in body growth are yet unclear. Biotin restriction, however, could affect the availability of growth hormone (GH) and/or insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) since both hormones control body growth. We then conducted a correlative study aimed at establishing whether biotin dietary restriction is associated with decreased GH/IGF-I serum concentrations.Levels of GH and IGF-I were measured through ELISA in serum samples of male BALB/cAnN mice fed with: 1] standard chow diet (control diet); 2] 30% egg-white biotin-deficient diet; or 3] 30% egg-white diet supplemented with 16.4 µmol biotin per kilogram (biotin sufficient diet). Relative food consumption, as adjusted per gram of body weight, was also determined. GH and IGF-I measurements were taken individually for 20 weeks beginning at the postnatal week 3, when the animals started consuming the corresponding diets. In addition, femur’s weight and longitudinal growth and the organization of its growth plate were all analyzed as indicators of GH/IGF-I function.No differences in relative food consumption were observed among the three groups of mice along the experimental period that was evaluated. IGF-I serum levels, but not GH ones, were decreased in biotin deficient mice. These animals also showed decreased femur’s longitudinal growth, speed of lengthening and weight gain, as well as shorter and disorganized growth plates.This study shows that biotin dietary restriction is indeed associated with decreased availability of IGF-I and diminished long bone growth and elongation. These conditions could explain the impairment of longitudinal body growth previously reported in biotin deficient mice. Although cause-effect studies are still needed, we believe our results support the notion that biotin might modulate the availability of IGF-I.
Keywords: body growth; body size; bone growth; nutrition; vitamins; growth hormone

Recently the l-tryptophan (Trp) metabolites such as l-kynurenine(Kyn), l-kinurenic acid, quinolinic acid (QA) and picolinic acid (PA) have been shown physiologically important in central nervous and immune system, and various enzyme activities concerning their production were reported to be affected by insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. However, the states of these metabolites in diabetes have not been clarified enough yet.The present study was performed to make clear the states of the productions of l-Kyn, QA, PA and nicotinamide (Nam) in vitro in the hepatocytes prepared from streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats using [5-3H]l-Trp.The diabetic model rats were made by STZ injection (60 mg/kg) and the hepatocytes isolated from the rats were incubated with [5-3H]l-Trp. The amounts of metabolites derived from l-Trp were determined by the isotope-dilution methods.The α-amino-β-carboxymuconate-ε-semiarldehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD) mRNA level in the diabetic group was greatly higher than that in the control group. In the STZ-induced diabetes group, the amount of [5-3H]l-Trp converted to tritiated water, l-Kyn or QA were found to be more than 3 times of that in the control group, respectively. The produced amounts of PA and Nam were not significantly different between the diabetic and the control groups.It is suggested that STZ-diabetes mellitus causes augmentations of both l-Kyn and QA generations but not those of PA and Nam in liver, indicating the possibility that the immune and neuronal systems of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus would be influenced by the increased amounts of lKyn and QA but not by those of PA and Nam.
Keywords: l-Tryptophan; l-Kynurenine; quinolinic acid; diabetes; hepatocytes

Effects of adipocyte-secreted factors on cell cycle progression in HT29 cells by Kerstin Schnäbele; Silvia Roser; Gerhard Rechkemmer; Hans Hauner; Thomas Skurk (154-161).
Obesity is a chronic sub-inflammatory condition which is a risk factor for several cancer diseases, e.g. colon cancer. Adipose tissue secretes biologically active factors like leptin with a known pro-inflammatory or mitogenic activity. Both, chronic inflammation and an increased cell proliferation are considered to play an important role in colon carcinogenesis. Diverse phytochemicals were shown to have cell growth inhibiting effects.The aim was to investigate whether adipocytes could mediate a proliferative capacity to HT29, a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line, and whether phytochemicals could modulate this effect.Infranatants of adipocyte cultures from different donors were prepared and the effects of those conditioned adipocyte media (CAM) on HT29 cell growth were measured. Additionally, cell cycle progression was analyzed by flow cytometry after CAM treatment and ERK 1/2 phosphorylation was analyzed.CAM from a subgroup of adipose tissue donors stimulated HT29 cell growth, whereas others did not. This effect seems to be mediated via the ERK 1/2 pathway. Furthermore, CAM caused changes in cell cycle distribution with a shift of HT29 cells from G1- into the S-phase. This effect could be mimicked by leptin (1 nM). Co-incubation of CAM-treated HT29 cultures with β-carotene or EGCG did not have a significant impact on cell cycle progression, whereas genistein (30 µM) tended to inhibit the CAM-stimulated transition of cells into the S-phase.This study confirmed the mitogenic activity of leptin in HT29 cells, although leptin secretion from adipocytes is not likely to be responsible for CAM-stimulated cell growth in our test system. The investigated phytochemicals seem to have only a minor influence on CAM-mediated cell cycle progression.
Keywords: colon cancer; adipokines; adipose tissue; secondary plant metabolites; proliferation

Purified chickpea or lentil proteins impair VLDL metabolism and lipoprotein lipase activity in epididymal fat, but not in muscle, compared to casein, in growing rats by Ahmed Boualga; Josiane Prost; Douja Taleb-Senouci; Djamil Krouf; Omar Kharoubi; Myriem Lamri-Senhadji; Jacques Belleville; Malika Bouchenak (162-169).
It is well known that the legume proteins have a lowering effect on plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerols (TG) concentrations compared to animal proteins. The protein itself, as well as non-protein constituents, naturally present in legumes may be implicated.The effects of various dietary purified legumes proteins compared to casein, were determined on plasma TG level, VLDL concentration and composition. Moreover, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in epididymal fat, gastrocnemius and heart was investigated to evaluate in these tissues their capacity to release free fatty acids from their TG substrate and the liver capacity to stock the TG.Weaning male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum one of the following diets: 200 g/kg diet of purified proteins of lentil (L), or chickpea (CP) or casein (CAS). At day 28, VLDL were isolated from plasma sample by a single ultracentrifugation flotation. Hepatic lipase and LPL activity in epididymal fat, gastrocnemius and heart were measured by using glycerol tri [9–10(n)-3H] oleate emulsion as substrate.Compared with CAS diet, the CP and L protein diets exhibited similar cholesterolemia, but lower triglyceridemia (1.9-fold and 2.5-fold) and VLDL particle number, as measured by their reduced contents of TG and apolipoproteins. CP and L protein diets reduced liver TG and cholesterol by 31 and 45%, respectively compared to CAS diet. Furthermore, LPL activity in adipose tissue of rats fed CP or L was 1.6-fold lower than that of rats fed CAS. There was no significant difference in heart and gastrocnemius LPL activities with the three proteins. In contrast, hepatic lipase activity was higher in rats fed CP and L diets.The low food efficiency ratio of purified CP and L proteins related to CAS is associated with decreased plasma VLDL and adipose tissue LPL activity. The low liver TG concomitant with reduced TG and apolipoproteins contents of VLDL confirm that hypotriglyceridemia is essentially due to impaired synthesis, exportation and transport of TG by VLDL which prevent lipid storage in adipose tissue.
Keywords: chickpea; lentil; lipoprotein-lipase; hepatic-lipase; VLDL metabolism; rat

Glucose and insulin responses to whole grain breakfasts varying in soluble fiber, β-glucan by Hyunsook Kim PhD; Kim S. Stote PhD, RD; Kay M. Behall PhD; Karen Spears PhD, RD; Bryan Vinyard PhD; Joan M. Conway PhD, RD (170-175).
A high intake of whole grains containing soluble fiber has been shown to lower glucose and insulin responses in overweight humans and humans with type 2 diabetes.We investigated the linearity of this response after consumption of 5 breakfast cereal test meals containing wheat and/or barley to provide varying amounts of soluble fiber, β-glucan (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 g).Seventeen normoglycemic, obese women at increased risk for insulin resistance consumed 5 test meals within a randomized cross-over design after consuming controlled diets for 2 days. Blood samples for glucose and insulin response were obtained prior to and 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after consuming the test meals.Consumption of 10 g of β-glucan significantly reduced peak glucose response at 30 min and delayed the rate of glucose response. Area under the curve for 2 h-postprandial glycemic response was not affected by β-glucan content. However, peak and area under the curve of insulin responses were significantly affected by the β-glucan amount in an inverse linear relationship.These data suggest that acute consumption of 10 g of β-glucan is able to induce physiologically beneficial effects on postprandial insulin responses in obese women at risk for insulin resistance.
Keywords: soluble fiber; obesity; β-glucan; insulin resistance; glucose

Fasting ghrelin is related to skeletal muscle mass in healthy adults by Dr. Kamilia Tai; Renuka Visvanathan; Angela J. Hammond; Judith M. Wishart; Michael Horowitz; Ian M. Chapman (176-183).
The determinants of plasma ghrelin concentrations including the effects of aging, gender, and body composition, are unclear. Appetite and energy intake decrease with advancing age, and there is a corresponding decline in total body lean tissue, and an increase in fat mass.We measured fasting plasma ghrelin and insulin concentrations in 52 healthy subjects aged 22–82 years, and assessed body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Energy intake was estimated from diet diaries.Fasting ghrelin concentrations were not significantly correlated with age and energy intake (R = 0.07, P = 0.62; and R = −0.14, P = 0.34 respectively) on univariate regression analysis, and ghrelin concentrations were higher in females than males (2886.8 ± 182.1 pg/ml vs 2082.5 ± 121.2 pg/ml; P = 0.001). Ghrelin was inversely related to body mass index (R = −0.328, P = 0.018), fat-free body mass (R = −0.428, P = 0.002), and total skeletal muscle mass (R = −0.439, P = 0.001), but not related to body fat mass (R = 0.177, P = 0.208). On multiple regression analysis, total skeletal muscle mass (corrected for height) was the only significant negative predictor (P < 0.0001) of fasting ghrelin concentrations.In conclusion, in healthy adults, plasma ghrelin concentrations are not significantly influenced by age or energy intake per se, but relate to skeletal muscle mass.
Keywords: ghrelin; body composition; age; gender; skeletal muscle mass; food intake

Iodine intake and non-alcoholic beverages: results of the second German National Nutrition Survey by Dr. Thorsten Heuer; Dr. Carolin Krems; Bernd Hartmann (187-188).