European Journal of Nutrition (v.47, #5)

Beatrice-Louise Pool-Zobel (1949–2008) in memoriam by Gerhard Rechkemmer (225-225).

Intervention with cloudy apple juice results in altered biological activities of ileostomy samples collected from individual volunteers by Selvaraju Veeriah PhD; Kamal Kumar Balavenkatraman; Frank- D. Böhmer; Kathrin Kahle; Michael Glei; Elke Richling; Wolfgang Scheppach; Beatrice L. Pool-Zobel (226-234).
Apple juice is considered to be an important component of the healthy diet, with anticancer activities in colon cancer animal models and key ingredients have numerous chemoprotective activities in human colon cells in vitro.Since only little is known on comparable activities in the human colon in vivo, here a pilot study was performed to assess related mechanisms caused by ileostomy samples from volunteers that had consumed apple juice.Ileostomy samples were collected after intervention (0–8 h) with cloudy apple juice (1 l). They were characterized analytically for major apple polyphenols and biologically in HT29 colon cells for their potential to cause genotoxic damage, protect from the genotoxic insult by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and modulate the expression of GSTT2, an enzyme related to antioxidative defence against different peroxides.The analytical determination of polyphenols in the ileostomy samples revealed that the majority of the compounds were recovered in the samples collected 2 h after intervention. The comparison of genotoxic effects of samples before intervention and 2 h after intervention revealed a considerable variation of genotoxic response, but there was a trend for reduced genotoxicity in three of eight persons (P) after intervention. Samples collected at 2 h protected HT29 cells from genotoxic damage by H2O2 (for 4 of 8 persons), resulted in an increased GSTT2 expression (for 2 of 6 persons) and of GSTT2 promotor activity (2 of 6 persons).The intervention with apple juice results in bioavailable concentrations of related polyphenols in the gut lumen, which could contribute to reduced genotoxicity, enhanced antigenotoxicity and favorable modulation of GSTT2 gene expression in some individuals. The pilot study for the first time used this combination of faecal biomarkers which in larger cohorts may either reveal overall significant alterations of chemoprotection or may be used to identify individuals which could particularly benefit from a personalized nutrition.
Keywords: ileostomy; colon cancer chemoprevention; comet assay; gene expression; HT29 cells

The anti-atherosclerotic effect of olive leaf extract is related to suppressed inflammatory response in rabbits with experimental atherosclerosis by Lihui Wang; Chengyan Geng; Liping Jiang; Dezheng Gong; Dayu Liu; Hiroyuki Yoshimura; Laifu Zhong (235-243).
The anti-atherogenic effect of olive leaf extract is supposed to be related to its activities of anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation.To prove the effect of anti-atherosclerosis by olive leaf extract (OLE) and to elucidate the mechanism behind.Twenty-four rabbits were assigned to the control, high lipid diet (HLD) and OLE group that were fed with standard diet, HLD and HLD supplemented with OLE, respectively. Serum levels of atherosclerosis related markers, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (T-CHO), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected at the ends of week 2, 4 and 6. Surface lesions and thickness of intimas were measured at the end of week6. The protein and/or mRNA expressions of inflammation factors, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were investigated by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR.Atherosclerotic lesions were found in the HLD and OLE groups but not in the control group. In comparison with that in the HLD group, reduced size and thickness of intima (0.31 ± 0.26 in the HLD group versus 0.10 ± 0.03 mm in the OLE group) were found in the OLE group. The MDA level, an indicator of antioxidant status, was 35.27 ± 15.37 in the HLD group and 20.63 ± 11.52 nmol/ml in the OLE group. The level of CHO, TG and LDL-C were 104.46 ± 30.34, 2.48 ± 1.11, 82.83 ± 28.44 mmol/l in the HLD group versus 83.03 ± 27.23, 1.84 ± 0.44, 59.51 ± 23.72 mmol/l in the OLE group. Down-regulated expressions of MCP-1, VCAM-1, NF-κB and TNF-α at both protein and mRNA level (P < 0.05) were also found with the administration of OLE.This study proved the effect of OLE on inhibition of atherosclerosis, which is related to the suppressed inflammatory response.
Keywords: altherosclerosis; olive leaf extract; inflammatory response; inflammatory factor

Cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese Chinese children by Cai-Xia Zhang MD; Lap-Ah TSE PhD; Xue-Qing Deng; Prof. Zhuo-Qin Jiang MD (244-250).
Childhood obesity is a widespread and growing problem in the world. Body mass index (BMI) and weight-for-height criterion have been used to determine childhood obesity. No data was available to evaluate cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese Chinese children screened by weight-for-height index and Chinese newly developed BMI criterion.To evaluate cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese Chinese children by using Chinese BMI and weight-for-height index as screening criterion.A total of 215 children aged 7.5–13 years were recruited from 3 primary schools in Guangzhou, PR China. Measurements included body weight, height, waist and hip circumference, fasting serum glucose, insulin, total triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein A (apo A), apolipoprotein B (apo B). Chinese BMI and weight-for- height criterion were used to classify overweight and obesity.According to Chinese BMI criterion, 65 from 108 obese children originally identified by weight-for-height were reclassified as obese and other 41 children were classified as overweight. Compared with non-obese children, obese children screened by Chinese BMI and weight-for-height index had increased levels of TG, LDL-C, apo B, insulin; decreased levels of HDL-C, apo A; and significantly higher prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia and high LDL-C. Children identified as overweight by Chinese BMI criterion had also shown high TG, LDL-C, apo B, insulin levels, low HDL-C, apo A levels, and significantly higher prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia than the normal weight children.Our study reveals that overweight and/or obesity screened by both Chinese new BMI and weight-for-height criterion are associated with increased levels of cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., elevated serum TG, LDL, apo B, and reduced HDL-C, apo A levels). Using Chinese BMI criterion may underestimate the prevalence of childhood obesity but it could be adopted as a unique tool for screening children’s overweight in population-based screening programs.
Keywords: cardiovascular risk factors; childhood; obesity; overweight; screening criterion

Prevalence of normal weight obesity in Switzerland: effect of various definitions by Pedro Marques-Vidal; Alain Pécoud; Daniel Hayoz; Fred Paccaud; Vincent Mooser; Gérard Waeber; Peter Vollenweider (251-257).
Normal weight obesity (NWO) is defined as an excessive body fat associated with a normal body mass index (BMI < 25 kg/m2), but its prevalence in the general population is unknown.To assess the prevalence of NWO in Switzerland according to different cut points used to define excess body fat.Cross-sectional study including 3,213 women and 2,912 men aged 35–75 years. Body fat was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis and prevalence of NWO was assessed using four previously published definitions for excess body fat.Percent body fat increased with age: in men, the values (mean ± SD) were 20.2 ± 5.4, 23.0 ± 5.4, 26.3 ± 5.2 and 28.2 ± 4.6 for age groups 35–44, 45–54, 55–64 and 65–75 years, respectively; the corresponding values for women were 29.9 ± 7.8, 33.1 ± 7.4, 36.7 ± 7.5 and 39.6 ± 6.9. In men, prevalence of NWO was <1% irrespective of the definition used. Conversely, in women, a 1- to 20-fold difference (from 1.4 to 27.8%) in NWO prevalence was found. The prevalence of NWO increased with age when age-independent cut points were used in women, but not in men.Prevalence of NWO is low in the general population and higher in women than in men. The prevalence is highly dependent on the criteria used to define excess body fat, namely in women. The use of gender- and age-specific cut points to define excess body fat is better than fixed or gender-specific only cut points.
Keywords: cross-sectional study; normal weight obesity; prevalence; Switzerland

The effect of clinical characteristics and dietary habits on the relationship between education status and 5-year incidence of cardiovascular disease: the ATTICA study by Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos; Christos Pitsavos; Christina Chrysohoou; Konstantinos Vlismas; Yannis Skoumas; Konstantina Palliou; Christodoulos Stefanadis (258-265).
The aim of this work was to investigate whether clinical characteristics and dietary habits influence the association between education status and 5-year incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD).From 2001 to 2002, 1,514 men and 1,528 women (>18 year) without known CVD were enrolled. In 2006, the 5-year follow-up was performed (31% participants were lost to follow-up). Development of fatal or non-fatal CVD (coronary heart disease, acute coronary syndromes, stroke, or other CVD) was defined according to WHO-ICD-10 criteria. Education status was measured in years of school, while baseline dietary habits were assessed through a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (EPIC-Greek). The Mediterranean-Diet-Score was applied to assess overall adherence to this pattern using scores of 11 food-variables and alcohol, according to the principles of the Mediterranean-diet.The 5-year incidence of CVD was 108 (11.0%) cases in men and 62 (6.1%) cases in women (P < 0.001); 32 (1.6%) of these events were fatal (21 in men). People in the low education group had significantly higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemias, were more likely to be sedentary and smokers, compared to high group. Moreover, compared to high, people in low education group had less healthy dietary habits, as assessed using the diet score (P < 0.001). Multi-adjusted analysis revealed that low education was positively associated with 5-year incidence of CVD, after adjusting for age and sex (HR = 1.64; 95%CI 1.05–2.55); however this association lost its significance when clinical characteristics and dietary habits were taken into account (HR = 1.31; 95%CI 0.63–2.74).Low education seems to increase CVD risk, an observation that was partially explained by baseline clinical characteristics and unhealthy dietary choices of people belonging into this group.
Keywords: cardiovascular diseases; diet; education; socio-economic; risk factors

Health-promoting substances and heavy metal content in tomatoes grown with different farming techniques by Filippo Rossi; Francesco Godani; Terenzio Bertuzzi; Marco Trevisan; Federico Ferrari; Sergio Gatti (266-272).
Organic farming is a production technique that imposes major restrictions on the use of fertilizers, pesticides, feed additives and veterinary drugs and for this reason consumers perceive organic foods to be healthier. The content of health-promoting molecules such as ascorbic acid, β-carotene, lycopene and salicylic acid are important aspects of the nutritional quality of organic foods.To evaluate health promoting substances and the heavy metal content of tomato berries grown using conventional, integrated pest management (IPM) and organic farming techniques.Moisture was determined by drying, crude protein by the Kjeldhal method, and ashes by incineration at 550°C. Ergosterol, ascorbic acid, β-carotene, lycopene and salicylic acid were determined by HPLC. The levels of heavy metals were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy.Compared to crops grown using conventional and IPM methods, organic tomatoes contained more salicylic acid but less vitamin C and lycopene. Organic tomatoes had higher Cd and Pb levels but a lower Cu content. Organic fruits had a slightly higher protein content than conventionally cultivated fruits, but the difference was minimal and consequently the nutritive significance was poor.Farming techniques may have an impact on the quality of tomatoes. Their higher salicylate content supports the notion that organic foodstuffs are more wholesome. However, the lower lycopene and ascorbic acid levels of organic tomatoes are not to be regarded as positive. No residues of pesticides and ergosterol were detected.
Keywords: organic farming; lycopene; tomato; quality; salycilic acid

Comparative activities of daidzein metabolites, equol and O-desmethylangolensin, on bone mineral density and lipid metabolism in ovariectomized mice and in osteoclast cell cultures by Takuya Ohtomo; Mariko Uehara; José Luis Peñalvo; Herman Adlercreutz; Shin-ichi Katsumata; Kazuharu Suzuki; Ken Takeda; Ritsuko Masuyama; Yoshiko Ishimi PhD (273-279).
Daidzein, a major isoflavone predominantly found in soybean, is mainly metabolized to equol and O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA) by the human gut microflora. Equol exhibits a stronger estrogenic activity than daidzein, however, only approximately 30% of the population has been identified as equol-producers and there are too few direct evidences of the effects of the other major metabolite, O-DMA on estrogen-deficient status. The purpose of this study is therefore, to compare the effect of both O-DMA and equol on bone and lipid metabolism in vivo and in vitro. For the in vivo study, 8-week-old female mice were assigned to five groups as follows: sham-operated (sham), ovariectomized (OVX), OVX + 0.5 mg/day O-DMA (OVX + O-DMA), OVX + 0.5 mg/day equol (OVX + Eq), and OVX + 0.03 µg/day 17β-estradiol (OVX + E2) administration. Three weeks after the intervention, O-DMA and equol did not affect uterine atrophy in OVX mice. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur was lower in the OVX group than in the sham group. The administration of equol but not O-DMA, maintained BMD through the intervention. Values of whole body fat mass and plasma lipids were lower in the equol and O-DMA treated OVX mice than those in OVX mice. In the in vitro study, equol significantly inhibited the osteoclast formation induced by 1α,25(OH)2D3 in a dose-dependent manner in a co-culture system of mouse bone-marrow cells with primary osteoblastic cells. However, O-DMA slightly inhibited osteoclast formation, and the effect was not dose dependent. These results suggest that the effects of O-DMA on bone and lipid metabolism in OVX mice and osteoclast cell cultures are weaker than those of equol.
Keywords: equol; O-desmethylangolensin; bone mineral density; osteoclast; microflora

Diet diversity and the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer by Werner Garavello; Laura Giordano; Dr. Cristina Bosetti; Renato Talamini; Eva Negri; Alessandra Tavani; Patrick Maisonneuve; Silvia Franceschi; Carlo La Vecchia (280-284).
Diet diversity has been recommended to achieve a healthy diet and prevent cancer.The relation between diet diversity (i.e., variety in food intake computed as the total number of foods consumed at least once per week) and the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer was investigated using data from a multicentric case-control study carried out between 1991 and 2005 in Italy.Cases were 805 patients with histologically confirmed incident cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, and controls were 2,081 patients admitted for acute, non-neoplastic diseases, unrelated to tobacco or alcohol consumption.A significant inverse association was observed with total diet diversity. The multivariate odds ratio (OR), adjusted for education, tobacco and alcohol, was 0.78 (95% confidence interval, CI 0.61–0.98) for subjects in the highest tertile of diversity. Inverse relations were found also for diversity within vegetables (OR = 0.62; 95% CI 0.49–0.78) and fruits (OR = 0.67; 95% CI 0.53–0.86).This study suggests that a more diversified, and particularly a diet varied in vegetables and fruit, is a favourable indicator of oral and pharyngeal cancer risk, independently from the major recognised risk factors, i.e. alcohol and tobacco consumption.
Keywords: case-control study; oral and pharyngeal neoplasm; diet