European Journal of Nutrition (v.20, #2)

In einer vergleichenden klinischen Studie wurden bei insgesamt 47 Patienten postoperativ drei verschiedene Konzepte der peripheren parenteralen Ernährung untersucht. Bei einer täglichen AS-Substitution von 1 g/kg KG/Tag wurde lediglich das Ausmaß der KH-Zufuhr variiert: Gr. II: keine KH-Zufuhr (alleinige AS-Substitution), Gr. III: 2 g KH/kg KG (hypokalorische Ernährung) und Gr. IV: 5 g KH/kg KG (Basisernährung). Anhand der kumulativen N-Bilanzen, verschiedener viszeral synthetisierter Plasmaproteine sowie vorwiegend peripher verstoffwechselter Aminosäuren wurden die Auswirkungen auf den Proteinstoffwechsel beurteilt.Im Vergleich zu einer nicht ernährten Kontrollgruppe (I) zeigte dabei die hypokalorische Ernährung den qualitativ günstigsten proteinsparenden Effekt. Neben einer 87 %-N-Retention konnte das Verhalten der Plasmaproteine und der Aminosäuren normalisiert werden. Die periphere Basisernährung zeigte ebenfalls eine 88 %-N-Retention, jedoch kam es nur zu einer günstigen Beeinflussung der peripher utilisierten Aminosäuren, während die viszeral synthetisierten Plasmaproteine uniform erniedrigt blieben. Bei der alleinigen AS-Substitution konnte weder ein Effekt auf die Aminosäuren noch auf die Plasmaproteine nachgewiesen werden, die N-Retention war mit 67 % ebenfalls deutlich geringer. Möglicherweise kommt es bei dieser Therapieform nur zu einem erhöhten Proteinumsatz, während bei zusätzlicher KH-Zufuhr ein echter proteinsparender Effekt nachweisbar war. Jedoch nur bei der hypokalorischen Ernährung wurde dabei auch eine Verbesserung der viszeralen Proteinsynthese beobachtet.A randomized clinical study was performed postoperatively in a total of 47 patients comparing three different concepts of peripheral parenteral nutrition. Substituting 1 g amino acids (AA)/kg b.w. daily, the amount of carbohydrates (CH) was changed solely: gr. II no carbohydrates (sole AA-substitution), gr. III 2 g CH/kg b.w. (hypocaloric nutrition) and gr. IV 5 g CH/kg b.w. (basic nutrition). The influence on protein metabolism was examined by cumulative N-balances, various plasma proteins viscerally synthesized and serum amino acids predominantly utilised in peripheral tissues.In comparison to a non-fed-control group (I), hypocaloric nutrition showed the qualitative most favourable protein-sparing effect. Besides, 87 % of N-retention serum levels of plasma proteins and amino acids investigated could be normalized completely. Peripheral basic nutrition also had a 88 % rate of N-retention, however, only peripherally utilised amino acids were influenced beneficially whereas the plasma proteins remained depleted. Sole AA-substitution neither affected amino acid levels nor plasma proteins, and the N-retention rate was significantly lowered (67 %). Possibly this type of therapy increases protein turnover soleley, while true protein-sparing took place only with additional CH supply. However, a positive effect on visceral protein synthesis was observed exclusively with hypocaloric nutrition.
Keywords: postoperativer Proteinstoffwechsel; peripher-venöse parenterale Ernährung

Eine Reihe kariesätiologisch wichtiger Bakterienarten, eine Streptokokken-mischflora aus 9 Arten sowie die Plaque- und Speichelmischflora des Menschen wurden im In-vitro-Versuch auf ihr Säurebildungsvermögen aus dem neueren Zuckeraustauschstoff Palatinit® überprüft. Als Vergleichssubstanzen dienten Sorbit, Mannit, Xylit und die niedermolekularen Kohlenhydrate Saccharose, Glucose und Fructose. Ergänzende Untersuchungen wurden ferner im konventionellen und gnotobiotischen Tierexperiment mit Ratten über die kariogenen Eigenschaften des reinen Palatinits und von Palatinitschokolade im Vergleich zu Xylit, Sorbit und Saccharose sowie den entsprechenden Schokoladeprodukten durchgeführt. Im Gegensatz zur Saccharose und Saccharoseschokolade zeigten Palatinit und Palatinitschokolade hoch signifikant geringere kardiogene Eigenschaften. Auf Grund dieser Versuchsergebnisse kann der Palatinit als Saccharoseaustauschstoff für den Einsatz in der Kariesprophylaxe empfohlen werden.Several cariogenic bacterial species, a mixed streptococci flora composed of nine species, as well as the plaque- and saliva-mixed flora from human beings were tested for acid production from the sugar substitute palatinit, which was compared to sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol and the low molecular carbohydrates sucrose, glucose and fructose.Complementary experiments with gnotobiotic and conventionally fed rats were performed in order to test the cariogenic properties of palatinit and palatinitchocolate in comparison to xylitol, sorbitol and sucrose and the corresponding chocolate substances. Palatinit and palatinit-chocolate show highly significant lower cariogenic properties than sucrose and sucrose-chocolate. On the basis of these microbiological and animal experiments, the use of palatinit as sugar substitute for caries prophylaxis can be recommended.
Keywords: Zuckeraustauschstoffe; Palatinit; Karies; Mundflora; Tierexperiment

A study has been made of the effects of various levels of dietary protein and calcium on the skeleton of young undernourished rats. The data for the study were obtained from physical properties of bone, from microradiographs of various parts of femur and histological sections of the bone.There were significant associations between a low protein intake and low bone mass, irrespective of calcium intake, and between a high protein intake and a high bone density at a normal calcium content of the diet. The influence of dietary protein on the composition of the bone was dependent on the calcium intake. Reduction in the protein level was associated with less trabecular bone and reduction in the calcium reduced mainly the amount of cortical bone.Es wurden Untersuchungen über die Wirkung von verschiedenen Protein- und Kalziummengen in der Diät auf das Skelett von jungen unterernährten Ratten durchgeführt.Die Ergebnisse bezogen sich auf die physischen Eigenschaften der Knochen und auf mikroradiographische Untersuchungen verschiedener Teile der Oberschenkelknochen und auf Knochengewebeschnitte.Es zeigten sich deutliche Beziehungen zwischen Niedrig-Protein-Diät und geringer Knochenmasse, unabhängig von der Kalziumeinnahme, wie auch zwischen Hoch-Protein-Diät und hoher Knochendichte bei normalem Kalziumgehalt in der Diät. Der Einfluß von Diätprotein auf die Knochenzusammensetzung war von der Kalziumeinnahme abhängig. Eine Herabsetzung der Proteinmenge wurde mit weniger spongiösem Knochengewebe in Verbindung gebracht, eine Herabsetzung der Kalziummenge verminderte hauptsächlich die Menge von kortikalem Knochengewebe.
Keywords: bone; protein deficiency; calorie restriction; calcium deficiency

In a dietary survey, large numbers of a wide variety of food samples have to be analyzed. The atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), with its simplicity, accuracy and rapidity, suggests itself for determination of many elements in such a case.In this investigation, calcium determination by AAS is reviewed. Analytical parameters, interferences and their control are studied. Food samples are dry ashed and treated so as to eliminate silicates. Most serious interference comes from phosphates and is successfully controlled by addition of lanthanum. Calcium is determined in the range 2–10 ppm with a sensitivity of 0.1 ppm. Single food samples and samples representing food mixtures are analyzed, and calcium intake of different population groups is computed. In most cases, results compare favourably well with those obtained from food composition tables.Calcium intake in the Netherlands both of the average per caput and of chosen population groups is found to cover the recommendations except for infants. Differences do exist between intakes of different groups and in different seasons.

Unsaponifiable matter and fatty acid composition of pea oil by Hani M. El-Saied; M. M. A. Amer; A. Gabran (132-138).
14 compounds were detected in the unsaponifiable matter of pea oil by gas liquid chromatography (GLC) and 8 of them were identified as hydrocarbons C30, C32, squalene, α-tocopherol, cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol. The predominant unsaponifiable fraction was β-sitosterol whereas the others were found in variable amounts. Two sterols were isolated by column chromatography. One of them was characterised as β-sitosterol by measuring the melting point, [α]D, and infrared spectra and those of its acetate. However, the other sterol was unidentified. The fatty acid contents in pea oil were determined quantitatively by GLC. They were present in variable amounts, whereas linoleic acid was the major one.

Amino acid distribution of cereals in commerical mill products by Hani M. El-Saied; M. A. Abdel-Moneim (139-144).
The amino acid contents of wheat and rice as well as their final products produced by commercial milling were determined quantitatively by the amino acid analyzer. Less quantities of lysine, glycine, arginine, alanine, and aspartic acid were found in the flour, whereas more levels of these amino acids were found in the wheat grain. Conversely, more proline, phenylalanine and glutamic acid were found in the flour, and less amounts of these amino acids were found in the wheat grain. The proportion of the other amino acids were slightly affected by milling. On the other hand, less amounts of aspartic acid, serine, glutamic acid, and proline were found in rice bran and germ, whereas more levels of these amino acids were found in brown and milled rice. Conversely, rice bran and germ contained more threonine and cystine than brown and milled rice. The proportions of the other amino acids were slightly affected by milling, however, high content of lysine in germ was notable.

Composition of cocoa shell fat as related to cocoa butter by Hani M. El-Saied; M. K. Morsi; M. M. A. Amer (145-151).
The physical and chemical constants of cocoa shell fat (a by-product resulted during the production of cocoa butter at chocolate factories) were almost identical with those of cocoa butter obtained from the same cocoa beans except for their high acid value. Shell fat contained more amount of phospholipid content (as cephalin) than cocoa butter. The lipid classes were almost the same in cocoa butter and shell fat, however, the latter contained an unidentified constituent which was not found in cocoa butter. The fatty acids were determined quantitatively by GLC, and the results showed that the predominant acids in cocoa butter were palmitic, and oleic. Less amounts of capric, myrisitic, palmitoleic and linoleic were found in cocoa butter, whereas more amounts of these acids were found in shell fat. Cocoa butter gave higher values of stearic and myristic acids than those of shell fat. Seventeen compounds were detected by GLC in the unsaponifiable matter of both cocoa butter and shell fat from which eight were identified as C30 hydrocarbon, C32 hydrocarbon, squalene, α-tocopherol, cholesterol, campsterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol in the two samples. The sterols were determined quantitatively, and it was found that the predominant sterol in cocoa butter and shell fat was B-sitosterol. Cocoa butter contained higher values of stigmasterol than that of shell fat, which contained increasing values of campsterol, low values of cholesterol were found in both samples. Stability of cocoa butter and shell fat towards oxidative rancidity at 100 °C was the same (10.5 hrs).

Evaluation of local varieties of Egyptian rice by M. Z. Awadalla; K. G. Mekhael; M. I. Hegazy (152-155).
The nutritive values decreased in polished varieties more than in the hulled ones.A wide variation in the protein content in the different varieties was recognized.Giza 180 could be considered as the best Egyptian variety from the nutritional aspects.

Buchbesprechungen by R. Bitsch; D. Hötzel; Fricker; H. -D. Belitz; H. Glatzel; B. M. Brandstetter (156-161).