European Journal of Nutrition (v.19, #4)

Some factors affecting the haemagglutinin of soybean by L. Hussein; Hani M. El-Saied; F. Abu-Salem (233-237).
The water extract of unheated defatted ground soybean (soybean meal) contained haemagglutinin activity 7137 units per g soybean meal and carbohydrate content 6.34 g per 100 g soybean meal. After adjusting the pH-value of the water extract to pH 4.4, and centrifuging it, the supernatant contained most of the carbohydrate content (6.27 g per 100 g soybean meal), while noticeable decrease in the haemagglutinin was found. The DEAE-cellulose chromatography of the acetone precipitate from the water extract of soybean meal gave five protein peaks. The first four peaks showed the presence of haemagglutinin and about 40% of the total haemagglutinin were present in the first peak. The haemagglutinin activity of the water extract of soybean meal was measured at different temperatures for different intervals. The activity was easily affected by the heat treatment and it was destroyed completely after five minutes by heating at 100 ‡C and the activation energy was 9.45–10.26 kcal/mole.

Three fats were used in a synthetic dietary formula containing 20% of its composition as fat from either lard, peanut oil or maize oil.Twelve groups of rats were included in this study, six groups served as controls; 3 from each sex. Control groups recieved the same dietary formula except fat content was 10%.Saturated dietary fats in male rats seems to be atherogenic while in females, increasing dietary fat to 20% gave atherogenic picture.

Studies on some Egyptian foods Part 1: Biochemical and biological evaluation by M. Z. Awadalla; A. M. El-Gedaily; A. E. El-Shamy; K. A. El-Aziz (244-247).
General chemical analysis of some Egyptian legumes (lupinus termis and fenugreek seeds) and biological evaluation for their proteins were investigated. Results showed that lupinus termis and fenugreek seeds have high protein contents (with the exception of germinated fenugreek). They are good sources of calcium and phosphorus. Raw seeds gave low PER and NPR values. However, these values increase after roasting or germination.

Studies on some Egyptian foods Part 2: The effect of protein on blood constituents of rats by M. Z. Awadalla; A. M. El-Gedaily; A. E. El-Shamy; K. A. El-Aziz (248-250).
This study was undertaken to study the changes of the blood constituents of rats fed different proteins (lupinus termis, Guiza 1, 2 and balady; fenugreek seeds, raw, roasted, and germinated). The total serum protein for animals fed casein was slightly higher than those fed other proteins. Total serum protein of animals fed lupinus termis, roasted and germinated fenugreek was higher than those fed raw seeds. The albumin/globulin ratios showed a similar trend. The ratio of nonessential to essential free serum amino acids of rats fed non-protein diet was higher than those fed protein.Lupinus termis and fenugreek seeds are good sources of protein. Treatment of seeds either by heat of germination improves the nutritive value of the proteins.

Biochemical properties of Egyptian Cerastes venoms in relation to geographic distribution by F. Hassan; M. F. El-Hawary; A. Gazawi; A. Anis; S. Wanas (259-265).
Total proteins, electrophoretic analysis, biological lethality, and phospholipase activity of five members of the Cerastes-viper species living along the Nile Valley were investigated. Elevation of environmental temperature was accompanied with high values for these indices.It is concluded that zoological distribution and environmental conditions could influence the overall biological behaviour of snake venoms of the same species.

Comparative studies on Egyptian elapid venoms by F. Hassan; S. Seddik (266-271).
The immunological properties ofNaja haje from Western Desert,Naja haje of the Nile Delta,Naja nigricollis from Upper Egypt and Walternnesia aegyptia from Sinai Desert were compared using horse serum antivenin prepared from the DeltaNaja haje venom. All elapid venoms showed very similar precipitin lines with immunodiffusion or immunoelectrophoresis on agar gel. Results of cellulose-acetate electrophoresis showed either different concentration of certain similar protein components or the absence of some major protein fractions. However, different migration and localization of protein components were observed. LD50 of the 4 elapids and their degree of lethality was determined. Naja haje (Delta) antivenin had different degree of neutralization capacity on the investigated elapid venoms. No correlation between immunodiffusion similarities and the degree of neutralization could be deducted.

Determination of five minerals for the more common Egyptian feedstuffs was conducted. Bone and fish meals contained the highest amounts of calcium, 33.43 and 9.25 %, while wheat and corn grains contained the lowest amounts, 0.04 and 0.02 %, respectively. Bone and meat meals contained the highest amounts of phosphorus, 12.31 and 5.06 %, while corn grains and wheat straw contained the lowest amounts, 0.26 and 0.23 %, respectively. Meat and fish meals contained the highest amounts of sulfur, 0.89 and 0.68 %, while wheat straw and bone meal contained the amounts of sulfur, 0.89 and 0.68 %, while wheat straw and bone meal contained the lowest amounts, 0.20 and 0.18%, respectively. Rice and wheat brans contained the highest amounts of manganese, 395.3 and 99.8 mg/kg, while corn grains and dried skim milk contained the lowest amounts, 7.2 and 3.1 mg/kg. Bone and meat meals contained the highest amounts of iron, 0.127 and 0.084 %, while barley and dried skim milk contained the lowest amounts, 0.004 for each feed material, respectively.Es wurde die Bestimmung von fünf Mineralien in den häufigsten ägyptischen Futtermitteln durchgeführt. Knochenmehl und Fischmehl haben den höchsten Calciumgehalt mit 33,43 % bzw. 9,25 %, während Weizen und andere Getreidearten die niedrigsten Werte besitzen: 0,04 % bzw. 0,02 %. Knochenmehl und Fleischmehl haben den höchsten Phosphorgehalt: 12,31 % bzw. 5,06 %, während Getreide und Weizenstroh die niedrigsten Werte haben: 0,26% und 0,23%. Fleisch- und Fischmehl haben den höchsten Schwefelgehalt, nämlich 0,89 % und 0,68 %, während Weizenstroh und Knochenmehl die niedrigsten Werte besitzen: 0,20% bzw. 0,18 %. Reis und Weizenkleie haben die höchsten Magnesiumwerte: 395,3 und 99,8 mg/kg. Den niedrigsten Gehalt zeigen Getreidekörner und Magermilchpulver, nämlich 7,2 und 3,1 mg/kg. Knochen- und Fleischmehl haben den höchsten Eisengehalt: 0,127 % bzw. 0,084 %, während Gerste und Magermilchpulver den niedrigsten Eisengehalt von allen Futtermitteln haben: 0,004 %.

Bei fettreich gegenüber kohlenhydratreich ernährten Ratten wurden für die Aktivität der alkalischen Phosphatase der Dünndarmmucosa um ca. 40% höhere Werte gefunden. Dieser Befund steht mit der Hypothese im Einklang, da die alkalische Phosphatase des Dünndarmepithels bei der Fettresorption eine Rolle spielt, da fettreiche Ernährung auch zu einer Steigerung der Fettresorptionskapazität führt.The activity of alkaline phosphatase in small intestine mucosa was increased by about 40% in rats adapted to a high fat diet in comparison to high-carbohydrate-adapted animals. As high fat-feeding leads to an increase in the intestine's capacity to absorb fat, this finding is consistent with the hypothesis that alkaline phosphatase in the small intestine epithelium plays a role in fat absorption.

In Experimenten an Ratten wurde der Einflu der Verfütterung von unterschiedlichen Mengen roher bzw. hitzebehandelter (70 ‡C 10 min) Bockshornkleesamen (Trigonella foenum-graecum) in Abhängigkeit von der Qualität zugeführten Proteins und der Höhe der Tocopherolzulage (9, 90 und 450 mg dl-α-Tocopherolacetat/100 g Futter) auf die hämolytische Wirkung der in den Trigonellasamen enthaltenen Sapogenine untersucht.Eine signifikant erhöhte Hämolyserate trat infolge der Verfütterung folgender Proteinkomponenten auf: 1/3 Trigonella + 2/3 Mais (69,7±11,6 % Hämolyserate), 100 % Trigonella (21,0±8,6 % Hämolyserate), 1/3 Trigonella + 2/3 Casein (14,1±10,7 % Hämolyserate). Das Futter der o. g. Gruppen enthielt jeweils bedarfsdeckende Mengen an Vitamin E (9 mg/100 g Futter). Bei dieser Tocopherolgabe hat die eingeschaltete Hitzebehandlung der gemahlenen Samen keinen eindeutigen Einflu auf die Sapogeninwirkung. In den Gruppen mit einer 10- bzw. 50fachen Tocopherolzulage verlief der Hämolysetest mit Dialursäure negativ.Bei der Verwendung von Bockshornkleesamen in der Tierfütterung erscheinen demnach eine qualitativ gute Proteinversorgung sowie ausreichende Gaben an Vitamin E geeignet, die hämolysierende Wirkung der Sapogenine zu unterbinden.The influence of vitamin E (9, 90, 450 mg dl-α-tocopherol acetate/100 g diet), protein quality and temperature (70 ‡C for 10 min) on the sapogenin-induced hemolysis was studied in rats fed with diets containing different amounts of fenugreekseed seedflour.Significant increased hemolysis rates were found in rats on diets with the following protein components: 1/3 Trigonella + 2/3 Cornflour (69.7±11.6 % hemolysis), 100 % Trigonella (21.0±8.6 % hemolysis), 1/3 Trigonella + 2/3 Casein (14.1±10.7 % hemolysis). The diets of these groups of animals contained raw Trigonella seeds and 9 mg vitamin E/100 g diet, which covers the requirements of rats on this vitamin. With this tocopherol supplement the applied heat treatment had no influence on the sapogenin effects on the erythrocytes. In the groups with the 10th fold and 50th fold of the vitamin E supplementation no significant hemolysis rate was observed.From these results we conclude that when fenugreek seeds are to be used in animal nutrition, a qualitative good protein supply as well as a sufficient intake of vitamin E should be considered in order to compensate the hemolytic effect of Trigonella sapogenins.

Coffein wird nicht nur in Getränken wie Kaffee, Tee, Coca-Cola, sondern auch in zahlreichen analgetisch wirkenden Mischpräparaten häufig aufgenommen. Aus diesem Grunde sind Wechselwirkungen dieser Verbindung mit anderen Wirkstoffen und Arzneimitteln zu erwarten und deren Kenntnis auch von praktischer Bedeutung. Es wird auf Wechselwirkungen zwischen Coffein und Alkohol, Rauchen, Salizylsäure, Phenacetin, Barbituraten, Nikotinsäure und Theobromin verwiesen.Caffeine is ingested not only with beverages as coffee, tea, coca-cola but also in form of many analgetic drugs. Therefore interactions of this substance with other biologically active substances and drugs should be expected, and the knowledge of these would be of practical importance. The interactions between caffeine and alcohol, smoking, salicylic acid, phenacetin, barbiturates, and theobromin are described.

Supramine, a food mixture produced in Egypt by El-Nil Pharmaceutical Company supported by UNICEF. The product suffers from two problems: It is not well liked by the children, and its shelf life is relatively short. Studies were made to overcome these problems. Pretreatment of the ingredients such as cooking, autoclaving or roasting markedly improved palatability of the product. Adjustment of the conditions of the enzyme action increased hydrolysis of the starchy material making the product more soft and digestable. Formulation of new mixtures gave the chance to the product to satisfy the wish of a wide sector of the consumers. The heat treatment made to the ingredients minimized contamination and prolonged shelf life of the product.

Four high-protein food mixtures for feeding the young were formulated from locally available and relatively cheap legumes and cereals. Protein content of these mixtures ranged from 17.2 to 20.3 g %. Amino acid composition showed agreement with the FAO provisional pattern except for sulphur amino acids. Analysis of the mineral content of the prepared mixtures indicated the necessity of supplementation with zinc and phosphorus to meet the physiological requirements of the consumers.Palatability studies showed that these mixtures are acceptable and with good taste. It is planned to produce these mixtures on an industrial scale after biological and economic evaluation.