European Journal of Nutrition (v.17, #3)

Arzneimittel und Vitaminversorgung by G. Czok (129-139).
Arzneimittel werden meistens peroral, d. h. über den Magen-Darm-Kanal, zugeführt. Damit besteht die Möglichkeit einer Interaktion mit Nahrungsinhaltsstoffen, die aber dann bedeutsam sein dürfte, wenn essentielle Nahrungsfaktoren wie z. B. Vitamine betroffen sind. Für die Vitamine können sich dann folgende Auswirkungen ergeben: eine vorzeitige Zerstörung bzw. Inaktivierung, eine gehemmte Resorption aus dem Magen-Darm-Kanal oder eine quantitativ und qualitativ veränderte Metabolisierung. Anhand von Beispielen werden derartige Auswirkungen von Arzneimitteln auf wasserlösliche und fettlösliche Vitamine aufgezeigt.Since most of the drugs are taken orally via the gastrointestinal tract, interactions with food ingredients may lead to alterations in the intake of essential dietary factors. With regard to vitamins the following effects have been demonstrated: early decomposition resp. inactivation, decreased absorption or a qualitatively and quantitatively modified metabolism. Examples of such changes are given with regard to water- and lipid-soluble vitamins.

An epidemiological and biochemical study on osteomalacia among pregnant women in Egypt by Mahasen Abd El Fattah; G. N. Gabrial; S. M. Shalaby; S. R. Morcos (140-144).
230 pregnant women of low socio-economic standard were studied regarding the nutritional status and state of calcium and bone mineralization, social, environmental, dietary and biological factors of the women were also investigated to determine their possible role in such state. Results revealed a low nutritional status associated with biochemical abnormality denoting an impaired calcium state and defective bone mineralization.The low intake of available calcium and lack or inefficient supplements are suggested to be the main factors in causing the low state of calcium.

Protein-Calorie Malnutrition (PCM) in Egypt immunological changes of salivary protein in PCM by Dr. A. M. Ibrahim Ph.D.; M. F. S. El-Hawary Ph.D.; R. Sakr M.D. (145-152).
Whole saliva protein as well as the separated protein components were estimated in normal and malnourished Egyptian infants and young children. In normal, 8 protein components (Albumin,α 1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin,β 2-lipoprotein, transferrin, IgA, IgM and IgG) were detected, while in PCM cases two more components (prealbumin andα 2-macroglobulin) were found.The results also showed that the level of salivary protein components are markedly increased in edematous cases. In non-edeomatous ones, the level of these constituents are slightly increased in 3rd marasmus, but diminished in 2nd grade.It is concluded that the elevation of protein components in saliva of edematous cases could be a result of severe glandular tissue involvement as compared to controls and non-edematous cases. The value of IgA immunoglobulin as specific antibody originated from blood plasma and/or salivary glands may be used to reflect the extent of tissue affection in salivary glands of malnourished cases.

Microsomal enzymes inducers and serum minerals in carbon-tetrachloride hepatotoxicity by R. Awadallah; E. A. El-Dessoukey; H. Mikhail Tahani (153-158).
The effect of ten repeated doses of carbon tetrachloride, phenobarbitone and propionyl promazine when administered alone or simultaneously with CCl4 on serum minerals was investigated.Carbon tetrachloride resulted in a significant increase in serum iron, copper, zinc, calcium, potassium and sodium. A portion of this rise was due to increased permeability in damaged mitochondrial membrane as a result of the action of CCl4.Propionyl promazine when administered alone or together with CCl4 has no effect on serum minerals.Phenobarbitone when administered alone increased serum minerals except sodium, but to a lesser degree than CCl4, while phenobarbitone when given repeatedly together with small doses of CCl4 led to a normalization of serum iron, calcium and potassium. Also serum zinc and copper were lower than in case of CCl4. This may be due to some protective effect of phenobarbitone on liver mitochondria.Serum magnesium was not affected in all the experimental groups.

Effect of phenobarbitone and propionyl-promazine on serum enzymes in carbon-tetrachloride hepatotoxicity by E. A. El Dessoukey; H. Mikhail Tahani; R. Awadallah; H. Aly Zinat; Nadia A. Kotb (159-168).
The influence of phenobarbitone given in ten repeated doses simultaneously with small doses of CCl4 on serum enzymes was investigated in albino rats.The same experiment was repeated to investigate the influence of propionylpromazine (phenothiazine derivative).The results proved that SGPT is a more specific and sensitive index than SGOT of hepato-cellular injury.The activity ratio between serum GOT and GPT in the normal control group was 2.44. The activity of SGPT increased nearly 6.1 fold after CCl4 administration and thus the activity ratio between GOT and GPT is sharply reduced to 0.56.The activity of serum GPT when CCl4 and phenobarbitone were administered together showed value of about 1/2 of the value when CCl4 was administered alone, while it remained high when CCl4 administration was combined with propionyl-promazine.Serum GOT and alkaline phosphatase increased significantly in all the groups.Regarding the pathological examination of the liver it was found that marked fatty necrosis could be demonstrated when high values of SGPT was found, which is not the case with serum GOT.It is concluded that in the present experimental conditions phenobarbitone protected the liver from the hepatotoxic effect of CCl4, while propionyl-promazine did not.

Befunde aus Qualitätskontrollen von Seefischen im Kreis Siegen by Dr. A. Schaefer; Professor Dr. W. Wirths (169-179).
Bei Qualitätsuntersuchungen von handelsüblichem Seefisch wurden 30 Frischfisch- und 20 Tiefgefrierfischproben auf ihren Gehalt an TVB-N, TMA-N sowie TMAO-N geprüft und einer sensorischen Beurteilung unterzogen. Untersucht wurden Filets der Arten Kabeljau und Rotbarsch je zu gleichen Anteilen. Nach den chemisch-analytischen Daten erwiesen sich 13 Proben der Frischfischfilets als einwandfreie, handelsfähige Ware. 17 Proben waren als verdorben zu beurteilen, da die jeweiligen Grenzwerte für TVB-N und TMA-N, z. T. beträchtlich, überschritten wurden. Die Ergebnisse differieren zwischen beiden Fischarten erheblich. Die Rotbarschfilets zeigten einen signifikant besseren Qualitätszustand als die Kabeljauproben. Bei der sensorischen Beurteilung wurde das objektive Gesamtergebnis im wesentlichen bestätigt.Von den tiefgefrorenen Filets war aufgrund der chemischen Befunde eine Kabeljauprobe zu beanstanden. Sensorisch wurden 16 Filetproben als handelsfähig, 4 als unverkäuflich bewertet. Dabei wies Kabeljau deutlich bessere Resultate auf als Rotbarsch.In quality tests on traded sea-fish, 30 fresh fish- and 20 quick-frozen fish specimens were tested for their TVB-N content, TMA-N content, as well as for TMAO-N, and were subjected to a sensorial test. Equal portions of codfish- and perch fillets were tested. According to the chemical analytic data, 13 specimens of the fresh fillets proved to be unobjectionable commercial merchandise 17 specimen had to be eliminated as being spoiled, since part of the above values for TVB-N and TMA-N had been considerable exceeded. The results differ enormously between the two species of fish. The perch fillets showed a significant better quality condition than the specimens of codfish. In the sensorial test the objective total result was confirmed in the main.On the basis of the chemical findings one specimen of codfish out of the deep-frozen fillets had to be objected. 16 fillet-specimens could sensorially be approved as being commercially marketable, 4 were tested not for sale. With codfish showing considerable better results than perch.

The influence of phenobarbitone and propionyl-promazine given in ten repeated doses together with small doses of CCl4 on serum protein pattern and fat content of the liver was investigated in albino rats.The data revealed a marked increase of the fat content of the liver under the influence of CCl4. However, when phenobarbitone was administered together with CCl4 it resulted in a significant reduction in the fat content of the liver.Nevertheless, in comparison with the control experiments it was found that under the influence of phenobarbitone whether it was administered alone or together with CCl4, the fat content of the liver was significantly higher than that of the control.Concerning the changes in the total protein and its fractions, a state of hypoproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia was observed in rats with severe CCl4 intoxication. While the globulin fractions increased, the A/G ratio was therefore significantly decreased.However, when phenobarbitone was administered together with CCl4 there was no statistically significant difference in the percentage of the different protein fractions nor in the A/G ratio as compared with the control group.Propionyl-promazine when was administered alone or together with CCl4 has no effect on the fat content of the liver and serum protein pattern.It is concluded that under the present experimental conditions, the main protective effect of phenobarbitone seems to be due to an antagonistic action of phenobarbitone in CCl4 induced decomposition at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum.

Buchbesprechungen by K. Heyns; H. -D. Belitz; K. Lang (188-189).