European Journal of Nutrition (v.16, #4)

Biochemical changes under the effect of carbon tetrachloride intoxication by E. A. El-Dessoukey; R. Awadallah; S. El-Attar (217-222).
The present study deals with investigations on the general features of protein and iron metabolism under several conditions of chronic and acute liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride. Data revealed a drop in the levels of serum total protein and albumin. The levels of alpha1, alpha2 and beta globulins were found to be increased. Gamma fraction was found to be proportionate with dosage accumulation and to varying extent.There were changes in haematocrit and haemoglobin values in all groups of chronic and acute carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rats. Also, there were no changes in reticulocyte count, plasma iron and total iron binding capacity levels in chronic intoxicated animals. However, in acute carbon tetrachloride plasma iron and total iron-binding capacity were significantly elevated.

Serum proteins and amino-acid pattern in alloxan-diabetic rats by Z. El-Hawary; M. F. S. El-Hawary; S. R. Morcus (223-226).
Serum total proteins as well as its electrophoretic separated fractions were determined in alloxan-diabetic rats. The total and individual serum amino acids were estimated. Certain abnormalities, with no specific pattern, for total and individual fractions were observed in alloxan-diabetic rats. Most of the free serum amino acids showed low values which was attributed to direct reaction of alloxan with amino acids, urinary loss of amino acids and/or diverse hormonal and metabolic changes.

Blood glucose, glutathione, and total keto-acids levels in alloxan-diabetic rats by Z. El-Hawary; M. F. S. El-Hawary; S. R. Morcus (227-230).
This study deals with investigations in diabetic disorders. Experiments were carried out on alloxan-induced diabetes in albino rats. Blood glucose, keto acids, and glutathione were determined before and after induction of alloxan diabetes. Blood glucose and keto acids showed an increase after administration of alloxan. Glutathione showed a drop after 1/2 hour, then began to increase till it reached its normal level after 48 hours from the beginning of the diabetic state. The results are discussed.

Assessment for the value of serum lactic dehydrogenase in protein-energy malnutrition by O. M. Metwalli; O. M. Galal; A. A. Hashem (231-234).
The present study was carried out in order to assess the value of serum LDH in cases suffering from PEM. In this respect, total serum LDH and its isoenzyme pattern in conjunction with serum GPT, GOT, CPK, and HBDH were assayed in cases suffering from PEM and compared with normal control group. The study revealed that increased activities of total serum LDH in PEM are neither of cardiac nor of hepatic origins. The activities and significance of other enzymes studied suggested that skeletal muscles are the main sources for these increased activities of serum LDH in PEM. The study offered a strong evidence for discrimination of liver cirrhosis in PEM.

In alloxan diabetes, serum GOT, GPT, and ceruloplasmin were significantly-increased compared to normal rats, while the level of serum alkaline phosphatale was decreased.Treatment with insulin led to lowering of serum GOT, GPT, and ceruloplasmin while serum alkaline phosphatase remained low. Then lycanol or daonil were used for treatment, serum GOT, GPT, and ceruloplasmin were changes towards normalization, while ceruloplasmin returned to normal values. Serum-alkaline phosphatase increased after 7 and 14 days from treatment with oral hypolgylcaemic drugs.In dithizonized diabetic animals, the levels of serum GOT, GPT, and alkaline phosphatase were found to be higher than normal, while ceruloplasmin levels were unchanged.After treatment with insulin all serum enzyme activities were normalized.

Effect of low-protein diet and its duration on hair composition by O. M. Metwalli; S. I. Salem; S. L. Abdel-Razik (241-247).
The effect of feeding a low-protein diet (1 %) and its duration (4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks) on the protein content and amino-acid pattern of hair were studied. These changes were compared with control groups fed an adequate protein diet (16 %).Protein content of hair was diminished in the protein-deficient rats after four weeks followed by a gradual decrease till the end of the experiment. Sulphur-containing amino acids, cystine and cysteine, were significantly reduced in the hair of the protein-deficient rats when compared with the normal controls.The amino-acid pattern showed significant differences from controls by the end of the whole experimental period.

Kaffee und Gesundheit by G. Czok (248-255).
Kaffee entfaltet am Zentralnervensystem sowie an Herz und Kreislauf in der Regel stimulierende Wirkungen, die im wesentlichen auf das darin enthaltene Koffein zu beziehen sind. In bestimmten Fällen kann aber durch Kaffee auch ein zentral dämpfender Effekt und u. U. sogar eine rasche Einschlafwirkung ausgelöst werden. Darüber hinaus vermag Kaffee über eine erhöhte Bildung von Dopamin bestimmte durch Dopaminmangel hervorgerufene zentrale Funktionsstörungen günstig zu beeinflussen. Bei den Wirkungen von Kaffee auf den Magen-Darm-Kanal und das Leber-Galle-System spielt das Koffein nur eine untergeordnete Rolle. Als fragliche Wirksubstanzen werden hier bestimmte Röststoffe, möglicherweise auch Chlorogensäure bzw. Kaffeesäure vermutet, wobei die Effekte dieser Substanzen teils mittelbar, z. B. durch Freisetzung von Gastrin oder anderen Hormonen, teils unmittelbar ausgelöst werden können. Das bei der Kaffeeröstung aus Trigonellin gebildete Vitamin Niacin ist von besonderer ernährungsphysiologischer Bedeutung, und Kaffee kann daher bei Niacinmangelzuständen oder bei der Pellagra-Erkrankung als echtes Heilmittel eingesetzt werden. Nach umfangreichen epidemiologischen Untersuchungen war eine Korrelation zwischen Kaffeegenuß und bestimmten Risikofaktoren wie Hochdruck, Herzinfarkt, Zuckerkrankheit, Gicht und Krebserkrankung nicht nachzuweisen. Desgleichen ergab sich bisher kein Anhalt, daß durch Kaffee genetische Veränderungen oder Mißbildungen hervorgerufen werden können.Coffee as a rule develops stimulating effects on the central nervous system, heart and circulation which are mainly caused by caffeine. In certain cases coffee may also have a sedative effect and sometimes even it is useful to fall asleep quickly. Furthermore coffee may be advantageous in the treatment of some functional disorders caused by lacking of dopamine, because coffee is able to increase the dopamine formation in brain. Concerning the effects of coffee in the gastrointestinal-tract and liver-bile system caffeine is only of secondary importance. Hereby certain roasting substances, possibly also chlorogenic acid or caffeic acid should be responsible for the stimulating effects observed in these organs. These stimulating effects could be caused whether directly or indirect e.g. by liberating gastrin or other gastrointestinal hormones. Vitamin niacin, which is formed in greater amounts from trigonelline during the roasting process, may also be important from the nutritional standpoint. Therefore coffee may be prescribed as a true drug in cases of deficiency in vitamin niacin or also in the pellagra disease. By extensive epidemiological studies performed lately it could be demonstrated that there exists no correlation between coffee consumption and certain risk factors as hypertension, heart infarction, diabetes, gout or cancer diseases. Furthermore there was no evidence that coffee or its caffeine content are able to induce genetic alterations or even malformations.

Effect of AMP on acute carbon-tetrachloride hepatotoxicity by Tahani H. Mikhail; R. Awadallah; E. A. Dessoukey (256-261).
The effect of carbon-tetrachloride poisoning and the protection caused by AMP were studied.A single dose of CCl4 has resulted in a rapid development of a fatty liver, a considerable increase in serum enzymes, glutamic oxalacetic and pyruvic transaminases as well as serum-alkaline phosphatase. Total serum protein showed a tendency to decrease accompanied by a decrease in A/G ratio.Administration of adenosine-5-monophosphate prevented the increase in serum-alkaline phosphatase and increased the A/G ratio. There was, however, a slight but significant decrease in serum GOT and GPT within the 24-hrs. period of study, but it remained still higher than that of the control.AMP lowered liver fat without complete protection against the development of fatty liver.

Serum enzyme changes associated with carbon disulfide hepatotoxicity in experimental animals by E. A. El-Dessoukey; R. Awadallah; Tahani H. Mikhail (262-267).
Investigations were performed to evaluate the activities of serum glutamic oxalacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases, alkaline phosphatase and lactate-dehydrogenase enzymes in rats intoxicated by different doses of carbon disulfide.Serum GOT and GPT activities were elevated which may be due to CS2 effect on cell membrane permeability.Serum-alkaline-phosphatase activity showed also increment, which was again attributed to the liver affection.A significant rise in serum-lactate-dehydrogenase activity which was referred to be as a result of muscle-lactate dehydrogenase release into the blood circulation.

Buchbesprechungen by K. Lang; P. Senczek; G. Berg; W. Seibel; H. Glatzel (268-271).

Mitteilungen (272-272).

Berichtigung (273-273).