Journal of Evolutionary Biochemistry and Physiology (v.45, #4)

This review summarizes and analyzes both literature data and results of our own studies on molecular mechanisms of action of natural and artificially created polycationic peptides on functional activity of heterotrimeric G-protein-coupled signal systems. There are considered peptide toxins from insect venom, synthetic peptides that are derivatives of cytoplasmic loops of receptors of the serpentine type as well as artificially created peptides with linear, branched, and dendrimeric structures. Action of most of these peptides on activity of G-proteins is highly selective and these themselves are able to mimic the hormone-activated receptor to be thereby non-hormonal regulators of the signal systems coupled to heterotrimeric G-proteins.
Keywords: adenylyl cyclase; heterotrimeric G-protein; dendrimer; peptide; polycation; receptor; signal system; cytoplasmic loop

Significance of electron interactions of fatty acids of phospholipid molecules in the organism adaptation to habitat temperature by S. A. Zabelinskii; M. A. Chebotareva; E. A. Arakelova; E. P. Shukolyukova; V. V. Furaev; A. M. Kalandarov; B. A. Feizulaev; A. I. Krivchenko (447-454).
Data in the fatty acid composition of muscle tissue phospholipids of some representatives of gastropod molluscs (Gastropoda) have been presented for the first time. In the lake phytophagues Lymnaea stagnalis and Lymnaea ovata the long-chained C22-acid was not detected, where-as in the predator common whelk Buccinum undatum, C22:6ω3 was present. Comparison of absorption spectra (240–720 nm) of lipid extracts of the studied invertebrates and of rat has been performed. The obtained data are discussed from the point of view of participation of π-electrons of phospholipid fatty acid molecules in adaptation of membranes to the habitat temperatures, which arises owing to interelectron attraction and to the process of formation of Cooper’s pairs.
Keywords: fatty acids; phospholipids; molluscs; electron; interactions

Activities of acid phosphatase are studied with use as substrates of phenyl phosphate, α- and β-glycerophosphates in various organs and tissues of a large group of marketable hydrobionts of the Pacific basin (12 fish species, 7 invertebrate species, and one mammalian species) and of alkaline phosphatase in various organs of the Commander (Berryteuthis magister) and the New Zealand (Nototodarus sloani sloani) squids. Intertissue and interspecies differences have been revealed in the substrate and inhibitory specificity of the studied enzyme preparations. The method of isolation and a partial purification of preparations of acid phosphatase from tissue of gonads and of alkaline phosphatase from tissues of kidney and liver of individuals of marketable squid species are described.
Keywords: acid phosphatase; alkaline phosphatase; hydrobionts

There has been performed kinetic analysis of enzymatic reactions of deamination of tyramine, tryptamine, serotonin, benzylamine, β-phenylethylamine, and histamine under action of liver monoamine oxidase (MAO) of the Commander squid Berryteuthis magister from various habitation zones in the Bering and Japan Seas. A substrate inhibition by high concentrations of all studied substrates has been revealed, which seems to indicate mutual effect of various MAO forms present in liver of the studied squids. Analysis of kinetic parameters of enzymatic reactions of deamination of six studied substrates and the substrate-inhibitory analysis with use of two derivatives of acridine and deprenyl indicate the enzyme heterogeneity, the presence of at least two MAO-A forms, and the absence of intraspecies differences in MAO of the Commander squids from various habitation zones. The most active was the MAO form responsible for serotonin deamination. There were obtained quantitative difference in substrate specificity and reaction ability with respect to inhibitor of proflavin for the liver MAO of the Commander and Pacific squids.
Keywords: evolution; monoamine oxidase; monoamines; squids

The ability of several alimentary opioid peptides (exorphin C, rubiscolin-5, cytochrophin4) and endorphins (met-enkephalin, dinotrophin A1−10, β-neoendorphin) to change the escape reaction of the cockroaches Periplaneta americana at their placement into a hot chamber was studied. The ED50 values increasing twice the insect stay time in the hot chamber as well as duration and dynamics of the effects were determined. It has been shown that ED50 decreases statistically significantly with increase of the length of the peptide molecule and its affinity to opioid receptors of the κ-type. Selective binding of opioid to μ-receptors leads to a decrease of duration of the effects and to an increase of their affinity to δ-receptors—to prolongation of the reaction (more than 150 min). In the group of alimentary peptides (exorphins) the most active was a fragment of D-ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxigenase rubiscolin-5 (ED50 = 386 nM per individual). This might indicate a specific ability of some plant proteins to regulate (decrease) the insect protective behavior.
Keywords: insects; escape reaction; endorphins; exorphins; Rubisco

Neurohumoral mechanisms of the rat heart adaptation to overload by V. N. Fedorov; M. M. Fateev; E. V. Salnikov; A. V. Sidorov (484-489).
The present study confirms involvement of the sympathicoadrenal system in adaptation of heart to overload. Besides, at formation of chronic heart failure (CHF) there have been revealed a rise of the histamine and serotonin levels in blood plasma and myocardium as well as glucocorticoid hyperactivation.
Keywords: catecholamines; 11-hydroxycorticosteroids; histamine; serotonin; heart failure

The work deals with study of role of inhibitory interneurons in the process of regulation of sensory currents converging on soma of pyramidal cells of the dorsolateral amygdala nucleus as well as of role of these interneurons in mechanism of regulation of plasticity of amygdala synapses. It has been shown that the part of the spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents recorded on the dorsolateral amygdala pyramidal cells is relatively high and amounts to about a half of the total amount of the recorded events. Analysis of the evoked postsynaptic responses has shown the interneurons to regulate activity and duration of these responses due to the postsynaptic membrane hyperpolarization as a result of activation of GABAA-receptors. Also studied was role of interneurons in providing mechanisms of the long-term potentiation of the synaptic responses evoked by stimulation of cortical and thalamic inputs. Block of effect of interneurons with help of picrotoxin has been shown to lead to an increase of evoked potentiation of synaptic responses.
Keywords: spontaneous postsynaptic currents; evoked postsynaptic currents; dorsolateral amygdala nucleus; inhibitory interneurons of the dorsolateral amygdala nucleus; pyramidal neurons of the dorsolateral amygdala nucleus; long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission

Dissolution of the wakefulness-sleep cycle in patients with catatonic form of schizophrenia by G. A. Oganesyan; D. K. Kambarova; V. A. Dobek; E. S. Titkov; N. N. Zhernovaya; S. G. Oganesyan (501-515).
Polysomnograms of two patients with catatonic form of schizophrenia of different duration of the disease were recorded and analyzed. Pronounced disturbances of the wakefulness-sleep cycle (WSC) were revealed. Apart from differences connected with duration of the disease and treatment with corresponding medications, there were detected the general features indicating dissolution of the central nervous system and the very wakefulness-sleep cycle. A certain similarity of the found WSC disturbances with the earlier shown WSC disturbances in rats with predisposition to catalepsy was noted. The conclusion is made about domination of diencephalic influences over the telencephalic one in the studied patients.
Keywords: catalepsy; wakefulness-sleep cycle (WSC); dissolution; polysomnogram; schizophrenia

This work studies topography and structure of such important insect external proprioceptors as campaniform sensillae (CS). These mechanoreceptors are essential components of insect posture and locomotion regulation and participate in control of various forms of insect motor behavior (walking, jump, flight). There are traced their quantitative changes as well as differences in distribution of groups of these leg receptors at consecutive stages (from the 1st to the 4th instar) of ontogenetic development of larva of the locust Locusta migratoria L. The presence of groups of CS in proximal parts of extremities has been noted as early as in the 1st instar larvae. The CS groups in the wing pads were revealed only in the 4th instar larvae. The presented data allow connecting changes in structure and distribution of these proprioceptors with differences in locomotion of imagoes and larvae. A possible effect of these insect larval proprioceptors on central generators of the locomotion rhythms is discussed.
Keywords: insects; ontogenesis; receptors; insect locomotion

Peculiarities of valve movement and of cardiac activity of the bivalve mollusc Mytilus galloprovincialis at various stress actions by S. V. Kholodkevich; T. V. Kuznetsova; V. V. Trusevich; A. S. Kurakin; A. V. Ivanov (524-526).

This paper is a continuation of our first paper «”onal model” of description of homeostasisussed some general regularities of the organism functioning connected directly with maintenance of homeostasis. It might seem that consideration of such general issues could have been only of theoretical interest; however, for the recent years, a trend has been formed in direction of cholistic physiology and medicine when there are considered first of all the organism functioning regularities responsible for maintenance of its integrity in norm and in pathology. A particular attention in the present paper is paid to consideration of multifunctional possibilities of organs and functional blocks. In our opinion, such analysis can promote solution of general problems of physiology and medicine and provides a possibility to better understand organization of processes in the organism throughout the lifespan as well as can help in elucidation of causes of some chronic diseases.
Keywords: homeostasis; multifunctionality; modification; regularities of functioning