Advances in Colloid and Interface Science (v.225, #C)

Bubbles are fundamental to our daily life and have wide applications such as in the chemical and petrochemical industry, pharmaceutical engineering, mineral processing and colloids engineering. This paper reviews the existing theoretical and experimental bubble studies, with a special focus on the dynamics of triple line and the influence of nanoparticles on the bubble growth and departure process. Nanoparticles are found to influence significantly the effective interfacial properties and the dynamics of triple line, whose effects are dependent on the particle morphology and their interaction with the substrate. While the Young–Laplace equation is widely applied to predict the bubble shape, its application is limited under highly non-equilibrium conditions. Using gold nanoparticle as an example, new experimental study is conducted to reveal the particle concentration influence on the behaviour of triple line and bubble dynamics. A new method is developed to predict the bubble shape when the interfacial equilibrium conditions cannot be met, such as during the oscillation period. The method is used to calculate the pressure difference between the gas and liquid phases, which is shown to oscillate across the liquid–gas interface and is responsible for the interface fluctuation. The comparison of the theoretical study with the experimental data shows a very good agreement, which suggests its potential application to predict bubble shape during non-equilibrium conditions.Display Omitted
Keywords: Dynamics of bubble growth; Dynamics of triple line; Liquid–gas surface tension; Solid surface tensions; Nanofluids; Young–Laplace equation;

Functionalization of nanomaterials with aryldiazonium salts by Ahmed A. Mohamed; Zakaria Salmi; Si Amar Dahoumane; Ahmed Mekki; Benjamin Carbonnier; Mohamed M. Chehimi (16-36).
This paper reviews the surface modification strategies of a wide range of nanomaterials using aryldiazonium salts. After a brief history of diazonium salts since their discovery by Peter Griess in 1858, we will tackle the surface chemistry using these compounds since the first trials in the 1950s. We will then focus on the modern surface chemistry of aryldiazonium salts for the modification of materials, particularly metallic, semiconductors, metal oxide nanoparticles, carbon-based nanostructures, diamond and clays. The successful modification of sp2 carbon materials and metals by aryldiazonium salts paved the way to innovative strategies for the attachment of aryl layers to metal oxide nanoparticles and nanodiamonds, and intercalation of clays. Interestingly, diazotized surfaces can easily trap nanoparticles and nanotubes while diazotized nanoparticles can be (electro)chemically reduced on electrode/materials surfaces as molecular compounds. Both strategies provided organized 2D surface assembled nanoparticles. In this review, aryldiazonium salts are highlighted as efficient coupling agents for many types of molecular, macromolecular and nanoparticulate species, therefore ensuring stability to colloids on the one hand, and the construction of composite materials and hybrid systems with robust and durable interfaces/interphases, on the other hand. The last section is dedicated to a selection of patents and industrial products based on aryldiazonium-modified nanomaterials. After nearly 160 years of organic chemistry, diazonium salts have entered a new, long and thriving era for the benefit of materials, colloids, and surface scientists. This tempts us to introduce the terminology of “diazonics” we define as the science and technology of aryldiazonium salt-derived materials.Display Omitted
Keywords: Aryl diazonium salts; Coupling agents; Nanomaterials; Surface modification; Coatings; Nanocomposites;

Mycofabrication of common plasmonic colloids, theoretical considerations, mechanism and potential applications by Olena Madden; Michael Daragh Naughton; Siobhan Moane; Patrick G. Murray (37-52).
A coupling of the plasmon on the surface of metal nanoparticles with an incident photon enhances a broad range of useful optical phenomena, such as resonant light scattering (RLS), surface plasmon resonance (SPR) or Raman scattering. Due to these unique optical properties plasmonic nanostructures of different sizes and shapes have gained increasing popularity in areas such as cancer diagnosis, photothermal therapy as well as the imaging of living cells, detection of pathogens, biomolecules, metal ions, and the catalysis of various reactions in wet chemistry. This article reviews the current trends in the synthesis of plasmonic nanoparticles, particularly gold (AuNPs) and silver (AgNPs), using fungi as well as the proposed mechanisms for their mycofabrication. We provide an overview of the theoretical concepts of plasmonic nanoparticles which are sensitive electromagnetic responses that determine these nanoparticles applications.Display Omitted
Keywords: Plasmonic nanoparticles; Optical properties; Biomedical applications; Fungal synthesis; Mechanism of biosynthesis;

This paper provides an overview of membrane emulsification routes for fabrication of structured microparticles with tailored properties for specific applications. Direct (bottom-up) and premix (top-down) membrane emulsification processes are discussed including operational, formulation and membrane factors that control the droplet size and droplet generation regimes. A special emphasis was put on different methods of controlled shear generation on membrane surface, such as cross flow on the membrane surface, swirl flow, forward and backward flow pulsations in the continuous phase and membrane oscillations and rotations. Droplets produced by membrane emulsification can be used for synthesis of particles with versatile morphology (solid and hollow, matrix and core/shell, spherical and non-spherical, porous and coherent, composite and homogeneous), which can be surface functionalised and coated or loaded with macromolecules, nanoparticles, quantum dots, drugs, phase change materials and high molecular weight gases to achieve controlled/targeted drug release and impart special optical, chemical, electrical, acoustic, thermal and magnetic properties. The template emulsions including metal-in-oil, solid-in-oil-in-water, oil-in-oil, multilayer, and Pickering emulsions can be produced with high encapsulation efficiency of encapsulated materials and narrow size distribution and transformed into structured particles using a variety of solidification processes, such as polymerisation (suspension, mini-emulsion, interfacial and in-situ), ionic gelation, chemical crosslinking, melt solidification, internal phase separation, layer-by-layer electrostatic deposition, particle self-assembly, complex coacervation, spray drying, sol–gel processing, and molecular imprinting. Particles fabricated from droplets produced by membrane emulsification include nanoclusters, colloidosomes, carbon aerogel particles, nanoshells, polymeric (molecularly imprinted, hypercrosslinked, Janus and core/shell) particles, solder metal powders and inorganic particles. Membrane emulsification devices operate under constant temperature due to low shear rates on the membrane surface, which range from (1−10) × 103  s− 1 in a direct process to (1−10) × 104  s− 1 in a premix process.Display Omitted
Keywords: Membrane emulsification; Polymeric microsphere; Microgel; Janus particle; Core/shell particle colloidosome;

Review and perspectives of AFM application on the study of deformable drop/bubble interactions by Wei Wang; Kai Li; Mengyu Ma; Hang Jin; Panagiota Angeli; Jing Gong (88-97).
The applications of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) on the study of dynamic interactions and film drainage between deformable bodies dispersed in aqueous solutions are reviewed in this article. Novel experimental designs and recent advances in experimental methodologies are presented, which show the advantage of using AFM as a tool for probing colloidal interactions. The effects of both DLVO and non-DLVO forces on the colloid stabilization mechanism are discussed. Good agreement is found between the force – drop/bubble deformation behaviour revealed by AFM measurements and the theoretical modeling of film drainage process, giving a convincing explanation of the occurrence of certain phenomenon. However, the behaviour and shape of deformable drops as they approach or retract is still not well resolved. In addition, when surfactants are present further research is needed on the absorption of surfactant molecules into the interfaces, their mobility and the effects on interfacial film properties.Display Omitted
Keywords: Atomic force microscope; Dynamic forces; Deformation; Interfacial properties; Film drainage process;

Ion-specific effects in foams by Soumyadip Sett; Stoyan I. Karakashev; Stoyan K. Smoukov; Alexander L. Yarin (98-113).
We present a critical review on ion-specific effects in foams in the presence of added salts. We show the theoretical basis developed for understanding experimental data in systems with ionic surfactants, as well as the nascent approaches to modeling the much more difficult systems with non-ionic surfactants, starting with the most recent models of the air–water interface. Even in the case of ionic surfactant systems, we show methods for improving the theoretical understanding and apply them for interpretation of surprising experimental results we have obtained on ion-specific effects in these systems. We report unexpectedly strong ion-specific effects of counter-ions on the stability and the rate of drainage of planar foam films from solutions of 0.5 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a function of concentration of a series of inorganic salts (MCl, M = Li, Na, K). We found that the counter-ions can either stabilize the foam films (up to a critical concentration) or destabilize them beyond it. The ordering for destabilization is in the same order as the Hofmeister series, while for stabilization it is the reverse Therefore, the strongest foam stabilizer (K+), becomes the strongest foam destabilizer at and beyond its critical concentration, and vice versa. Though the critical concentration is different for different salts, calculating the critical surfactant adsorption level one could simplify the analysis, with all the critical concentrations occurring at the same surfactant adsorption level. Beyond this level, the foam lifetime decreases and films suddenly start draining faster, which may indicate salt-induced surfactant precipitation. Alternatively, formation of pre-micellar structures may result in slower equilibration and fewer surfactant molecules at the surface, thus leading to unstable foams and films.Display Omitted
Keywords: Ion-specific effects; Foams; Foam films; Critical micelle concentration; Foam film drainage;

The roles of particles in multiphase processes: Particles on bubble surfaces by Ghislain Bournival; Seher Ata; Erica J. Wanless (114-133).
Particle-stabilised foams (or froths) form the fundamental framework of industrial processes like froth flotation. This review provides an overview of the effects of particles on bubble surfaces. The characteristics of the particles have a profound effect on the stability of the bubbles although the stabilisation mechanisms may differ. It is well known that layers of particles may provide a steric barrier between two interfaces, which prevents the coalescence of bubbles. Although perhaps considered of lesser importance, it is interesting to note that particles may affect the bubble surface and momentarily suppress coalescence despite being absent from the film separating two bubbles.Foams are at best metastable and coalescence occurs to achieve a state of minimum energy. Despite this, particles have been reported to stabilise bubbles for significant periods of time. Bubble coalescence is accompanied by a release of energy triggered by the sudden change in surface area. This produces a distinctive oscillation of the bubble surface, which may be influenced by the presence of incompressible particles yielding unique surface properties. A survey of the literature shows that the properties of these composite materials are greatly affected by the physicochemical characteristics of the particles such as hydrophobicity and size.The intense energy released during the coalescence of bubbles may be sufficient to expel particles from the bubble surface. It is noted that the detachment of particles may preferentially occur from specific locations on the bubble surface. Examination of the research accounts again reveals that the properties of the particles may affect their detachment upon the oscillation of the bubble surface. However, it is believed that most parameters affecting the detachment of particles are in fact modifying the dynamics of the three-phase line of contact. Both the oscillation of a coalescing bubble and the resulting detachment of particles are highly dynamic processes. They would greatly benefit from computer simulation studies.Display Omitted
Keywords: Particle; Froth; Bubble; Coalescence; Detachment;

UV–Vis Reflection–Absorption Spectroscopy at air–liquid interfaces by Carlos Rubia-Payá; Gustavo de Miguel; María T. Martín-Romero; Juan J. Giner-Casares; Luis Camacho (134-145).
UV–Visible Reflection–Absorption Spectroscopy (UVRAS) technique is reviewed with a general perspective on fundamental and applications. UVRAS is formally identical to IR Reflection–Absorption Spectroscopy (IRRAS), and therefore, the methodology developed for this IR technique can be applied in the UV–visible region. UVRAS can be applied to air–solid, air–liquid or liquid–liquid interfaces. This review focuses on the use of UVRAS for studying Langmuir monolayers. We introduce the theoretical framework for a successful understanding of the UVRAS data, and we illustrate the usage of this data treatment to a previous study from our group comprising an amphiphilic porphyrin. For ultrathin films with a thickness of few nm, UVRAS produces positive or negative bands when p-polarized radiation is used, depending on the incidence angle and the orientation of dipole absorption. UVRAS technique provides highly valuable information on tilt of chromophores at the air–liquid interface, and moreover allows the determination of optical parameters. We propose UVRAS as a powerful technique to investigate the in situ optical properties of Langmuir monolayers.Display Omitted
Keywords: Langmuir monolayers; Reflection spectroscopy; Chromophores; Interfaces; Aggregation; Self-assembly;

Review on thermal properties of nanofluids: Recent developments by S.A. Angayarkanni; John Philip (146-176).
Nanofluids are dispersions of nanomaterials (e.g. nanoparticles, nanofibers, nanotubes, nanowires, nanorods, nanosheet, or droplets) in base fluids. Nanofluids have been a topic of great interest during the last one decade primarily due to the initial reports of anomalous thermal conductivity (k) enhancement in nanofluids with a small percentage of nanoparticles. This field has been quite controversial, with multiple reports of anomalous enhancement in thermal conductivity and many other reports of the thermal conductivity increase within the classical Maxwell mixing model. Several mechanisms have been proposed for explaining the observed enhancement in thermal conductivity. The role of Brownian motion, interfacial resistance, morphology of suspended nanoparticles and aggregating behavior is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. As the understanding of specific heat capacity of nanofluids is a prerequisite for their effective utilization in heat transfer applications, it is also investigated by many researchers. From the initial focus on thermophysical properties of nanofluids, the attention is now shifted to tailoring of novel nanofluids with large thermal conductivities. Further, to overcome the limitations of traditional heat transfer media, phase change materials (PCMs) and hybrid nanofluids are being developed as effective media for thermal energy storage. This review focuses the recent progress in nanofluids research from a heat transfer perspective. Emphasis is given for the latest work on thermal properties of nanofluids, phase change materials and hybrid nanofluids. The preparation of nanofluids by various techniques, methods of stabilization, stability measurement techniques, thermal conductivity and heat capacity studies, proposed mechanisms of heat transport, theoretical models on thermal conductivity, factors influencing k and the effect of nanoinclusions in PCM are discussed in this review. Sufficient background information is also provided for the beginners.Display Omitted
Keywords: Colloids; Nanofluids; Thermal conductivity; Heat transfer; Aggregation;

Getting inspiration from nature and further developing functional architectures provides an effective way to design innovative materials and systems. Among bio-inspired materials, dipeptides and its self-assembled architectures with functionalities have recently been the subject of intensive studies. However, there is still a great challenge to explore its applications likely due to the lack of effective adaptation of their self-assembled structures as well as a lack of understanding of the self-assembly mechanisms. In this context, taking diphenylalanine (FF, a core recognition motif for molecular self-assembly of the Alzheimer's β-amyloid polypeptides) as a model of bio-inspired dipeptides, recent strategies on modulation of dipeptide-based architectures were introduced with regard to both covalent (architectures modulation by coupling functional groups) and non-covalent ways (controlled architectures by different assembly pathways). Then, applications are highlighted in some newly emerging fields of innovative photoelectronic devices and materials, such as artificial photosynthetic systems for renewable solar energy storage and renewable optical waveguiding materials for optoelectronic devices. At last, the challenges and future perspectives of these bio-inspired dipeptides are also addressed.Display Omitted
Keywords: Biomimetics; Self-assembly; Diphenylalanine; Artificial photosynthesis; Optical waveguiding;

Bio-nano hybrid materials based on bacteriorhodopsin: Potential applications and future strategies by Baharak Mahyad; Sajjad Janfaza; Elaheh Sadat Hosseini (194-202).
This review presents an overview of recent progress in the development of bio-nano hybrid materials based on the photoactive protein bacteriorhodopsin (bR). The interfacing of bR with various nanostructures including colloidal nanoparticles (such as quantum dots and Ag NPs) and nanoparticulate thin films (such as TiO2 NPs and ZnO NPs,) has developed novel functional materials. Applications of these materials are comprehensively reviewed in two parts: bioelectronics and solar energy conversion. Finally, some perspectives on possible future strategies in bR-based nanostructured devices are presented.Display Omitted
Keywords: Bacteriorhodopsin; Nanomaterials; Bio-nano hybrid systems; Bioelectronics; Energy conversion;

Chemical and colloidal aspects of collectorless flotation behavior of sulfide and non-sulfide minerals by Sajjad Aghazadeh; Seyed Kamal Mousavinezhad; Mahdi Gharabaghi (203-217).
Flotation has been widely used for separation of valuable minerals from gangues based on their surface characterizations and differences in hydrophobicity on mineral surfaces. As hydrophobicity of minerals widely differs from each other, their separation by flotation will become easier. Collectors are chemical materials which are supposed to make selectively valuable minerals hydrophobic. In addition, there are some minerals which based on their surface and structural features are intrinsically hydrophobic. However, their hydrophobicities are not strong enough to be floatable in the flotation cell without collectors such as sulfide minerals, coal, stibnite, and so forth. To float these minerals in a flotation cell, their hydrophobicity should be increased in specific conditions. Various parameters including pH, Eh, size distribution, mill types, mineral types, ore characterization, and type of reaction in flotation cells affect the hydrophobicity of minerals. Surface analysis results show that when sulfide minerals experience specific flotation conditions, the reactions on the surface of these minerals increase the amount of sulfur on the surface. These phenomenons improve the hydrophobicity of these minerals due to strong hydrophobic feature of sulfurs. Collectorless flotation reduces chemical material consumption amount, increases flotation selectivity (grade increases), and affects the equipment quantities; however, it can also have negative effects. Some minerals with poor surface floatability can be increased by adding some ions to the flotation system. Depressing undesirable minerals in flotation is another application of collectorless flotation.Display Omitted
Keywords: Collectorless flotation; Colloid; Hydrophobicity; Interface; Sulfide minerals; Surface characterization;

Effects of nanoparticles on the mechanical functioning of the lung by Davis Q. Arick; Yun Hwa Choi; Hyun Chang Kim; You-Yeon Won (218-228).
Nanotechnology is a rapidly expanding field that has very promising applications that will improve industry, medicine, and consumer products. However, despite the growing widespread use of engineered nanoparticles in these areas, very little has been done to assess the potential health risks they may pose to high-risk areas of the body, particularly the lungs. In this review we first briefly discuss the structure of the lungs and establish that the pulmonary surfactant (PS), given its vulnerability and huge contribution to healthy lung function, is a mechanism of great concern when evaluating potential nanoparticle interactions within the lung. To warrant that these interactions can occur, studies on the transport of nanoaerols are reviewed to highlight that a plethora of factors contribute to a nanoparticle's ability to travel to the deep regions of the lung where PS resides. The focus of this review is to determine the extent that physicochemical characteristics of nanoparticles such as size, hydrophobicity, and surface charge effect PS function. Numerous nanoparticle types are taken into consideration in order to effectively evaluate observed consistencies across numerous nanoparticle types and develop general trends that exist among the physicochemical characteristics of interest. Biological responses from other mechanisms/components of the lung are briefly discussed to provide further insights on how the toxicology of different nanoparticles is determined. We conclude by discussing general trends that summarize consistencies observed among the studies in regard to physicochemical properties and their effects on monolayer function, addressing current gaps in our understanding, and discussing the future outlook of this field of research.Display Omitted
Keywords: Pulmonary; Surfactant; Nanoparticle; Size; Hydrophobicity; Surface charge;

Magnetic graphene–carbon nanotube iron nanocomposites as adsorbents and antibacterial agents for water purification by Virender K. Sharma; Thomas J. McDonald; Hyunook Kim; Vijayendra K. Garg (229-240).
One of the biggest challenges of the 21st century is to provide clean and affordable water through protecting source and purifying polluted waters. This review presents advances made in the synthesis of carbon- and iron-based nanomaterials, graphene–carbon nanotubes–iron oxides, which can remove pollutants and inactivate virus and bacteria efficiently in water. The three-dimensional graphene and graphene oxide based nanostructures exhibit large surface area and sorption sites that provide higher adsorption capacity to remove pollutants than two-dimensional graphene-based adsorbents and other conventional adsorbents. Examples are presented to demonstrate removal of metals (e.g., Cu, Pb, Cr(VI), and As) and organics (e.g., dyes and oil) by grapheme-based nanostructures. Inactivation of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species (e.g., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) is also shown. A mechanism involving the interaction of adsorbents and pollutants is briefly discussed. Magnetic graphene-based nanomaterials can easily be separated from the treated water using an external magnet; however, there are challenges in implementing the graphene-based nanotechnology in treating real water.Display Omitted
Keywords: Magnetic adsorbent; Carbon; Metals; Organics; Arsenic;