Advances in Colloid and Interface Science (v.189-190, #C)

The synthesis of inorganic nanomaterials and nanostructures by the means of diverse physical, chemical, and biological principles has been developed in recent decades. The nanoscale materials and structures creation continue to be an active area of researches due to the exciting properties of the resulting nanomaterials and their innovative applications. Despite physical and chemical approaches which have been used for a long time to produce nanomaterials, biological resources as green candidates that can replace old production methods have been focused in recent years to generate various inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) or other nanoscale structures. Cost-effective, eco-friendly, energy efficient, and nontoxic produced nanomaterials using diverse biological entities have been received increasing attention in the last two decades in contrast to physical and chemical methods owe using toxic solvents, generate unwanted by-products, and high energy consumption which restrict the popularity of these ways employed in nanometric science and engineering. In this review, the biosynthesis of gold, silver, gold-silver alloy, magnetic, semiconductor nanocrystals, silica, zirconia, titania, palladium, bismuth, selenium, antimony sulfide, and platinum NPs, using bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, yeasts, plant extracts and also informational bio-macromolecules including proteins, polypeptides, DNA, and RNA have been reported extensively to mention the current status of the biological inorganic nanomaterial production. In other hand, two well-known wet chemical techniques, namely chemical reduction and sol–gel methods, used to produce various types of nanocrystalline powders, metal oxides, and hybrid organic–inorganic nanomaterials have presented.Display Omitted► The possibility, mechanisms, and applications of inorganic nanomaterials biosynthesis using bacteria, fungi, yeasts, algae, and plants were reviewed. ► The ability of the biological macromolecules, such as enzymes, structural proteins, lipids, saccharides, and nucleic acids were introduced. ► Wet and green chemical approaches for the synthesis of inorganic nanomaterials and nanostructures were presented and compared with each other.
Keywords: Green chemistry; Metal nanoparticle; Inorganic nanocrystal; Biotemplates; Wet chemistry;

With the discovery of MCM-41 by Mobil researchers in 1992 the journey of the research on mesoporous materials started and in the 21st century this area of scientific investigation have extended into numerous branches, many of which contribute significantly in emerging areas like catalysis, energy, environment and biomedical research. As a consequence thousands of publications came out in large varieties of national and international journals. In this review, we have tried to summarize the published works on various synthetic pathways and formation mechanisms of different mesoporous materials viz. inorganic, organic–inorganic hybrid and purely organic solids via soft templating pathways. Generation of nanoscale porosity in a solid material usually requires participation of organic template (more specifically surfactants and their supramolecular assemblies) called structure-directing agent (SDA) in the bottom-up chemical reaction process. Different techniques employed for the syntheses of inorganic mesoporous solids, like silicas, metal doped silicas, transition and non-transition metal oxides, mixed oxides, metallophosphates, organic–inorganic hybrids as well as purely organic mesoporous materials like carbons, polymers etc. using surfactants are depicted schematically and elaborately in this paper. Moreover, some of the frontline applications of these mesoporous solids, which are directly related to their functionality, composition and surface properties are discussed at the appropriate places.Supramolecular templating pathway for designing the mesoporous materials has been extensively studied over the last two decades due to their huge potential in numerous branches of science, many of which contribute significantly in emerging areas like energy, environment and biomedical research. In this review, we have tried to summarize the published works on various synthetic pathways and formation mechanisms of different mesoporous materials viz. inorganic, organic–inorganic hybrid and purely organic solids. Hence a deep insight on the formation of mesopores via self-assembly of surfactants is discussed here with well recognized schematic models and good fitting references.Display Omitted► Comprehensive review of self-assembly of surfactants for directing mesoporous materials ► Synthesis of inorganic, organic–inorganic hybrid and organic mesoporous materials ► Surfactant–solid interactions ► Functionalization of mesopore surface ► Frontline applications of mesoporous solids
Keywords: Self-assembly; Soft templating; Mesoporous materials; Surfactants; Porous organic materials;