Review Journal of Chemistry (v.2, #1)
Crazing as a method for preparation of polymer blends
by L. M. Yarysheva; E. G. Rukhlya; A. Yu. Yarysheva; A. L. Volynskii; N. F. Bakeev (pp. 1-19).
Publications on the development of a new universal method for the preparation of polymer-polymer blends are reviewed. This approach is based on the phenomenon of solvent crazing, which comes into play in the tensile drawing of polymers in the presence of adsorption-active liquid media. It is important that solvent crazing is accompanied by the development of a unique fibillarporous structure, in which the dimensions of craze pores and fibrils do not exceed several tens of nanometers. Two approaches to the preparation of the polymer-polymer blends are described. According to the first approach, the nanoporous structure of the solvent-crazed polymer is filled with the monomer, and its further in situ polymerization results in the polymer-polymer blends. The second approach has been recently advanced by the authors of this publication; it involves direct penetration of macromolecules into the formed fibillar-porous structure of the solvent-crazed polymer. Both approaches are capable of producing diverse polymeric blends with a high degree of mutual dispersion of the components. The above materials are shown to be characterized by specific mechanical, electrical, and adsorption properties, which are due to the unique fibillar-porous structure of the solventcrazed polymer. The composition, structure, and properties of the prepared blends are controlled by the mechanism of solvent crazing and by the deformation conditions of the initial polymer. Several aspects of the practical application of the polymer blends prepared via the mechanism of solvent crazing in adsorption-active liquid media are reviewed.
Keywords: solvent-crazed polymers; polymer blends; structure of polymer blends; electrical; adsorption; and mechanical properties of polymer blends
Polymorphism and molecular metal phthalocyanine complexes
by N. Sh. Lebedeva; E. A. Mal’kova; A. I. V’yugin (pp. 20-50).
Generalized data and new results characterizing the molecular metal phthalocyanine complexes with electron-donor and π-π-complexing agents are presented. It is shown that the crystalline packing of pseudopolymorphs formed by molecular complexes of metal phthalocyanine: ligand = 1: 2 is similar to the packing of molecules of metal phthalocyanine in the β-polymorphic form, while the molecular complex (1: 1) shows similarity to the α-polymorph. The topography of films based on axial and π-π complexes Zn(tert-Bu)4Pc is evaluated. It is shown that the surface of films based on biligand complexes is generally smooth, flat, and dense, although there are some rather large crystallites. The topography of the films is not regular, because the π-stacking axis of the pseudopolymorphs of β-crystallites is situated perpendicularly to the substrate. Films obtained on the basis of monoligand complexes are layered; the layers are perpendicular to the substrate, and the topography of the film is regular, because the π-stacking axis of the pseudopolymorphs of α-crystallites is parallel to the quartz substrate. An alternative way to obtain metal phthalocyanines of a given polymorphic modification is discussed.
Keywords: metal phthalocyanines; polymorphism; molecular complexes
Electrochemical sensors with carbon nanotubes for biomedical research
by V. A. Buzanovskii (pp. 51-73).
The results of the development of electrochemical sensors with carbon nanotubes are presented. A systematic classification of the sensors according to their design features is suggested; their analytical characteristics are evaluated and their potential for use in biomedical research is shown.
Keywords: electrochemical method; sensor; carbon nanotube; electrode; biomedical research
Stable synthetic equivalents of N-unsubstituted imines: Part 1. Synthesis
by Yu. N. Firsova; N. A. Lozinskaya; S. E. Sosonyuk; M. V. Proskurnina; N. S. Zefirov (pp. 74-104).
The key role of imines in organic synthesis, for example in the synthesis of amine derivatives and nitrogen heterocycles, is well known. However, the instability of N-unsubstituted imines is often an obstacle to the selection of synthesis strategy. Therefore, it is rather topical to design stable imines with a readily removable group at the nitrogen atom. The first part of this review deals with the methods of synthesis of N-sulfinyl imines (including chiral), N-sulfonyl imines, N-phosphinoyl imines, N-acylimines, N-silylimines, N-(hexopyranosyl)imines, N-benzylimines, N-(methoxyphenyl)imines, N-allylimines, 1,3,5-trisubstituted 2,4-diazapenta-1,4-dienes, and N-(1-hydroxyethyl-2,2,2-trichloro)imines and the methods for removing these protective groups.
Keywords: N-sulfinyl imines; N-sulfonyl imines; N-phosphoryl imines; N-acyl imines; N-silylimines; N-(hexopyranosyl)imines; N-benzylimines; N-(methoxyphenyl)imines; N-allylimines; 2,4-diazapenta-1,4-dienes; N-(1-hydroxyethyl-2,2,2-trichloro)imines; protective groups for imines; synthesis of imines