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Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology (v.79, #4)


Metals Contamination in Soils and Vegetables in Metal Smelter Contaminated Sites in Huangshi, China by S. Yan; Q. C. Ling; Z. Y. Bao (pp. 361-366).
This study investigated the source and magnitude of metal contamination in soils and vegetables collected in the vicinity of the Daye smelter, China. Results showed that soils and vegetables were heavily contaminated by cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). The average levels of Cd and Pb in vegetables were 0.21 and 3.28 mg/kg fresh weight, respectively. Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) operational speciation analysis indicated that the source of metals in soils probably resulted from sewage irrigation and contaminated sediment. Transfer and correlation coefficients were also calculated to evaluate the bioavailability of metals to vegetables. This investigation highlights the potential risk to local residents via consumption of vegetables.

Keywords: Metals; BCR-operational speciation; Soil; Vegetable


Determination of Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution in Canakkale and Balikesir Provinces Using Lichen (Cladonia rangiformis) as a Bioindicator by Akin Cayir; Munevver Coskun; Mahmut Coskun (pp. 367-370).
A regional study was conducted to assess the current level of atmospheric heavy metal pollution (Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, Cd) in the Canakkale and Balikesir provinces of Turkey, and also to establish a baseline for future studies of atmospheric heavy metal pollution. The lichen Cladonia rangiformis was used for determining the distribution of heavy metals in the atmosphere. The highest concentration of all these elements was observed in the vicinity of Balikesir province where there is an abandoned lead–zinc main. On the other hand, apart from the mining area, the concentration of heavy metals was similar to the data reported for unpolluted areas. Maximum values of Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, and Cd were 33.8, 47.6, 13.0, 5.29, and 0.69 mg/kg in dry weight, respectively. Spatial distribution of these elements, apart from Cr, was similar. Correlation coefficients between Zn–Pb, Cr–Zn, Cu–Pb, Cu–Zn, Cd–Zn, and Cd–Cr were high and positive, and indicated that they come from the same sources.

Keywords: Heavy metal; Lichen; Atmospheric pollution; Bioindicator


Toxicity of Metal Elements on Germination and Seedling Growth of Widely Used Medicinal Plants Belonging to Hyacinthaceae by R. A. Street; M. G. Kulkarni; W. A. Stirk; C. Southway; J. Van Staden (pp. 371-376).
In South Africa, pollution of agricultural soils is on the increase primarily due to excessive application of fertilizers, sewage disposal and mining activities. This study was done to determine the effect of trace elements (Cu, Zn) and heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Hg) on germination and seedling development of Bowiea volubilis, Eucomis autumnalis and Merwilla natalensis. These medicinal plant species are highly recommended for cultivation in South Africa to reduce the pressure on wild populations. Copper and Zn at 1 mg L−1 significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the percentage germination of E. autumnalis. Low concentrations (≥1 mg L−1) of Cu and Zn negatively affected the roots of all three species. Mercury concentrations of 0.5 and 1 mg L−1 significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the percentage germination of B. volubilis and E. autumnalis respectively. Cadmium and Hg at 2 mg L−1 showed a detrimental effect on the root growth of B. volubilis. Concentrations of 0.5 mg L−1 of all heavy metals tested significantly (p < 0.05) decreased shoot length of M. natalensis.

Keywords: Metal elements; Medicinal plants; Seed germination; Seedling growth


Arsenic, Cadmium, and Mercury in Cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagititolium) and Watercocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) in Tarkwa a Mining Community by D. K. Essumang; D. K. Dodoo; S. Obiri; J. Y. Yaney (pp. 377-379).
Cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagititolium) and Watercocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) have gained increased importance in the diets of majority of people in developing countries such as Ghana. The concentration levels of arsenic, cadmium, and mercury in Cocoyam (X. sagititolium) and Watercocoyam (C. esculenta) in Tarkwa and its surrounding villages a mining community in Ghana were measured in this study. From the results of the study, the levels of arsenic, cadmium and mercury in X. sagititolium and C. esculenta were higher than the WHO recommended levels. These root tubers absorb or uptake toxic chemicals from the soil as a result of the mining operations. This means that, the consumption of X. sagititolium and C. esculenta by humans from such environments may pose a serious health risk. There is therefore the need for a concerted effort by all to minimize the negative impact of gold mining in the study area.

Keywords: Colocasia esculenta ; Xanthosoma sagititolium ; Efuantah; Nsuta and Tamso


Arsenic Status and Distribution in Soils at Disused Cattle Dip in South Africa by Jonathan Okechukwu Okonkwo (pp. 380-383).
The status and the distribution of arsenic in soils from a disused cattle dip were determined. Elevated total arsenic levels (1,033–1,369 mg/L) were detected in the soils. Significant difference (p < 0.05) between the values for the soils obtained from the contaminated sites and control site (0.15 mg/L) was observed. The level of total arsenic decreased with increase in depth. The peak total arsenic (1,369 mg/L) was obtained at 0 cm depth, indicating the abundance of arsenic at the surface despite the fact that the dip has been out of use for a long time. The total arsenic recorded for different depths were significantly higher than the trigger value of 40 mg/kg. The distribution of arsenic in the different phases showed that arsenic was mostly bound to the residual fractions (52%) and Fe and Al hydroxides (21%). The distribution of arsenic in the order phases was in the following order: exchangeable (14%), carbonates (10%) and soluble (3%).

Keywords: Arsenic; Distribution; Soil; Cattle dip


Heavy Metal Content of Potato Chips and Biscuits from Nagpur City, India by Meetu Gopalani; Mrunalini Shahare; Dilip S. Ramteke; Satish R. Wate (pp. 384-387).
Heavy metals composition of foods is of immense interest because of its essential or toxic nature. In view of this, we determined concentrations of select heavy metals from food items such as, potato chips and biscuits that were obtained from Nagpur City, India. The present study revealed preferred digestion method for different heavy metal recovery. The accumulation trend for Potato chips was in following order Fe > Al > Zn > Ni > Cu > Mn > Co > Cr > Pb and Cd, while for Biscuits it was Al > Fe > Zn > Ni > Mn > Co > Cr > Pb > Cu and Cd.

Keywords: Heavy metals; Potato chips; Biscuits; Accumulation


Fucus spp. as a Mercury Contamination Bioindicator in Costal Areas (Northwestern Portugal) by E. Cairrão; M. J. Pereira; M. R. Pastorinho; F. Morgado; A. M. V. M. Soares; L. Guilhermino (pp. 388-395).
Mercury has been considered as one of the most important pollutants in coastal and estuarine areas. Efforts have been made to detect, as early as possible, the effects of this and other metals in several species. Macroalgae, particularly Fucus spp., have been widely used as biomonitors of metal pollution. In this study, three Fucus species (F. spiralis, F. vesiculosus and F. ceranoides) were collected from several sampling sites in Portugal. The concentrations of mercury were determined in three structural parts (holdfast, stipe and receptacles). Two different techniques were used to determine mercury concentrations. Almost all mercury concentrations (in sediments and in water) were below national and international standards. Mercury concentration in the specimens (0.012–0.061 μg g−1 for receptacles, 0.028–0.221 μg g−1 for stipe and 0.029–0.287 μg g−1 for holdfast) was always higher that those obtained for the sediment (0.001–0.112 μg g−1). With few exceptions the contrary was found for receptacles. In general, a good agreement between concentrations of mercury in sediment and Fucus was found. The results indicate that Fucus accumulate mercury and may be a suitable species for use in risk assessment for coast and estuarine areas, by providing valuable information regarding the levels of mercury that will be available for the consumers of Fucus spp.

Keywords: Northwestern coast of Portugal; Risk assessment; Mercury; Fucus ; Bioindicator

Determination of Iodine in Low Mass Human Hair Samples by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry by K. E. Levine; A. S. Essader; F. X. Weber; J. M. Perlmutter; L. S. Milstein; R. A. Fernando; M. A. Levine; B. J. Collins; J. B. Adams; P. M. Grohse (pp. 401-404).

Heavy Metal Accumulation in Hot Water Tanks in a Region Experiencing Coal Waste Pollution and Comparison Between Regional Water Systems by Andrew Wigginton; Stephanie McSpirit; C. Dewayne Sims (pp. 405-409).
In 2000, a coal slurry impoundment failure in Martin County, Kentucky, caused concerns about contaminants entering municipal water supplies. Water samples taken from impacted and reference area hot water tanks often exceeded US EPA drinking water guidelines. Concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Pb had maxima of 119; 51.9; 154; 170,000; 976,000; 8,710; and 12,700 μg/L, respectively. Significantly different metal accumulation between counties indicated this procedure’s utility for assessing long-term municipal water quality. Correlations between metal concentrations were strong and consistent for As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, and Fe indicating that some metals accumulate proportionally with others.

Keywords: Coal slurry; Heavy metals; Drinking water; Correlations between metal concentrations


Dissolved Heavy Metal (Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni) Concentrations in Surface Water and Porewater from Bahía Blanca Estuary Tidal Flats by Sandra E. Botté; R. Hugo Freije; Jorge E. Marcovecchio (pp. 415-421).
The concentrations of dissolved cadmium, lead, chromium and níquel were determined in surface water column and pore water, collected from the extensive tidal plain at Bahía Blanca estuary, Argentina. Three different polluted areas were selected to study the spatial variation of these metals. The concentration ranges within the water column were slightly variable (Cd: 0.18–2.48 μg L−1; Pb: 0.38–7.53μg L−1; Cr: 0.89–5.83 μg L−1; Ni: 0.81–3.49 μg L−1), and displayed a clear gradient respect to the industrial area. Significant differences (contrast tests) between sites were detected for Cd, Pb and Ni. Very similar concentrations of Cd (0.18–3.41 μg L−1), Pb (0.38–5.83 μg L−1), Cr (0.89–9.37 μg L−1), Ni (0.81–6.56 μg L−1) were found in the porewater at all sites. The results suggested that both environmental compartments (water column and tidal flats porewater) may be affected by similar point and non-point heavy metal sources.

Keywords: Dissolved heavy metals; Surface water; Tidal flats porewater; Argentina


Detection of Dioxin-like Contaminants in Soil from the Area of Oil Refineries in Vojvodina Region of Serbia by Sonja Kaisarevic; Nebojsa Andric; Stanka Bobic; Jelena Trickovic; Ivana Teodorovic; Mirjana Vojinovic-Miloradov; Radmila Z. Kovacevic (pp. 422-426).
In this study level of soil contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in two oil refineries in Vojvodina region of Serbia was assessed using combined bio/chemical approach. Toxicity of the samples, determined by microEROD analysis, could not be exclusively attributed to the content of measured PCBs and PAHs, but also to the presence of unknown dioxin-like compounds (DLC), and/or positive interactions among similarly acting chemicals. The results proved that biotests, when applied in ecotoxicological assessments, should be used either as a screening tool or initial step in effect-directed analyses.

Keywords: Dioxin-like compounds; EROD; Oil refinery; Soil


Perfluorinated Compounds in River Water, River Sediment, Market Fish, and Wildlife Samples from Japan by Kurunthachalam Senthilkumar; Etsumasa Ohi; Kenneth Sajwan; Takumi Takasuga; Kurunthachalam Kannan (pp. 427-431).
Perfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs) such as PFOS, PFOA, PFBS, PFH×S, PFOSA and PFDoA were determined in river water, river sediment, liver of market fish and liver of wildlife samples from Japan. Concentrations of PFOA and PFOS in water samples were 7.9–110 and <5.2–10 ng/L. Only PFOA were detected in sediment from Kyoto river at 1.3–3.9 ng/g dry wt. Among fish, only jack mackerel showed PFOA and PFOS at 10 and 1.6 ng/g wet wt. Wildlife liver contained PFOSA, PFOS, PFDoA, PFOA and PFH×S in the range of 0.31–362, 0.15–238, <0.03–28, >0.07–7.3 and <0.03–1.5, respectively, on ng/g wet wt. Cormorants showed maximum accumulation followed by eagle, raccoon dog and large-billed crow.

Keywords: PFCs; River water; River sediment; Market fish; Cormorant; Racoon dog; Eagle; Large-billed crow


Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Dibenzofurans and Dioxinlike Biphenyls in Sediments from the Suzhou Creek, China by K. Li; H. W. Yin; M. H. Zheng; Z. Y. Rong; L. J. Jia (pp. 432-436).
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) were detected in sediments from Suzhou Creek with mean concentrations of 478.1, 245.1, and 4727.6 pg/g dw, respectively. WHO–TEQ concentrations of PCDD/Fs in sediments ranged from 2.90 to 13.96 pg/g dw, while TEQ concentrations of PCBs varied from 0.27 to 1.41 pg/g dw. OCDD or HpCDD were the dominant congeners but PeCDF or HpCDD was the major contributor to PCDD/Fs-TEQ in all the sites. For dioxinlike biphenyls, PCB 118 was the major congener while PCB-TEQ was attributable to PCB 126 in all the samples.

Keywords: Suzhou Creek; PCDD/Fs; PCBs; Sediment


Persistence of Ethion Residues on Cucumber, Cucumis sativus (Linn.) using Gas Chromatography with Nitrogen Phosphorus Detector by G. Singh; B. Singh; R. S. Battu; G. Jyot; B. Singh; B. S. Joia (pp. 437-439).
Residues of ethion were estimated in cucumber by gas liquid chromatography following three applications of the insecticide at 375 and 750 g a.i ha−1. The average initial deposits of ethion on cucumber fruits were found to be 2.40 and 4.97 mg kg−1 at single and double dosages, respectively. Residues of ethion dissipated below the maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.5 mg kg−1 in 7 days. Half-life (T1/2) for degradation of ethion on cucumber was observed to be 2.92 days at recommended dosage. A waiting period of 7 days is suggested for safe consumption of cucumber.

Keywords: Cucumber; Ethion; MRL; Residues


Biodecolorization of Azo Dye Acid Red B under High Salinity Condition by M. Salah Uddin; Jiti Zhou; Yuanyuan Qu; Jianbo Guo; Ping Wang; Li hong Zhao (pp. 440-444).
The study was conducted by a novel salt tolerant bacterium Gracilibacillus sp. GTY. The strain was identified on the basis of morphological and physio-biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Decolorization was performed by growing and resting cells, as well as by extracted azo reductase. Strain grown in the media containing 15% (w/v) of NaCl showed the best performance in decolorization. Decolorization was observed by the UV–visible absorbance spectra. The maximum absorption peak in the visible area decreased to a minimum level after 96 h of incubation. On the other hand, strain grown in very low, or high concentrations, of salt did not show good performance in decolorization; suggesting that salt concentrations in the surroundings control the production of azo reductase.

Keywords: Salt tolerant; Decolorization; Azo reductase; Gracilibacillus sp. GTY


Dissipation and Residues of Carfentrazone-ethyl in Wheat and Soil by Lijun Han; Yanjun Xu; Maofeng Dong; Chuanfan Qian (pp. 445-447).
The purpose of this article was to study the dissipation rate of carfentrazone-ethyl in soil and its terminal residue in wheat field eco-system. The results showed that carfentrazone-ethyl dissipated rapidly in soil after application. Its half-lives in soil were 5.8 and 3.8 h in Beijing and Jilin, respectively. The terminal residues of carfentrazone-ethyl in soil samples were very low (around 0.003–0.005 mg/kg), and the residues in wheat grain were not detectable. The use of carfentrazone-ethyl in wheat could be considered to be safe.

Keywords: Dissipation; Residue; Carfentrazone-ethyl; Wheat


Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in PM10 Surrounding a Chemical Industrial Zone in Shanghai, China by Jin-Ping Cheng; Qian Wu; Hai-Ying Xie; Jin-Min Gu; Wen-Chang Zhao; Jing Ma; Wen-Hua Wang (pp. 448-453).
In order to gain comprehensive understanding of status, properties and sources of PCBs pollution at an industrial area in Shanghai, PM10 were collected during the period November 2004–September 2005. The results showed that the mean value of total PCBs in the industrial area was 2,017.22 pg m−3. Three dioxin-like PCB congeners had a mean value of TEQ of 0.24 pg-TEQ m−3. The concentrations of PCBs at all sites were higher in colder months than in warmer months. ΣPCB concentrations were correlated positively with SO2, NO2 and OCPs, while negatively with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), ambient temperature, rainfall and wind speed. It could be concluded that the area had been contaminated by PCBs from a local source.

Keywords: PM10 ; PCBs; Industry area; Seasonal character


Measuring degradation of zinc phosphide residues in possum stomach contents by L. E. Brown; P. Fisher; G. Wright; L. Booth (pp. 459-461).
Zinc phosphide (ZnP) has been identified as a potentially cost-effective vertebrate pesticide for possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) control in New Zealand. We established methodology for analysis of microencapsulated ZnP formulations (MZP) and investigated the half-life of residual ZnP in the stomach contents of poisoned possums. An interlaboratory study was conducted to compare results of ZnP analysis in stomach contents. The half-life of ZnP was 3.4 days for ZnP in possum stomach contents and 6.7 days in vomit. Subsequent estimates were made of 34 and 67 days, respectively, for residual ZnP to decline to concentrations below the 1 μg/g method detection limit.

Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metal evaluation after a diesel spill in Oaxaca, Mexico by L. Salazar-Coria; M. A. Amezcua-Allieri; M. Tenorio-Torres; C. González-Macías (pp. 462-467).
Pollution in the marine environment due to a diesel spill takes days to months to complete natural remediation owing to its low volatility. Metal and PAH contamination caused by an accidental diesel spill were studied. V, Ni and Hg levels increased immediately after the spill, while PAH levels decreased after 1 month (79.4–7.6 μg kg−1). At the diesel spill point, fluoranthene exceeded acute and chronic levels, although most of the PAHs were within the range of low effects. In fish body burden, the highest bioaccumulation factor (2.63 for naphthalene) was related to the lower molecular weight PAHs.

Keywords: Diesel spill; PAH body burden; TEL; PEL


Atmospheric particulate matter and ozone under heat-wave conditions: do they cause an increase of mortality in Croatia? by Ana Alebić-Juretić; Tomislav Cvitaš; Nenad Kezele; Leo Klasinc; Gordana Pehnec; Glenda Šorgo (pp. 468-471).
In August 2003 Croatia experienced a heat-wave period during which elevated concentrations of particulate matter (PM10) and ozone in ambient air were measured. By applying the model of Stedman and Rooney et al., it was shown that a significant part of excess mortality during this period can be attributed to PM10 and ozone in ambient air.

Keywords: Particulate matter; Ozone; Heat-wave; Excess mortality; Croatia


Fatty Acid Profile in Milk from Goats, Capra aegagrus hircus, Exposed to Perchlorate and its Relationship with Perchlorate Residues in Human Milk by Qiuqiong Cheng; Ernest E. Smith; Andrea B. Kirk; Fujun Liu; Lee Mallory Boylan; Michael E. McCarty; Sybil Hart; Linxia Dong; George P. Cobb; W. Andrew Jackson; Todd A. Anderson (pp. 472-477).
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in milk are vital for normal growth and development of infant mammals. Changes in fatty acid composition were observed in milk fat from goats dosed with perchlorate (0.1 and 1 mg/kg body weight/day) for 31 days, but the effect was not persistent. Adaptation may be induced in these goats to compensate for the perchlorate effect. In an analysis of fatty acid composition in human milk samples, a weak negative correlation was observed between perchlorate concentrations and total PUFA in 38 human milk samples.

Keywords: Perchlorate; Fatty acid profile; Milk

Influence of Wheat Ash on the MCPA Immobilization in Agricultural Soils by E. Hiller; A. Fargašová; L. Zemanová; M. Bartal (pp. 478-481).
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